Law:Wheat And Wheat Foods Research And Nutrition Education
From Law Delta
Sec.3401.Congressional findings and declaration of policy.3402.Definitions.3403.Issuance of orders.3404.Permissive terms and conditions of orders.3405.Wheat Industry Council.3406.Exemption for retail bakers.3407.Referendum.3408.Refund of processed wheat assessment.3409.Petition and review.3410.Enforcement of orders and regulations.3411.Suspension and termination of orders.3412.Investigations; power to subpena and take oaths and affirmations; aid of courts.3413.Certification of organizations.3414.Other programs relating to wheat or wheat food research or nutrition education.3415.Regulations.3416.Amendments to orders.3417.Authorization of appropriations.
§3401. Congressional findings and declaration of policy
(a) Wheat is basic to the American diet and the American economy. It is grown by thousands of farmers and consumed, in various forms, by millions of people in the United States.
(b) The size of the American wheat crop and how it is marketed and ultimately consumed determines whether many Americans receive adequate nourishment. Wheat has a strong impact on the Nation's well-being. Additional research on the optimal use of wheat products can improve the American diet. Consumer education about the nutritional value and economic use of wheat products can enhance the national welfare.
(c) It has long been recognized that it is in the national interest to have a regular, adequate, and high quality wheat supply. It would be extremely difficult, without an effective coordinated research and nutrition education effort, to accomplish this objective. A programed effort of research and nutrition education is of great importance to wheat producers, processors, end product manufacturers, and consumers.
(d) It is the purpose of this chapter and in the public interest to authorize and enable the creation of an orderly procedure, adequately financed through an assessment, for the development and initiation of an effective and continuous coordinated program of research and nutrition education, designed to improve and enhance the quality, and make the most efficient use, of American wheat, processed wheat, and wheat end products to ensure an adequate diet for the people of the United States. The maximum rate of assessment authorized hereunder represents an infinitesimal proportion of the overall cost of manufacturing wheat end products. Therefore, such assessment will not significantly affect the retail prices of those products. Furthermore, any price effect will be more than offset by the increased efficiency in end product manufacture and increased consumer acceptance, due to nutritional improvements in wheat products, which may be expected to follow from adoption of a plan under this chapter. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to provide for control of production or otherwise limit the right of individual wheat producers to produce wheat.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1702, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1031.)
Chapter effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.
Section 1701 of title XVII of Pub. L. 95–113 provided that: “This title (enacting this chapter) may be cited as the ‘Wheat and Wheat Foods Research and Nutrition Education Act’.”
Section 1718 of Pub. L. 95–113 provided that: “If any provision of this title (this chapter) or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the title and of the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.”
For the purposes of this chapter:
(a) The term “wheat” means all classes of wheat grains grown in the United States.
(b) The term “processed wheat” means the wheat-derived content of any substance (such as cake mix or flour) produced for use as an ingredient of an end product by changing wheat grown within the United States in form or character by any mechanical, chemical, or other means.
(c) The term “end product” means any product which contains processed wheat as an ingredient and which is intended, as produced, for consumption as human food, notwithstanding any additional incidental preparation which may be necessary by the ultimate consumer.
(d) The term “wheat producer” means any person who grows wheat within the United States for market.
(e) The term “processor” means any person who commercially produces processed wheat within the United States.
(f) The term “end product manufacturer” means any person who commercially produces an end product within the United States, but such term shall not include such persons to the extent that they produce end products on the premises where such end products are to be consumed by an ultimate consumer, including, but not limited to, hotels, restaurants, and institutions, nor shall such term include persons who produce end products for their own personal, family, or household use.
(g) The term “research” means any type of research to advance the nutritional quality, marketability, production, or other qualities of wheat, processed wheat, or end products.
(h) The term “nutrition education” means any action to disseminate to the public information resulting from research concerning the economic value or nutritional benefits of wheat, processed wheat, and end products.
(i) The term “Council” means the Wheat Industry Council established pursuant to section 3405 of this title.
(j) The term “Department” means the United States Department of Agriculture.
(k) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States.
(l) The term “person” means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other entity.
(m) The term “United States” means the several States and the District of Columbia, including any territory or possession.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1703, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1032.)
§3403. Issuance of orders
(a) Notice and hearing
Whenever the Secretary has reason to believe that the issuance of an order will tend to effectuate the declared policy of this chapter, the Secretary shall give due notice and opportunity for hearing upon a proposed order. Such hearing may be requested and proposal for an order submitted by an organization certified pursuant to section 3413 of this title, or by any interested person affected by the provisions of this chapter, including the Secretary.
(b) Effectuation of Congressional policy
After notice and opportunity for hearing as provided in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall issue an order if the Secretary finds, and sets forth in such order, upon the evidence introduced at such hearing that the issuance of such order and all the terms and conditions thereof will tend to effectuate the declared policy of this chapter.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1704, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1033.)
§3404. Permissive terms and conditions of orders
Any order issued pursuant to this chapter shall contain one or more of the following terms and conditions, and, except as provided in section 3405 of this title, no others:
(a) Nutrition education plans
providing for the establishment, issuance, effectuation, and administration of appropriate plans or projects for nutrition education, both within the United States and in international markets with respect to wheat, processed wheat, and end products, and for the disbursement of necessary funds for such purposes: Provided, That in carrying out any such plan or project, no reference to a private brand or trade name shall be made if the Secretary determines that such reference will result in undue discrimination against wheat, processed wheat, and end products of other persons: Provided further, That no such plans or projects shall make use of unfair or deceptive acts or practices in behalf of wheat, processed wheat, and end products or unfair or deceptive acts or practices with respect to quality, value, or use of any competing product;
(b) Research and studies
providing for the establishment and conduct of research or studies with respect to sale, distribution, marketing, utilization, or production of wheat, processed wheat, and end products and the creation of new products thereof to the end that the marketing and utilization of wheat, processed wheat, and end products may be encouraged, expanded, improved, or made more acceptable, and for the disbursement of necessary funds for such purposes;
(c) Records and reports; confidential information; penalties
providing that processors, distributors of processed wheat, and end product manufacturers shall maintain and make available for inspection by the Secretary or the Council such books and records as may be required by any order issued pursuant to this title and for the filing of reports by such persons at the time, in the manner, and having the content prescribed by the order, to the end that information shall be made available to the Council and to the Secretary which are appropriate or necessary to the effectuation, administration, or enforcement of this chapter, or of any order or regulation issued pursuant to this chapter: Provided, That all information so obtained shall be kept confidential by all officers and employees of the Department, the Council, and by all officers and employees of contracting agencies having access to such information, and only such information so furnished or acquired as the Secretary deems relevant shall be disclosed by them, and then only in a suit or administrative hearing brought at the direction, or upon the request, of the Secretary, or to which the Secretary or any officer of the United States is a party, and involving the order with reference to which the information so to be disclosed was furnished or acquired. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prohibit (1) the issuance of general statements based upon the reports of the number of persons subject to an order or statistical data collected therefrom, which statements do not identify the information furnished by any person, (2) the publication, by direction of the Secretary, of general statements relating to refunds made by the Council during any specific period, or (3) the publication by direction of the Secretary of the name of any person who has been adjudged to have violated any order, together with a statement of the particular provisions of the order violated by such person. Any such officer or employee of the Department, the Council, or a contracting agency violating the provisions of this clause shall, upon conviction, be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000 or to imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, and if an officer or employee of the Council or Department shall be removed from office;
(d) Assessment exemption
providing for exemption of specified end products, or types or categories thereof, from the assessments required to be paid under section 3405 of this title under such conditions and procedures as may be prescribed in the order or rules and regulations issued thereunder; and
(e) Miscellaneous terms and conditions
terms and conditions incidental to and not inconsistent with the terms and conditions specified in this chapter and necessary to effectuate the other provisions of such order.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1705, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1033.)
§3405. Wheat Industry Council
Any order issued pursuant to this chapter shall contain such terms and conditions as to provide—
(a) Establishment; powers
for the establishment and appointment by the Secretary of a Wheat Industry Council which shall consist of not more than twenty members and alternates therefor, and for the definition of its powers and duties which shall include only the powers enumerated in this section, and shall specifically include the powers to (1) administer such order in accordance with its terms and provisions, (2) make rules and regulations to effectuate the terms and provisions of such order, (3) receive, investigate, and report to the Secretary complaints of violations of such order, and (4) recommend to the Secretary amendments to such order. The term of an appointment to the Council shall be for two years with no member serving more than three consecutive terms, except that initial appointments shall be proportionately for two-year and three-year terms;
that the Council and alternates therefor shall be composed of wheat producers or representatives of wheat producers, processors or representatives of processors, end product manufacturers or representatives of end product manufacturers, and consumers or representatives of consumers appointed by the Secretary from nominations submitted by eligible organizations or associations certified pursuant to section 3413 of this title, or, if the Secretary determines that a substantial number of wheat producers, processors, end product manufacturers, or consumers are not members of, or their interests are not represented by any such eligible organizations or associations then from nominations made by such wheat producers, processors, end product manufacturers, and consumers in the manner authorized by the Secretary, so that the representation of wheat producers, processors, end product manufacturers, and consumers on the Council shall be equal: Provided, That in making such appointments, the Secretary shall take into account, to the extent practicable, the geographical distribution of wheat producers, processors, end product manufacturers, and consumers throughout the United States;
(c) Research and nutrition education plans
that the Council shall, subject to the provisions of clause (g) of this section, develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any research plans or projects and nutrition education plans or projects resulting from research, and that any such plan or project must be approved by the Secretary before becoming effective;
that the Council shall, subject to the provisions of clause (g) of this section, submit to the Secretary for approval budgets on a fiscal period basis of its anticipated expenses and disbursements in the administration of the order, including probable costs of research and nutrition education projects;
(e) Processed wheat assessment; payment by end product manufacturers
that, except as provided in sections 3404(d) and 3406 of this title, each end product manufacturer shall pay to the Council, pursuant to regulations issued under the order, an assessment based on the number of hundredweights of processed wheat purchased, including intra-company transfers of processed wheat, for use in the manufacture of end products, from processors, distributors, or (in the case of intra-company transfers) related companies or divisions of the same company. Such assessment shall be used for such expenses and expenditures defined above, including provisions for a reasonable reserve, and any referendum and administrative costs incurred by the Secretary and the Council under this chapter, as the Secretary finds are reasonable and likely to be incurred under the order during any period specified by the Secretary. The circumstances under which such a purchase or intra-company transfer will be deemed to have occurred will be prescribed by the Secretary in the order. Such assessment shall be calculated and set aside on the books and records of the end product manufacturer at the time of each purchase or intra-company transfer of processed wheat, and shall be remitted to the Council in the manner prescribed by the order. In order to enable end product manufacturers to calculate the amount of processed wheat they have purchased, persons selling or transferring processed wheat in combination with other ingredients to such end product manufacturers for use in the manufacture of end products, shall disclose to such end product manufacturers, as prescribed by the Secretary in the order, the amount or proportion of processed wheat contained in such products. The rate of assessment shall not exceed five cents per hundredweight of processed wheat purchased or transferred. The Secretary may maintain a suit against any person subject to such assessment for the collection of such assessment, and the several district courts of the United States are hereby vested with jurisdiction to entertain such suits regardless of the amount in controversy;
(f) Maintenance of records
that the Council shall maintain such books and records, which shall be available to the Secretary for inspection and audit, and prepare and submit such reports from time to time, to the Secretary as the Secretary may prescribe, and for appropriate accounting by the Council, with respect to the receipt and disbursement of all funds entrusted to it;
that the Council, with the approval of the Secretary, may enter into contracts or agreements for the development and conduct of the activities authorized under the order pursuant to terms and conditions specified in clauses (a) and (b) of section 3404 of this title and for the payment of the cost thereof with funds collected through the assessments pursuant to the order. Any such contract or agreement shall provide that the contractors shall develop and submit to the Council a plan or project together with a budget or budgets which shall show estimated costs to be incurred for such plan or project, and that any such plan or project shall become effective upon the approval of the Secretary, and further, shall provide that the contracting party shall keep accurate records of all of its transactions and make periodic reports to the Council of activities conducted and an accounting for funds received and expended, and such other reports as the Secretary may require;
(h) Investment of assessment funds
that the Council, with the approval of the Secretary, may invest, pending disbursement pursuant to a plan or project, funds collected through assessments authorized under this title in, and only in, obligations of the United States or any agency thereof, in general obligations of any State or any political subdivision thereof, in any interest-bearing account or certificate of deposit of a bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System, or in obligations fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States;
(i) Lobbying restriction
that no funds collected by the Council under the order shall in any manner be used for the purpose of influencing governmental policy or action, except as provided by clause (a)(4) of this section; and
(j) Reimbursement of expenses
that the Council members, and alternates therefor, shall serve without compensation, but shall be reimbursed for their reasonable expenses incurred in performing their duties as members of the Council.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1706, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1034.)
§3406. Exemption for retail bakers
Any end product manufacturer who is a retail baker shall be exempt from the provisions of this chapter. For the purposes of this section, the term “retail baker” shall be deemed to include all end product manufacturers who sell end products directly to the ultimate consumer: Provided, That such term shall not include any end product manufacturer who derives less than 10 per centum of gross end product sales revenues from sales to ultimate consumers or who derives 10 per centum or more of gross food or food products sales revenues from the sale of such products manufactured or produced by others.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1707, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1036.)
The Secretary shall conduct a referendum as soon as practicable among end product manufacturers not exempt hereunder who, during a representative period preceding the date of the referendum, as determined by the Secretary, have been engaged in the manufacture of end products, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the issuance of an order is approved or favored by such manufacturers. Qualified end product manufacturers may register with the Secretary by mail to vote in such referendum during a period ending not less than thirty days prior to the date of the referendum. Within ten days thereafter, the Secretary shall determine which end product manufacturers are eligible to vote in such referendum and cause to be published the list of such eligible voters. The Secretary shall issue ballots to all such persons who have so registered and been declared eligible to vote. No order issued pursuant to this chapter shall be effective unless the Secretary determines (1) that votes were cast by at least 50 per centum of such registered end product manufacturers, and (2) that the issuance of such order is approved or favored by not less than two-thirds of the end product manufacturers voting in such referendum or by a majority of the end product manufacturers voting in such referendum if such majority manufactured end products containing not less than two-thirds of the total processed wheat contained in all end products manufactured by those voting in the referendum, during the representative period defined by the Secretary: Provided, That at the time of the registration provided under this section each end product manufacturer so registering shall certify to the Secretary the amount of processed wheat contained in the end products manufactured by such end product manufacturer during such representative period. The Secretary shall be reimbursed from assessments collected by the Council for any expenses incurred for the conduct of the referendum. Eligible voter lists and ballots cast in the referendum shall be retained by the Secretary for a period of not less than twelve months after they are cast for audit and recount in the event the results of the referendum are challenged and either the Secretary or the courts determine a recount and retabulation of results is appropriate.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1708, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1036.)
§3408. Refund of processed wheat assessment
(a) Election of end product manufacturers to seek refunds
Subsequent to the approval by the Secretary of the annual budget of the Council or amendments thereto, a summary of such budget or amendments thereto, including a brief general description of the proposed research and nutrition education programs contemplated therein, shall be published in the Federal Register. All end product manufacturers not exempt hereunder shall have sixty days from the date of such publication within which to elect, under such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, by so indicating to the Council in writing, by registered or certified mail, to reserve the right to seek refunds under subsection (b) of this section. Only those end product manufacturers who make such an election, under the described procedure, shall be eligible for refunds of assessments paid during the one-year period immediately following the expiration of such sixty-day period.
(b) Refund demand; rules and regulations
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any end product manufacturer who has been subject to and has paid an assessment, but who has reserved the right, under subsection (a) of this section, to seek a refund, and who is not in favor of supporting the programs as provided for herein, shall have the right to demand and receive from the Council a refund of such assessment: Provided, That such demand shall be made by such end product manufacturer in accordance with regulations, and on a form and within a time period, prescribed by the Council and approved by the Secretary and upon submission of proof satisfactory to the Council that the end product manufacturer paid the assessment for which refund is sought, and any such refund shall be made within sixty days after demand is received therefor.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1709, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1037.)
§3409. Petition and review
(a) Petition; hearing; ruling
Any person subject to any order may file a written petition with the Secretary, stating that any such order or any provision of such order or any obligation imposed in connection therewith is not in accordance with law and praying for a modification thereof or for an exemption therefrom. The petitioner shall thereupon be given an opportunity for a hearing upon such petition, in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary. After such hearing, the Secretary shall make a ruling upon the prayer of such petition which shall be final, if in accordance with law.
(b) Judicial review; jurisdiction; process; remand
The district courts of the United States in any district in which such person is an inhabitant, or has his principal place of business, are hereby vested with jurisdiction to review such ruling, provided a complaint for that purpose is filed within twenty days from the date of the entry of such ruling. Service of process in such proceedings may be had upon the Secretary by delivering a copy of the complaint to the Secretary. If the court determines that such ruling is not in accordance with law, it shall remand such proceedings to the Secretary with directions either (1) to make such ruling as the court shall determine to be in accordance with law, or (2) to take such further proceedings as, in its opinion, the law requires.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1710, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1037.)
§3410. Enforcement of orders and regulations
(a) Jurisdiction; reference of civil actions to Attorney General
The several district courts of the United States are vested with jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain any person from violating any order or regulation made or issued pursuant to this chapter. Any civil action authorized to be brought under this chapter shall be referred to the Attorney General for appropriate action: Provided, That nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the Secretary to refer to the Attorney General minor violations of this chapter whenever the Secretary believes that the administration and enforcement of the program would be adequately served by suitable written notice or warning to any person committing such violation.
Any end product manufacturer or other person who willfully violates any provision of any order issued by the Secretary under this chapter, or who willfully fails or refuses to remit any assessment or fee duly required thereunder, shall be liable to a penalty of not more than $1,000 for each such offense which shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered in a civil suit brought by the United States.
(c) Other remedies
The remedies provided in subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be in addition to, and not exclusive of, the remedies otherwise provided at law or in equity.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1711, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1038.)
§3411. Suspension and termination of orders
(a) Authority and responsibility of Secretary
The Secretary shall, whenever he finds that any order issued under this chapter, or any provision thereof, obstructs or does not tend to effectuate the declared policy of this chapter, terminate or suspend the operation of such order or such provision thereof.
The Secretary may conduct a referendum at any time, and shall hold a referendum on request of 10 per centum or more of the number of end product manufacturers subject to the order, to determine whether such manufacturers favor the termination or suspension of the order, and the Secretary shall suspend or terminate such order within six months after the Secretary determines that suspension or termination of the order is approved or favored by a majority of the end product manufacturers voting in such referendum who, during a representative period determined by the Secretary, have been engaged in the manufacture of end products or by end product manufacturers who produced end products containing more than 50 per centum of the total processed wheat contained in all end products manufactured during such period by the end product manufacturers voting in the referendum.
(c) Suspension or termination of order not to be considered an order
The termination or suspension of any order, or any provision thereof, shall not be considered an order within the meaning of this chapter.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1712, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1038.)
§3412. Investigations; power to subpena and take oaths and affirmations; aid of courts
The Secretary may make such investigations as the Secretary deems necessary for the effective administration of this chapter or to determine whether any person subject to the provisions of this chapter has engaged or is about to engage in any acts or practices which constitute or will constitute a violation of any provisions of this chapter, or of any order, or rule or regulation issued under this chapter. For the purpose of such investigation, the Secretary is empowered to administer oaths and affirmations, subpena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence and require the production of any books, papers, and documents which are relevant to the inquiry. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of any such records may be required from any place in the United States. In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpena to, any person, the Secretary may invoke the aid of any court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which such investigation or proceeding is carried on, or where such person resides or carries on business, in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, and documents; and such court may issue an order requiring such person to appear before the Secretary, there to produce records, if so ordered, or to give testimony touching the matter under investigation. Any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in the judicial district whereof such person is an inhabitant or wherever such person may be found.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1713, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1039.)
§3413. Certification of organizations
The eligibility of any organization to represent wheat producers, processors, end product manufacturers, or consumers to request the issuance of an order under section 3403(a) of this title and to participate in the making of nominations under section 3405(b) of this title, shall be certified by the Secretary. The Secretary shall certify any organization which the Secretary finds to be eligible under this section and the Secretary's determination as to eligibility shall be final. Certification shall be based, in addition to other available information, upon a factual report submitted by the organization which shall contain information deemed relevant and specified by the Secretary for the making of such determination, including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) geographic territory covered by the organization's active membership,
(b) nature and size of the organization's active membership, including, in the case of an organization other than a consumer organization, the proportion of the total number of active wheat producers, processors, or end product manufacturers represented by the organization,
(c) evidence of stability and permanency of the organization,
(d) sources from which the organization's operating funds are derived,
(e) functions of the organization, and
(f) the organization's ability and willingness to further the aims and objectives of this title: Provided, That the primary consideration in determining the eligibility of an organization, other than a consumer organization, shall be whether its membership consists primarily of wheat producers, processors, or end product manufacturers who produce a substantial volume of wheat, processed wheat, or end products, respectively, and whether the organization is based on a primary or overriding interest in the production, processing, or end manufacture of wheat or wheat products, and the nutritional attributes thereof: Provided further, That the primary consideration in determining the eligibility of a consumer organization shall be whether (1) a principal purpose of the organization is to promote consumer interests, consumer research, or consumer education, (2) such organization has a broadly representative constituency of consumers, with active membership participation on a regular basis, and (3) the organization has demonstrated to the Secretary's satisfaction its commitment to the achievement of the objectives of this chapter.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1714, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1039.)
§3414. Other programs relating to wheat or wheat food research or nutrition education
Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to preempt or interfere with the workings of any other program relating to wheat or wheat foods research or nutrition education organized and operating under the laws of the United States or any State.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1715, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1040.)
The Secretary is authorized to issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1716, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1040.)
§3416. Amendments to orders
The provisions of this chapter applicable to orders shall be applicable to amendments to orders.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1717, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1040.)
§3417. Authorization of appropriations
There are hereby authorized to be appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated such funds as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter. The funds so appropriated shall not be available for payment of the expenses or expenditures of the Council in administering any provisions of any order issued pursuant to the terms of this chapter.
(Pub. L. 95–113, title XVII, §1719, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1040.)