Law:Title 5. The Parent-child Relationship And The Suit Affecting The Parent-child Relationship. Subtitle B. Suits Affecting The Parent-child Relationship from Chapter 157. Enforcement (Texas)

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Subtitle B. Suits Affecting The Parent-child Relationship

Contents

Chapter 157. Enforcement

Subchapter A. Pleadings And Defenses

Section  157.001.  Motion For Enforcement.

(a) A motion for enforcement as provided in this chapter may be filed to enforce a final order for conservatorship, child support, possession of or access to a child, or other provisions of a final order.

(b)  The court may enforce by contempt a final order for possession of and access to a child as provided in this chapter.

(c)  The court may enforce a final order for child support as provided in this chapter or Chapter 158.

(d)  A motion for enforcement shall be filed in the court of continuing, exclusive jurisdiction.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.002.  Contents Of Motion.

(a) A motion for enforcement must, in ordinary and concise language:

(1)  identify the provision of the order allegedly violated and sought to be enforced;

(2)  state the manner of the respondent's alleged noncompliance;

(3)  state the relief requested by the movant; and

(4)  contain the signature of the movant or the movant's attorney.

(b)  A motion for enforcement of child support:

(1)  must include the amount owed as provided in the order, the amount paid, and the amount of arrearages;

(2)  if contempt is requested, must include the portion of the order allegedly violated and, for each date of alleged contempt, the amount due and the amount paid, if any;

(3)  may include as an attachment a copy of a record of child support payments maintained by the Title IV-D registry or a local registry; and

(4)  if the obligor owes arrearages for a child receiving assistance under Part A of Title IV of the federal Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. Section 601 et seq.), may include a request that:

(A)  the obligor pay the arrearages in accordance with a plan approved by the court; or

(B)  if the obligor is already subject to a plan and is not incapacitated, the obligor participate in work activities, as defined under 42 U.S.C. Section 607(d), that the court determines appropriate.

(c)  A motion for enforcement of the terms and conditions of conservatorship or possession of or access to a child must include the date, place, and, if applicable, the time of each occasion of the respondent's failure to comply with the order.

(d)  The movant is not required to plead that the underlying order is enforceable by contempt to obtain other appropriate enforcement remedies.

(e)  The movant may allege repeated past violations of the order and that future violations of a similar nature may occur before the date of the hearing.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 17, eff. Sept. 1, 1997.



Section  157.003.  Joinder Of Claims And Remedies; No Election Of Remedies.

(a) A party requesting enforcement may join in the same proceeding any claim and remedy provided for in this chapter, other provisions of this title, or other rules of law.

(b)  A motion for enforcement does not constitute an election of remedies that limits or precludes:

(1)  the use of any other civil or criminal proceeding to enforce a final order; or

(2)  a suit for damages under Chapter 42.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 62, Sec. 6.24, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.



Section  157.004.  Time Limitations; Enforcement Of Possession.

The court retains jurisdiction to render a contempt order for failure to comply with the order of possession and access if the motion for enforcement is filed not later than the sixth month after the date:

(1)  the child becomes an adult; or

(2)  on which the right of possession and access terminates under the order or by operation of law.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.005.  Time Limitations; Enforcement Of Child Support.

(a) The court retains jurisdiction to render a contempt order for failure to comply with the child support order if the motion for enforcement is filed not later than the second anniversary of the date:

(1)  the child becomes an adult; or

(2)  on which the child support obligation terminates under the order or by operation of law.

(b)  The court retains jurisdiction to confirm the total amount of child support arrearages and render a cumulative money judgment for past-due child support, as provided by Section 157.263, if a motion for enforcement requesting a cumulative money judgment is filed not later than the 10th anniversary after the date:

(1)  the child becomes an adult; or

(2)  on which the child support obligation terminates under the child support order or by operation of law.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 556, Sec. 15, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.

Amended by:

Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch. 916, Sec. 21, eff. June 18, 2005.

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 17, eff. September 1, 2007.

Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 767, Sec. 13, eff. June 19, 2009.



Section  157.006.  Affirmative Defense To Motion For Enforcement.

(a) The issue of the existence of an affirmative defense to a motion for enforcement does not arise unless evidence is admitted supporting the defense.

(b)  The respondent must prove the affirmative defense by a preponderance of the evidence.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.007.  Affirmative Defense To Motion For Enforcement Of Possession Or Access.

(a) The respondent may plead as an affirmative defense to contempt for failure to comply with an order for possession or access to a child that the movant voluntarily relinquished actual possession and control of the child.

(b)  The voluntary relinquishment must have been for the time encompassed by the court-ordered periods during which the respondent is alleged to have interfered.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.008.  Affirmative Defense To Motion For Enforcement Of Child Support.

(a) An obligor may plead as an affirmative defense in whole or in part to a motion for enforcement of child support that the obligee voluntarily relinquished to the obligor actual possession and control of a child.

(b)  The voluntary relinquishment must have been for a time period in excess of any court-ordered periods of possession of and access to the child and actual support must have been supplied by the obligor.

(c)  An obligor may plead as an affirmative defense to an allegation of contempt or of the violation of a condition of community service requiring payment of child support that the obligor:

(1)  lacked the ability to provide support in the amount ordered;

(2)  lacked property that could be sold, mortgaged, or otherwise pledged to raise the funds needed;

(3)  attempted unsuccessfully to borrow the funds needed; and

(4)  knew of no source from which the money could have been borrowed or legally obtained.

(d)  An obligor who has provided actual support to the child during a time subject to an affirmative defense under this section may request reimbursement for that support as a counterclaim or offset against the claim of the obligee.

(e)  An action against the obligee for support supplied to a child is limited to the amount of periodic payments previously ordered by the court.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section 157.009.  Credit For Payment Of Disability Benefits.

In addition to any other credit or offset available to an obligor under this title, if a child for whom the obligor owes child support receives a lump-sum payment as a result of the obligor's disability and that payment is made to the obligee as the representative payee of the child, the obligor is entitled to a credit.  The credit under this section is equal to the amount of the lump-sum payment and shall be applied to any child support arrearage and interest owed by the obligor on behalf of that child at the time the payment is made.

Added by Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 538, Sec. 1, eff. June 19, 2009.

Added by Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 767, Sec. 14, eff. June 19, 2009.



Subchapter B. Procedure

Section  157.061.  Setting Hearing.

(a) On filing a motion for enforcement requesting contempt, the court shall set the date, time, and place of the hearing and order the respondent to personally appear and respond to the motion.

(b)  If the motion for enforcement does not request contempt, the court shall set the motion for hearing on the request of a party.

(c)  The court shall give preference to a motion for enforcement of child support in setting a hearing date and may not delay the hearing because a suit for modification of the order requested to be enforced has been or may be filed.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.062.  Notice Of Hearing.

(a) The notice of hearing must include the date, time, and place of the hearing.

(b)  The notice of hearing need not repeat the allegations contained in the motion for enforcement.

(c)  Notice of hearing on a motion for enforcement of an existing order providing for child support or possession of or access to a child shall be given to the respondent by personal service of a copy of the motion and notice not later than the 10th day before the date of the hearing.

(d)  If a motion for enforcement is joined with another claim:

(1)  the hearing may not be held before 10 a.m. on the first Monday after the 20th day after the date of service; and

(2)  the provisions of the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure applicable to the filing of an original lawsuit apply.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 751, Sec. 49, eff. Sept. 1, 1995.



Section  157.063.  Appearance.

A party makes a general appearance for all purposes in an enforcement proceeding if:

(1)  the party appears at the hearing or is present when the case is called; and

(2)  the party does not object to the court's jurisdiction or the form or manner of the notice of hearing.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.064.  Special Exception.

(a) If a respondent specially excepts to the motion for enforcement or moves to strike, the court shall rule on the exception or the motion to strike before it hears the motion for enforcement.

(b)  If an exception is sustained, the court shall give the movant an opportunity to replead and continue the hearing to a designated date and time without the requirement of additional service.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.065.  Notice Of Hearing, First Class Mail.

(a) If a party has been ordered under Chapter 105 to provide the court and the state case registry with the party's current mailing address, notice of a hearing on a motion for enforcement may be served by mailing a copy of the notice to the respondent, together with a copy of the motion, by first class mail to the last mailing address of the respondent on file with the court and the registry.

(b)  The notice may be sent by the clerk of the court, the movant's attorney, or any person entitled to the address information as provided in Chapter 105.

(c)  A person who sends the notice shall file of record a certificate of service showing the date of mailing and the name of the person who sent the notice.

(d)  Repealed by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 97(a), eff. Sept. 1, 1997.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 18, 97(a), eff. Sept. 1, 1997.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 18, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.066.  Failure To Appear.

If a respondent who has been personally served with notice to appear at a hearing does not appear at the designated time, place, and date to respond to a motion for enforcement of an existing court order, regardless of whether the motion is joined with other claims or remedies, the court may not hold the respondent in contempt but may, on proper proof, grant a default judgment for the relief sought and issue a capias for the arrest of the respondent.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 751, Sec. 50, eff. Sept. 1, 1995.



Subchapter C. Failure To Appear; Bond Or Security

Section  157.101.  Bond Or Security For Release Of Respondent.

(a) When the court orders the issuance of a capias as provided in this chapter, the court shall also set an appearance bond or security, payable to the obligee or to a person designated by the court, in a reasonable amount.

(b)  An appearance bond or security in the amount of $1,000 or a cash bond in the amount of $250 is presumed to be reasonable. Evidence that the respondent has attempted to evade service of process, has previously been found guilty of contempt, or has accrued arrearages over $1,000 is sufficient to rebut the presumption. If the presumption is rebutted, the court shall set a reasonable bond.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section 157.102.  Capias Or Warrant; Duty Of Law Enforcement Officials.

Law enforcement officials shall treat a capias or arrest warrant ordered under this chapter in the same manner as an arrest warrant for a criminal offense and shall enter the capias or warrant in the computer records for outstanding warrants maintained by the local police, sheriff, and Department of Public Safety.  The capias or warrant shall be forwarded to and disseminated by the Texas Crime Information Center and the National Crime Information Center.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 702, Sec. 3, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 556, Sec. 16, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 19, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.103.  Capias Fees.

(a) The fee for issuing a capias as provided in this chapter is the same as the fee for issuance of a writ of attachment.

(b)  The fee for serving a capias is the same as the fee for service of a writ in civil cases generally.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.104.  Conditional Release.

If the respondent is taken into custody and released on bond, the court shall condition the bond on the respondent's promise to appear in court for a hearing as required by the court without the necessity of further personal service of notice on the respondent.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.105.  Release Hearing.

(a) If the respondent is taken into custody and not released on bond, the respondent shall be brought before the court that issued the capias on or before the third working day after the arrest.  The court shall determine whether the respondent's appearance in court at a designated time and place can be assured by a method other than by posting the bond or security previously established.

(b)  If the respondent is released without posting bond or security, the court shall set a hearing on the alleged contempt at a designated date, time, and place and give the respondent notice of hearing in open court. No other notice to the respondent is required.

(c)  If the court is not satisfied that the respondent's appearance in court can be assured and the respondent remains in custody, a hearing on the alleged contempt shall be held as soon as practicable, but not later than the seventh day after the date that the respondent was taken into custody, unless the respondent and the respondent's attorney waive the accelerated hearing.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 21, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.106.  Cash Bond As Support.

(a) If the respondent has posted a cash bond and is found to be in arrears in the payment of court-ordered child support, the court shall order that the proceeds of the cash bond be paid to the child support obligee or to a person designated by the court, not to exceed the amount of child support arrearages determined to exist.

(b)  This section applies without regard to whether the respondent appears at the hearing.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.107.  Appearance Bond Or Security Other Than Cash Bond As Support.

(a) If the respondent fails to appear at the hearing as directed, the court shall order that the appearance bond or security be forfeited and that the proceeds of any judgment on the bond or security, not to exceed the amount of child support arrearages determined to exist, be paid to the obligee or to a person designated by the court.

(b)  The obligee may file suit on the bond.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.108.  Cash Bond As Property Of Respondent.

A court shall treat a cash bond posted for the benefit of the respondent as the property of the respondent. A person who posts the cash bond does not have recourse in relation to an order regarding the bond other than against the respondent.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.109.  Security For Compliance With Order.

(a) The court may order the respondent to execute a bond or post security if the court finds that the respondent:

(1)  has on two or more occasions denied possession of or access to a child who is the subject of the order; or

(2)  is employed by an employer not subject to the jurisdiction of the court or for whom income withholding is unworkable or inappropriate.

(b)  The court shall set the amount of the bond or security and condition the bond or security on compliance with the court order permitting possession or access or the payment of past-due or future child support.

(c)  The court shall order the bond or security payable through the registry of the court:

(1)  to the obligee or other person or entity entitled to receive child support payments designated by the court if enforcement of child support is requested; or

(2)  to the person who is entitled to possession or access if enforcement of possession or access is requested.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.110.  Forfeiture Of Security For Failure To Comply With Order.

(a) On the motion of a person or entity for whose benefit a bond has been executed or security deposited, the court may forfeit all or part of the bond or security deposit on a finding that the person who furnished the bond or security:

(1)  has violated the court order for possession of and access to a child; or

(2)  failed to make child support payments.

(b)  The court shall order the registry to pay the funds from a forfeited bond or security deposit to the obligee or person or entity entitled to receive child support payments in an amount that does not exceed the child support arrearages or, in the case of possession of or access to a child, to the person entitled to possession or access.

(c)  The court may order that all or part of the forfeited amount be applied to pay attorney's fees and costs incurred by the person or entity bringing the motion for contempt or motion for forfeiture.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.111.  Forfeiture Not Defense To Contempt.

The forfeiture of bond or security is not a defense in a contempt proceeding.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.112.  Joinder Of Forfeiture And Contempt Proceedings.

A motion for enforcement requesting contempt may be joined with a forfeiture proceeding.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.113.  Application Of Bond Pending Writ.

If the obligor requests to execute a bond or to post security pending a hearing by an appellate court on a writ, the bond or security on forfeiture shall be payable to the obligee.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.114.  Failure To Appear.

The court may order a capias to be issued for the arrest of the respondent if:

(1)  the motion for enforcement requests contempt;

(2)  the respondent was personally served; and

(3)  the respondent fails to appear.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.115.  Default Judgment.

(a) The court may render a default order for the relief requested if the respondent:

(1)  has been personally served, has filed an answer, or has entered an appearance; and

(2)  does not appear at the designated time, place, and date to respond to the motion.

(b)  If the respondent fails to appear, the court may not hold the respondent in contempt but may order a capias to be issued.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 751, Sec. 51, eff. Sept. 1, 1995.



Subchapter D. Hearing And Enforcement Order

Section  157.161.  Record.

(a) Except as provided by Subsection (b), a record of the hearing in a motion for enforcement shall be made by a court reporter or as provided by Chapter 201.

(b)  A record is not required if:

(1)  the parties agree to an order; or

(2)  the motion does not request incarceration and the parties waive the requirement of a record at the time of hearing, either in writing or in open court, and the court approves waiver.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.162.  Proof.

(a) The movant is not required to prove that the underlying order is enforceable by contempt to obtain other appropriate enforcement remedies.

(b)  A finding that the respondent is not in contempt does not preclude the court from ordering any other enforcement remedy, including rendering a money judgment, posting a bond or other security, or withholding income.

(c)  A copy of the payment record attached to the motion is evidence of the facts asserted in the payment record and is admissible to show whether payments were made. The respondent may offer controverting evidence.

(d)  The court may not find a respondent in contempt of court for failure to pay child support if the respondent appears at the hearing with a copy of the payment record or other evidence satisfactory to the court showing that the respondent is current in the payment of child support as ordered by the court.

(e)  Notwithstanding Subsection (d), the court may award the petitioner costs of court and reasonable attorney's fees in a proceeding described by that subsection if the court finds that:

(1)  on the date the motion for enforcement was filed, the respondent was not current in the payment of child support as ordered by the court; and

(2)  the respondent made the child support payments described by Subsection (d) after the date the respondent was served notice of the motion or otherwise discovered that the motion for enforcement had been filed.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 1189, Sec. 1, eff. June 15, 2007.

Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 767, Sec. 15, eff. June 19, 2009.



Section  157.163.  Appointment Of Attorney.

(a) In a motion for enforcement or motion to revoke community service, the court must first determine whether incarceration of the respondent is a possible result of the proceedings.

(b)  If the court determines that incarceration is a possible result of the proceedings, the court shall inform a respondent not represented by an attorney of the right to be represented by an attorney and, if the respondent is indigent, of the right to the appointment of an attorney.

(c)  If the court determines that the respondent will not be incarcerated as a result of the proceedings, the court may require a respondent who is indigent to proceed without an attorney.

(d)  If the respondent claims indigency and requests the appointment of an attorney, the court shall require the respondent to file an affidavit of indigency. The court may hear evidence to determine the issue of indigency.

(e)  Except as provided by Subsection (c), the court shall appoint an attorney to represent the respondent if the court determines that the respondent is indigent.

(f)  If the respondent is not in custody, an appointed attorney is entitled to not less than 10 days from the date of the attorney's appointment to respond to the movant's pleadings and prepare for the hearing.

(g)  If the respondent is in custody, an appointed attorney is entitled to not less than five days from the date the respondent was taken into custody to respond to the movant's pleadings and prepare for the hearing.

(h)  The court may shorten or extend the time for preparation if the respondent and the respondent's attorney sign a waiver of the time limit.

(i)  The scope of the court appointment of an attorney to represent the respondent is limited to the allegation of contempt or of violation of community supervision contained in the motion for enforcement or motion to revoke community supervision.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.164.  Payment Of Appointed Attorney.

(a) An attorney appointed to represent an indigent respondent is entitled to a reasonable fee for services within the scope of the appointment in the amount set by the court.

(b)  The fee shall be paid from the general funds of the county according to the schedule for the compensation of counsel appointed to defend criminal defendants as provided in the Code of Criminal Procedure.

(c)  For purposes of this section, a proceeding in a court of appeals or the Supreme Court of Texas is considered the equivalent of a bona fide appeal to the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.165.  Probation Of Contempt Order.

The court may place the respondent on community supervision and suspend commitment if the court finds that the respondent is in contempt of court for failure or refusal to obey an order rendered as provided in this title.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 62, Sec. 6.25, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.



Section  157.166.  Contents Of Enforcement Order.

(a) An enforcement order must include:

(1)  in ordinary and concise language the provisions of the order for which enforcement was requested;

(2)  the acts or omissions that are the subject of the order;

(3)  the manner of the respondent's noncompliance; and

(4)  the relief granted by the court.

(b)  If the order imposes incarceration or a fine for criminal contempt, an enforcement order must contain findings identifying, setting out, or incorporating by reference the provisions of the order for which enforcement was requested and the date of each occasion when the respondent's failure to comply with the order was found to constitute criminal contempt.

(c)  If the enforcement order imposes incarceration for civil contempt, the order must state the specific conditions on which the respondent may be released from confinement.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 556, Sec. 17, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.



Section 157.167.  Respondent To Pay Attorney's Fees And Costs.

(a) If the court finds that the respondent has failed to make child support payments, the court shall order the respondent to pay the movant's reasonable attorney's fees and all court costs in addition to the arrearages.  Fees and costs ordered under this subsection may be enforced by any means available for the enforcement of child support, including contempt.

(b)  If the court finds that the respondent has failed to comply with the terms of an order providing for the possession of or access to a child, the court shall order the respondent to pay the movant's reasonable attorney's fees and all court costs in addition to any other remedy.  If the court finds that the enforcement of the order with which the respondent failed to comply was necessary  to ensure the child's physical or emotional health or welfare, the fees and costs ordered under this subsection may be enforced by any means available for the enforcement of child support, including contempt, but not including income withholding.

(c)  Except as provided by Subsection (d), for good cause shown, the court may waive the requirement that the respondent pay attorney's fees and costs if the court states the reasons supporting that finding.

(d)  If the court finds that the respondent is in contempt of court for failure or refusal to pay child support and that the respondent owes $20,000 or more in child support arrearages, the court may not waive the requirement that the respondent pay attorney's fees and costs unless the court also finds that the respondent:

(1)  is involuntarily unemployed or is disabled; and

(2)  lacks the financial resources to pay the attorney's fees and costs.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 556, Sec. 18, eff. Sept. 1, 1999; Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 477, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 2003; Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 1262, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 2003.

Reenacted and amended by Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch. 253, Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 2005.



Section  157.168.  Additional Periods Of Possession Or Access.

(a) A court may order additional periods of possession of or access to a child to compensate for the denial of court-ordered possession or access. The additional periods of possession or access:

(1)  must be of the same type and duration of the possession or access that was denied;

(2)  may include weekend, holiday, and summer possession or access; and

(3)  must occur on or before the second anniversary of the date the court finds that court-ordered possession or access has been denied.

(b)  The person denied possession or access is entitled to decide the time of the additional possession or access, subject to the provisions of Subsection (a)(1).

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 751, Sec. 52, eff. Sept. 1, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 974, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 1034, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.



Subchapter E. Community Supervision

Section  157.211.  Conditions Of Community Supervision.

If the court places the respondent on community supervision and suspends commitment, the terms and conditions of community supervision may include the requirement that the respondent:

(1)  report to the community supervision officer as directed;

(2)  permit the community supervision officer to visit the respondent at the respondent's home or elsewhere;

(3)  obtain counseling on financial planning, budget management, conflict resolution, parenting skills, alcohol or drug abuse, or other matters causing the respondent to fail to obey the order;

(4)  pay required child support and any child support arrearages;

(5)  pay court costs and attorney's fees ordered by the court;

(6)  seek employment assistance services offered by the Texas Workforce Commission under Section 302.0035, Labor Code, if appropriate; and

(7)  participate in mediation or other services to alleviate conditions that prevent the respondent from obeying the court's order.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 702, Sec. 4, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 946, Sec. 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1999; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 311, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section 157.212.  Term Of Community Supervision.

The initial period of community supervision may not exceed 10 years.  The court may continue the community supervision beyond 10 years until the earlier of:

(1)  the second anniversary of the date on which the community supervision first exceeded 10 years; or

(2)  the date on which all child support, including arrearages and interest, has been paid.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 1313, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 22, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.213.  Community Supervision Fees.

(a) The court may require the respondent to pay a fee to the court in an amount equal to that required of a criminal defendant subject to community supervision.

(b)  The court may make payment of the fee a condition of granting or continuing community supervision.

(c)  The court shall deposit the fees received under this subchapter as follows:

(1)  if the community supervision officer is employed by a community supervision and corrections department, in the special fund of the county treasury provided by the Code of Criminal Procedure to be used for community supervision; or

(2)  if the community supervision officer is employed by a domestic relations office, in one of the following funds, as determined by the office's administering entity:

(A)  the general fund for the county in which the domestic relations office is located; or

(B)  the office fund established by the administering entity for the domestic relations office.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 311, Sec. 2, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.214.  Motion To Revoke Community Supervision.

A prosecuting attorney, the Title IV-D agency, a domestic relations office, or a party affected by the order may file a verified motion alleging specifically that certain conduct of the respondent constitutes a violation of the terms and conditions of community supervision.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 311, Sec. 3, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.215.  Arrest For Alleged Violation Of Community Supervision.

(a) If the motion to revoke community supervision alleges a prima facie case that the respondent has violated a term or condition of community supervision, the court may order the respondent's arrest by warrant.

(b)  The respondent shall be brought promptly before the court ordering the arrest.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.216.  Hearing On Motion To Revoke Community Supervision. (a)

The court shall hold a hearing without a jury not later than the third working day after the date the respondent is arrested under Section 157.215.  If the court is unavailable for a hearing on that date, the hearing shall be held not later than the third working day after the date the court becomes available.

(b)  The hearing under this section may not be held later than the seventh working day after the date the respondent is arrested.

(c)  After the hearing, the court may continue, modify, or revoke the community supervision.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 23, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.217.  Discharge From Community Supervision.

(a) When a community supervision period has been satisfactorily completed, the court on its own motion shall discharge the respondent from community supervision.

(b)  The court may discharge the respondent from community supervision on the motion of the respondent if the court finds that the respondent:

(1)  has satisfactorily completed one year of community supervision; and

(2)  has fully complied with the community supervision order.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Subchapter F. Judgment And Interest

Section  157.261.  Unpaid Child Support As Judgment.

(a) A child support payment not timely made constitutes a final judgment for the amount due and owing, including interest as provided in this chapter.

(b)  For the purposes of this subchapter, interest begins to accrue on the date the judge signs the order for the judgment unless the order contains a statement that the order is rendered on another specific date.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 702, Sec. 5, eff. Sept. 1, 1997.



Section  157.262.  Reduction Of Arrearages; Abeyance Of Enforcement.

(a) Except as provided by this section, in a contempt proceeding or in rendering a money judgment, the court may not reduce or modify the amount of child support arrearages.

(b)  In an enforcement action under this chapter, the court may, with the agreement of the Title IV-D agency, hold in abeyance the enforcement of any arrearages, including interest, assigned to the Title IV-D agency under Section 231.104(a) if, for the period of the court's order of abeyance of enforcement, the obligor:

(1)  timely and fully pays the obligor's current child support under a court or administrative order; and

(2)  is involved in the life of the child for whom support is ordered through the exercise of the obligor's right of possession of or access to the child.

(c)  If the court orders an abeyance of enforcement of arrearages under this section, the court may require the obligor to obtain counseling on parenting skills, work skills, job placement, financial planning, conflict resolution, substance abuse, or other matters causing the obligor to fail to obey the child support order.

(d)  If the court finds in a subsequent hearing that the obligor has not met the conditions set by the court's order under this section, the court shall terminate the abeyance of enforcement of the arrearages.

(e)  On the expiration of the child support order, the court may, with the agreement of the Title IV-D agency, reduce the amount of the arrearages assigned to the Title IV-D agency under Section 231.104(a) if the court finds that the obligor has complied with the conditions set by the court under this section.

(f)  The money judgment for arrearages rendered by the court may be subject to a counterclaim or offset as provided by this title.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 392, Sec. 3, eff. Sept. 1, 2001; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 15, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 538, Sec. 2, eff. June 19, 2009.

Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 767, Sec. 16, eff. June 19, 2009.



Section  157.263.  Confirmation Of Arrearages.

(a) If a motion for enforcement of child support requests a money judgment for arrearages, the court shall confirm the amount of arrearages and render one cumulative money judgment.

(b)  A cumulative money judgment includes:

(1)  unpaid child support not previously confirmed;

(2)  the balance owed on previously confirmed arrearages or lump sum or retroactive support judgments;

(3)  interest on the arrearages; and

(4)  a statement that it is a cumulative judgment.

(c)  If the amount of arrearages confirmed by the court reflects a credit to the obligor for support arrearages collected from a federal tax refund under 42 U.S.C. Section 664, and, subsequently, the amount of that credit is reduced because the refund was adjusted because of an injured spouse claim by a jointly filing spouse, the tax return was amended, the return was audited by the Internal Revenue Service, or for another reason permitted by law, the court shall render a new cumulative judgment to include as arrearages an amount equal to the amount by which the credit was reduced.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 610, Sec. 4, eff. Sept. 1, 2003.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 24, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.264.  Enforcement Of Judgment.

(a) A money judgment rendered as provided in this subchapter may be enforced by any means available for the enforcement of a judgment for debts.

(b)  The court shall render an order requiring that the obligor make periodic payments on the judgment, including by income withholding under Chapter 158 if the obligor is subject to income withholding.

(c)  An order rendered under Subsection (b) does not preclude or limit the use of any other means for enforcement of the judgment.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 16, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 25, eff. September 1, 2007.

Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 767, Sec. 17, eff. June 19, 2009.



Section  157.265.  Accrual Of Interest On Child Support.

(a) Interest accrues on the portion of delinquent child support that is greater than the amount of the monthly periodic support obligation at the rate of six percent simple interest per year from the date the support is delinquent until the date the support is paid or the arrearages are confirmed and reduced to money judgment.

(b)  Interest accrues on child support arrearages that have been confirmed and reduced to money judgment as provided in this subchapter at the rate of six percent simple interest per year from the date the order is rendered until the date the judgment is paid.

(c)  Interest accrues on a money judgment for retroactive or lump-sum child support at the annual rate of six percent simple interest from the date the order is rendered until the judgment is paid.

(d)  Subsection (a) applies to a child support payment that becomes due on or after January 1, 2002.

(e)  Child support arrearages in existence on January 1, 2002, that were not confirmed and reduced to a money judgment on or before that date accrue interest as follows:

(1)  before January 1, 2002, the arrearages are subject to the interest rate that applied to the arrearages before that date; and

(2)  on and after January 1, 2002, the cumulative total of arrearages and interest accumulated on those arrearages described by Subdivision (1) is subject to Subsection (a).

(f)  Subsections (b) and (c) apply to a money judgment for child support rendered on or after January 1, 2002.  A money judgment for child support rendered before that date is governed by the law in effect on the date the judgment was rendered, and the former law is continued in effect for that purpose.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 751, Sec. 53, eff. Sept. 1, 1995; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 943, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 2000; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1491, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 2002.

Amended by:

Acts 2005, 79th Leg., Ch. 185, Sec. 1, eff. May 27, 2005.



Section  157.266.  Date Of Delinquency.

(a) A child support payment is delinquent for the purpose of accrual of interest if the payment is not received before the 31st day after the payment date stated in the order by:

(1)  the local registry, Title IV-D registry, or state disbursement unit; or

(2)  the obligee or entity specified in the order, if payments are not made through a registry.

(b)  If a payment date is not stated in the order, a child support payment is delinquent if payment is not received by the registry or the obligee or entity specified in the order on the date that an amount equal to the support payable for one month becomes past due.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 943, Sec. 2, eff. Jan. 1, 2000.



Section  157.267.  Interest Enforced As Child Support.

Accrued interest is part of the child support obligation and may be enforced by any means provided for the collection of child support.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section 157.268.  Application Of Child Support Payment.

Child support collected shall be applied in the following order of priority:

(1)  current child support;

(2)  non-delinquent child support owed;

(3)   the principal amount of child support that has not been confirmed and reduced to money judgment;

(4)  the principal amount of child support that has been confirmed and reduced to money judgment;

(5)  interest on the principal amounts specified in Subdivisions (3) and (4); and

(6)  the amount of any ordered attorney's fees or costs, or Title IV-D service fees authorized under Section 231.103 for which the obligor is responsible.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 17, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 20, eff. September 1, 2007.

Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 767, Sec. 18, eff. January 1, 2010.



Section 157.269.  Retention Of Jurisdiction.

A court that renders an order providing for the payment of child support retains continuing jurisdiction to enforce the order, including by adjusting the amount of the periodic payments to be made by the obligor or the amount to be withheld from the obligor's disposable earnings, until all current support and medical support and child support arrearages, including interest and any applicable fees and costs, have been paid.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 751, Sec. 54, eff. Sept. 1, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 556, Sec. 19, eff. Sept. 1, 1999.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 26, eff. September 1, 2007.



Subchapter G. Child Support Lien

Section  157.311.  Definitions.

In this subchapter:

(1)  "Account" means:

(A)  any type of a demand deposit account, checking or negotiable withdrawal order account, savings account, time deposit account, money market mutual fund account, certificate of deposit, or any other instrument of deposit in which an individual has a beneficial ownership either in its entirety or on a shared or multiple party basis, including any accrued interest and dividends; and

(B)  a life insurance policy in which an individual has a beneficial ownership or liability insurance against which an individual has filed a claim or counterclaim.

(2)  "Claimant" means:

(A)  the obligee or a private attorney representing the obligee;

(B)  the Title IV-D agency providing child support services;

(C)  a domestic relations office or local registry; or

(D)  an attorney appointed as a friend of the court.

(3)  "Court having continuing jurisdiction" is the court of continuing, exclusive jurisdiction in this state or a tribunal of another state having jurisdiction under the Uniform Interstate Family Support Act or a substantially similar act.

(4)  "Financial institution" has the meaning assigned by 42 U.S.C. Section 669a(d)(1) and includes a depository institution, credit union, benefit association, liability or life insurance company, money market mutual fund, and any similar entity authorized to do business in this state.

(5)  "Lien" means a child support lien issued in this or another state.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 19, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 18, eff. Sept. 1, 2001; Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 610, Sec. 5, eff. Sept. 1, 2003.



Section  157.312.  General Provisions.

(a) A claimant may enforce child support by a lien as provided in this subchapter.

(b)  The remedies provided by this subchapter do not affect the availability of other remedies provided by law.

(c)  The lien is in addition to any other lien provided by law.

(d)  A child support lien arises by operation of law against real and personal property of an obligor for all amounts of child support due and owing, including any accrued interest, regardless of whether the amounts have been adjudicated or otherwise determined, subject to the requirements of this subchapter for perfection of the lien.

(e)  A child support lien arising in another state may be enforced in the same manner and to the same extent as a lien arising in this state.

(f)  A foreclosure action under this subchapter is not required as a prerequisite to levy and execution on a judicial or administrative determination of arrearages as provided by Section 157.327.

(g)  A child support lien under this subchapter may not be directed to an employer to attach to the disposable earnings of an obligor paid by the employer.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 20, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 19, eff. Sept. 1, 2001; Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 610, Sec. 6, eff. Sept. 1, 2003.



Section  157.313.  Contents Of Child Support Lien Notice.

(a) Except as provided by Subsection (e), a child support lien notice must contain:

(1)  the name and address of the person to whom the notice is being sent;

(2)  the style, docket or cause number, and identity of the tribunal of this or another state having continuing jurisdiction of the child support action and, if the case is a Title IV-D case, the case number;

(3)  the full name, address, and, if known, the birth date, driver's license number, social security number, and any aliases of the obligor;

(4)  the full name and, if known, social security number of the obligee;

(5)  the amount of the current or prospective child support obligation, the frequency with which current or prospective child support is ordered to be paid, and the amount of child support arrearages owed by the obligor and the date of the signing of the court order, administrative order, or writ that determined the arrearages or the date and manner in which the arrearages were determined;

(6)  the rate of interest specified in the court order, administrative order, or writ or, in the absence of a specified interest rate, the rate provided for by law;

(7)  the name and address of the person or agency asserting the lien;

(8)  the motor vehicle identification number as shown on the obligor's title if the property is a motor vehicle;

(9)  a statement that the lien attaches to all nonexempt real and personal property of the obligor that is located or recorded in the state, including any property specifically identified in the notice and any property acquired after the date of filing or delivery of the notice;

(10)  a statement that any ordered child support not timely paid in the future constitutes a final judgment for the amount due and owing, including interest, and accrues up to an amount that may not exceed the lien amount; and

(11)  a statement that the obligor is being provided a copy of the lien notice and that the obligor may dispute the arrearage amount by filing suit under Section 157.323.

(b)  A claimant may include any other information that the claimant considers necessary.

(c)  Except as provided by Subsection (e), the lien notice must be verified.

(d)  A claimant must file a notice for each after-acquired motor vehicle.

(e)  A notice of a lien for child support under this section may be in the form authorized by federal law or regulation.  The federal form of lien notice does not require verification when used by the Title IV-D agency.

(f)  The requirement under Subsections (a)(3) and (4) to provide a social security number, if known, does not apply to a lien notice for a lien on real property.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 3, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 21, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 20, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 27, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.314.  Filing Lien Notice Or Abstract Of Judgment; Notice To Obligor.

(a) A child support lien notice or an abstract of judgment for past due child support may be filed by the claimant with the county clerk of:

(1)  any county in which the obligor is believed to own nonexempt real or personal property;

(2)  the county in which the obligor resides; or

(3)  the county in which the court having continuing jurisdiction has venue of the suit affecting the parent-child relationship.

(b)  A child support lien notice may be filed with or delivered to the following, as appropriate:

(1)  the clerk of the court in which a claim, counterclaim, or suit by, or on behalf of, the obligor, including a claim or potential right to proceeds from an estate as an heir, beneficiary, or creditor, is pending, provided that a copy of the lien is mailed to the attorney of record for the obligor, if any;

(2)  an attorney who represents the obligor in a claim or counterclaim that has not been filed with a court;

(3)  any other individual or organization believed to be in possession of real or personal property of the obligor; or

(4)  any governmental unit or agency that issues or records certificates, titles, or other indicia of property ownership.

(c)  Not later than the 21st day after the date of filing or delivering the child support lien notice, the claimant shall provide a copy of the notice to the obligor by first class or certified mail, return receipt requested, addressed to the obligor at the obligor's last known address. If another person is known to have an ownership interest in the property subject to the lien, the claimant shall provide a copy of the lien notice to that person at the time notice is provided to the obligor.

(d)  If a child support lien notice is delivered to a financial institution with respect to an account of the obligor, the institution shall immediately:

(1)  provide the claimant with the last known address of the obligor; and

(2)  notify any other person having an ownership interest in the account that the account has been frozen in an amount not to exceed the amount of the child support arrearage identified in the notice.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 4, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 22, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 21, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.3145.  Service On Financial Institution. (a)

Service of a child support lien notice on a financial institution relating to property held by the institution in the name of, or in behalf of, an obligor is governed by Section 59.008, Finance Code, if the institution is subject to that law, or may be delivered to the registered agent, the institution's main business office in this state, or another address provided by the institution under Section 231.307.

(b)  A financial institution doing business in this state shall comply with the notice of lien and levy under this section regardless of whether the institution's corporate headquarters is located in this state.

Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 22, eff. Sept. 1, 2001. Amended by Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 610, Sec. 7, eff. Sept. 1, 2003.



Section  157.315.  Recording And Indexing Lien.

(a) On receipt of a child support lien notice, the county clerk shall immediately record the notice in the county judgment records as provided in Chapter 52, Property Code.

(b)  The county clerk may not charge the Title IV-D agency, a domestic relations office, a friend of the court, or any other party a fee for recording the notice of a lien. To qualify for this exemption, the lien notice must be styled "Notice of Child Support Lien" or be in the form authorized by federal law or regulation.

(c)  The county clerk may not charge the Title IV-D agency, a domestic relations office, or a friend of the court a fee for recording the release of a child support lien. The lien release must be styled "Release of Child Support Lien."

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 595, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1999; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 769, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1999; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 23, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.316.  Perfection Of Child Support Lien. (a)

Except as provided by Subsection (b), a child support lien is perfected when an abstract of judgment for past due child support or a child support lien notice is filed or delivered as provided by Section 157.314.

(b)  If a lien established under this subchapter attaches to a motor vehicle, the lien must be perfected in the manner provided by Chapter 501, Transportation Code, and the court or Title IV-D agency that rendered the order of child support shall include in the order a requirement that the obligor surrender to the court or Title IV-D agency evidence of the legal ownership of the motor vehicle against which the lien may attach.  A lien against a motor vehicle under this subchapter is not perfected until the obligor's title to the vehicle has been surrendered to the court or Title IV-D agency and the Texas Department of Motor Vehicles has issued a subsequent title that discloses on its face the fact that the vehicle is subject to a child support lien under this subchapter.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 5, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 23, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 24, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 933, Sec. 3C.01, eff. September 1, 2009.



Section  157.317.  Property To Which Lien Attaches.

(a) A child support lien attaches to all real and personal property not exempt under the Texas Constitution or other law, including:

(1)  an account in a financial institution;

(2)  a retirement plan, including an individual retirement account; and

(3)  the proceeds of a life insurance policy, a claim for negligence or personal injury, or an insurance settlement or award for the claim, due to or owned by the obligor.

(a-1)  A lien attaches to all property owned or acquired on or after the date the lien notice or abstract of judgment is filed with the county clerk of the county in which the property is located, with the court clerk as to property or claims in litigation, or, as to property of the obligor in the possession or control of a third party, from the date the lien notice is delivered to that party.

(b)  A lien attaches to all nonhomestead real property of the obligor but does not attach to a homestead exempt under the Texas Constitution or the Property Code.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 6, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 24, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 344, Sec. 7.007, eff. Sept. 1, 1999; Acts 1999, 76th Leg., ch. 556, Sec. 20, eff. Sept. 1, 1999; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 25, eff. Sept. 1, 2001; Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 610, Sec. 8, eff. Sept. 1, 2003.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 28, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section 157.3171.  Release Of Lien On Homestead Property.

(a) An obligor who believes that a child support lien has attached to real property of the obligor that is the obligor's homestead, as defined by Section 41.002, Property Code, may file an affidavit to release the lien against the homestead in the same manner that a judgment debtor may file an affidavit under Section 52.0012, Property Code, to release a judgment lien against a homestead.

(b)  Except as provided by Subsection (c), the obligor must comply with all requirements imposed by Section 52.0012, Property Code.  For purposes of complying with that section, the obligor is considered to be a judgment debtor under that section and the claimant under the child support lien is considered to be a judgment creditor under that section.

(c)  For purposes of Section 52.0012(d)(2), Property Code, and the associated text in the affidavit required by Section 52.0012(f), Property Code, the obligor is required only to send the letter and affidavit described in those provisions to the claimant under the child support lien at the claimant's last known address.

(d)  The claimant under the child support lien may dispute the obligor's affidavit by filing a contradicting affidavit in the manner provided by Section 52.0012(e), Property Code.

(e)  Subject to Subsection (f), an affidavit filed by an obligor under this section has the same effect with respect to a child support lien as an affidavit filed under Section 52.0012, Property Code, has with respect to a judgment lien.

(f)  If the claimant files a contradicting affidavit as described by Subsection (d), the issue of whether the real property is subject to the lien must be resolved in an action brought for that purpose in the district court of the county in which the real property is located and the lien was filed.

Added by Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 164, Sec. 1, eff. May 26, 2009.



Section  157.318.  Duration And Effect Of Child Support Lien.

(a) Subject to Subsection (d), a lien is effective until all current support and child support arrearages, including interest, any costs and reasonable attorney's fees, and any Title IV-D service fees authorized under Section 231.103 for which the obligor is responsible, have been paid or the lien is otherwise released as provided by this subchapter.

(b)  The lien secures payment of all child support arrearages owed by the obligor under the underlying child support order, including arrearages that accrue after the lien notice was filed or delivered as provided by Section 157.314.

(c)  The filing of a lien notice or abstract of judgment with the county clerk is a record of the notice and has the same effect as any other lien notice with respect to real property records.

(d)  A lien is effective with respect to real property until the 10th anniversary of the date on which the lien notice was filed with the county clerk.  A lien subject to the limitation prescribed by this subsection may be renewed for subsequent 10-year periods by filing a renewed lien notice in the same manner as the original lien notice.  For purposes of establishing priority, a renewed lien notice filed before the applicable 10th anniversary relates back to the date the original lien notice was filed.  A renewed lien notice filed on or after the applicable 10th anniversary has priority over any other lien recorded with respect to the real property only on the basis of the date the renewed lien notice is filed.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 7, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 25, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 26, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 29, eff. September 1, 2007.

Acts 2009, 81st Leg., R.S., Ch. 164, Sec. 2, eff. May 26, 2009.



Section  157.319.  Effect Of Lien Notice.

(a) If a person having actual notice of the lien possesses nonexempt personal property of the obligor that may be subject to the lien, the property may not be paid over, released, sold, transferred, encumbered, or conveyed unless:

(1)  a release of lien signed by the claimant is delivered to the person in possession; or

(2)  a court, after notice to the claimant and hearing, has ordered the release of the lien because arrearages do not exist.

(b)  A person having notice of a child support lien who violates this section may be joined as a party to a foreclosure action under this chapter and is subject to the penalties provided by this subchapter.

(c)  This section does not affect the validity or priority of a lien of a health care provider, a lien for attorney's fees, or a lien of a holder of a security interest. This section does not affect the assignment of rights or subrogation of a claim under Title XIX of the federal Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. Section 1396 et seq.), as amended.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 8, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 26, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 27, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.320.  Priority Of Lien As To Real Property.

(a) A lien created under this subchapter does not have priority over a lien or conveyance of an interest in the nonexempt real property recorded before the child support lien notice is recorded in the county where the real property is located.

(b)  A lien created under this subchapter has priority over any lien or conveyance of an interest in the nonexempt real property recorded after the child support lien notice is recorded in the county clerk's office in the county where the property of the obligor is located.

(c)  A conveyance of real property by the obligor after a lien notice has been recorded in the county where the real property is located is subject to the lien and may not impair the enforceability of the lien against the real property.

(d)  A lien created under this subchapter is subordinate to a vendor's lien retained in a conveyance to the obligor.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 27, eff. Sept. 1, 1997.



Section  157.321.  Discretionary Release Of Lien.

A child support lien claimant may at any time release a lien on all or part of the property of the obligor or return seized property, without liability, if assurance of payment is considered adequate by the claimant or if the release or return will facilitate the collection of the arrearages. The release or return may not operate to prevent future action to collect from the same or other property owned by the obligor.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 9, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 28, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 28, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.322.  Mandatory Release Of Lien.

(a) On payment in full of the amount of child support due, together with any costs and reasonable attorney's fees, the child support lien claimant shall execute and deliver to the obligor or the obligor's attorney a release of the child support lien.

(b)  The release of the child support lien is effective when:

(1)  filed with the county clerk with whom the lien notice or abstract of judgment was filed; or

(2)  delivered to any other individual or organization that may have been served with a lien notice under this subchapter.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 10, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 29, 97(a), eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 29, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.323.  Foreclosure Or Suit To Determine Arrearages.

(a) In addition to any other remedy provided by law, an action to foreclose a child support lien, to dispute the amount of arrearages stated in the lien, or to resolve issues of ownership interest with respect to property subject to a child support lien may be brought in:

(1)  the court in which the lien notice was filed under Section 157.314(b)(1);

(2)  the district court of the county in which the property is or was located and the lien was filed; or

(3)  the court of continuing jurisdiction.

(b)  The procedures provided by Subchapter B apply to a foreclosure action under this section, except that a person or organization in possession of the property of the obligor or known to have an ownership interest in property that is subject to the lien may be joined as an additional respondent.

(c)  If arrearages are owed by the obligor, the court shall:

(1)  render judgment against the obligor for the amount due, plus costs and reasonable attorney's fees;

(2)  order any official authorized to levy execution to satisfy the lien, costs, and attorney's fees by selling any property on which a lien is established under this subchapter; or

(3)  order an individual or organization in possession of nonexempt personal property or cash owned by the obligor to dispose of the property as the court may direct.

(d)  For execution and sale under this section, publication of notice is necessary only for three consecutive weeks in a newspaper published in the county where the property is located or, if there is no newspaper in that county, in the most convenient newspaper in circulation in the county.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 11, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 30, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 30, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section 157.324.  Liability For Failure To Comply With Order Or Lien.

A person who knowingly disposes of property subject to a child support lien or who, after a foreclosure hearing, fails to surrender on demand nonexempt personal property as directed by a court under this subchapter is liable to the claimant in an amount equal to the value of the property disposed of or not surrendered, not to exceed the amount of the child support arrearages for which the lien or foreclosure judgment was issued.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 12, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 31, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 31, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 30, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.325.  Release Of Excess Funds To Debtor Or Obligor.

(a) If a person has in the person's possession earnings, deposits, accounts, balances, or other funds or assets of the obligor, including the proceeds of a judgment or other settlement of a claim or counterclaim due to the obligor that are in excess of the amount of arrearages specified in the child support lien, the holder of the nonexempt personal property or the obligor may request that the claimant release any excess amount from the lien. The claimant shall grant the request and discharge any lien on the excess amount unless the security for the arrearages would be impaired.

(b)  If the claimant refuses the request, the holder of the personal property or the obligor may file suit under this subchapter for an order determining the amount of arrearages and discharging excess personal property or money from the lien.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 13, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 32, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 32, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.326.  Interest Of Obligor's Spouse Or Another Person Having Ownership Interest.

(a) A spouse of an obligor or another person having an ownership interest in property that is subject to a child support lien may file suit under Section 157.323 to determine the extent, if any, of the spouse's or other person's interest in real or personal property that is subject to:

(1)  a lien perfected under this subchapter; or

(2)  an action to foreclose under this subchapter.

(b)  After notice to the obligor, the obligor's spouse, any other person alleging an ownership interest, the claimant, and the obligee, the court shall conduct a hearing and determine the extent, if any, of the ownership interest in the property held by the obligor's spouse or other person. If the court finds that:

(1)  the property is the separate property of the obligor's spouse or the other person, the court shall order that the lien against the property be released and that any action to foreclose on the property be dismissed;

(2)  the property is jointly owned by the obligor and the obligor's spouse, the court shall determine whether the sale of the obligor's interest in the property would result in an unreasonable hardship on the obligor's spouse or family and:

(A)  if so, the court shall render an order that the obligor's interest in the property not be sold and that the lien against the property should be released; or

(B)  if not, the court shall render an order partitioning the property and directing that the property be sold and the proceeds applied to the child support arrearages; or

(3)  the property is owned in part by another person, other than the obligor's spouse, the court shall render an order partitioning the property and directing that the obligor's share of the property be applied to the child support arrearages.

(c)  In a proceeding under this section, the spouse or other person claiming an ownership interest in the property has the burden to prove the extent of that ownership interest.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 420, Sec. 14, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 911, Sec. 33, eff. Sept. 1, 1997; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 33, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.327.  Execution And Levy On Financial Assets Of Obligor.

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if a judgment or administrative determination of arrearages has been rendered, a claimant may deliver a notice of levy to any financial institution possessing or controlling assets or funds owned by, or owed to, an obligor and subject to a child support lien, including a lien for child support arising in another state.

(b)  The notice under this section must:

(1)  identify the amount of child support arrearages owing at the time the amount of arrearages was determined or, if the amount is less, the amount of arrearages owing at the time the notice is prepared and delivered to the financial institution; and

(2)  direct the financial institution to pay to the claimant, not earlier than the 15th day or later than the 21st day after the date of delivery of the notice, an amount from the assets of the obligor or from funds due to the obligor that are held or controlled by the institution, not to exceed the amount of the child support arrearages identified in the notice, unless:

(A)  the institution is notified by the claimant that the obligor has paid the arrearages or made arrangements satisfactory to the claimant for the payment of the arrearages;

(B)  the obligor or another person files a suit under Section 157.323 requesting a hearing by the court; or

(C)  if the claimant is the Title IV-D agency, the obligor has requested an agency review under Section 157.328.

(c)  A financial institution that receives a notice of levy under this section may not close an account in which the obligor has an ownership interest, permit a withdrawal from any account the obligor owns, in whole or in part, or pay funds to the obligor so that any amount remaining in the account is less than the amount of the arrearages identified in the notice, plus any fees due to the institution and any costs of the levy identified by the claimant.

(d)  A financial institution that receives a notice of levy under this section shall notify any other person having an ownership interest in an account in which the obligor has an ownership interest that the account has been levied on in an amount not to exceed the amount of the child support arrearages identified in the notice of levy.

(e)  The notice of levy may be delivered to a financial institution as provided by Section 59.008, Finance Code, if the institution is subject to that law or may be delivered to the registered agent, the institution's main business office in this state, or another address provided by the institution under Section 231.307.

(f)  A financial institution may deduct the fees and costs identified in Subsection (c) from the obligor's assets before paying the appropriate amount to the claimant.

Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 34, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 31, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.328.  Notice Of Levy Sent To Obligor.

(a) At the time the notice of levy under Section 157.327 is delivered to a financial institution, the claimant shall serve the obligor with a copy of the notice.

(b)  The notice of levy delivered to the obligor must inform the obligor that:

(1)  the claimant will not proceed with levy if, not later than the 10th day after the date of receipt of the notice, the obligor pays in full the amount of arrearages identified in the notice or otherwise makes arrangements acceptable to the claimant for the payment of the arrearage amounts; and

(2)  the obligor may contest the levy by filing suit under Section 157.323 not later than the 10th day after the date of receipt of the notice.

(c)  If the claimant is the Title IV-D agency, the obligor receiving a notice of levy may request review by the agency not later than the 10th day after the date of receipt of the notice to resolve any issue in dispute regarding the existence or amount of the arrearages. The agency shall provide an opportunity for a review, by telephone conference or in person, as appropriate to the circumstances, not later than the fifth business day after the date an oral or written request from the obligor for the review is received. If the review fails to resolve any issue in dispute, the obligor may file suit under Section 157.323 for a hearing by the court not later than the fifth day after the date of the conclusion of the agency review. If the obligor fails to timely file suit, the Title IV-D agency may request the financial institution to release and remit the funds subject to levy.

(d)  The notice under this section may be delivered to the last known address of the obligor by first class mail, certified mail, or registered mail.

Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 34, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section  157.329.  No Liability For Compliance With Notice Of Levy.

A financial institution that possesses or has a right to an obligor's assets for which a notice of levy has been delivered and that surrenders the assets or right to assets to a child support lien claimant is not liable to the obligor or any other person for the property or rights surrendered.

Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 34, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Section 157.330.  Failure To Comply With Notice Of Levy.

(a) A person who possesses or has a right to property that is the subject of a notice of levy delivered to the person and who refuses to surrender the property or right to property to the claimant on demand is liable to the claimant in an amount equal to the value of the property or right to property not surrendered but that does not exceed the amount of the child support arrearages for which the notice of levy has been filed.

(b)  A claimant may recover costs and reasonable attorney's fees incurred in an action under this section.

Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 34, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

Amended by:

Acts 2007, 80th Leg., R.S., Ch. 972, Sec. 32, eff. September 1, 2007.



Section  157.331.  Additional Levy To Satisfy Arrearages.

If the property or right to property on which a notice of levy has been filed does not produce money sufficient to satisfy the amount of child support arrearages identified in the notice of levy, the claimant may proceed to levy on other property of the obligor until the total amount of child support due is paid.

Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 1023, Sec. 34, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.



Subchapter H. Habeas Corpus

Section  157.371.  Jurisdiction.

(a) The relator may file a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in either the court of continuing, exclusive jurisdiction or in a court with jurisdiction to issue a writ of habeas corpus in the county in which the child is found.

(b)  Although a habeas corpus proceeding is not a suit affecting the parent-child relationship, the court may refer to the provisions of this title for definitions and procedures as appropriate.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.372.  Return Of Child. (a)

Subject to Chapter 152 and the Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (28 U.S.C. Section 1738A), if the right to possession of a child is governed by a court order, the court in a habeas corpus proceeding involving the right to possession of the child shall compel return of the child to the relator only if the court finds that the relator is entitled to possession under the order.

(b)  If the court finds that the previous order was granted by a court that did not give the contestants reasonable notice of the proceeding and an opportunity to be heard, the court may not render an order in the habeas corpus proceeding compelling return of the child on the basis of that order.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.373.  Relator Relinquished Possession; Temporary Orders.

(a) If the relator has by consent or acquiescence relinquished actual possession and control of the child for not less than 6 months preceding the date of the filing of the petition for the writ, the court may either compel or refuse to order return of the child.

(b)  The court may disregard brief periods of possession and control by the relator during the 6-month period.

(c)  In a suit in which the court does not compel return of the child, the court may issue temporary orders under Chapter 105 if a suit affecting the parent-child relationship is pending and the parties have received notice of a hearing on temporary orders set for the same time as the habeas corpus proceeding.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.374.  Welfare Of Child.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the court may render an appropriate temporary order if there is a serious immediate question concerning the welfare of the child.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.375.  Immunity To Civil Process.

(a) While in this state for the sole purpose of compelling the return of a child through a habeas corpus proceeding, the relator is not amenable to civil process and is not subject to the jurisdiction of any civil court except the court in which the writ is pending. The relator is subject to process and jurisdiction in that court only for the purpose of prosecuting the writ.

(b)  A request by the relator for costs, attorney's fees, and necessary travel and other expenses under Chapter 106 or 152 is not a waiver of immunity to civil process.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.376.  No Existing Order.

(a) If the right to possession of a child is not governed by an order, the court in a habeas corpus proceeding involving the right of possession of the child:

(1)  shall compel return of the child to the parent if the right of possession is between a parent and a nonparent and a suit affecting the parent-child relationship has not been filed; or

(2)  may either compel return of the child or issue temporary orders under Chapter 105 if a suit affecting the parent-child relationship is pending and the parties have received notice of a hearing on temporary orders set for the same time as the habeas corpus proceeding.

(b)  The court may not use a habeas corpus proceeding to adjudicate the right of possession of a child between two parents or between two or more nonparents.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Subchapter I. Clarification Of Orders

Section  157.421.  Clarifying Nonspecific Order.

(a) A court may clarify an order rendered by the court in a proceeding under this title if the court finds, on the motion of a party or on the court's own motion, that the order is not specific enough to be enforced by contempt.

(b)  The court shall clarify the order by rendering an order that is specific enough to be enforced by contempt.

(c)  A clarified order does not affect the finality of the order that it clarifies.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.422.  Procedure.

(a) The procedure for filing a motion for enforcement of a final order applies to a motion for clarification.

(b)  A person is not entitled to a jury in a proceeding under this subchapter.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.423.  Substantive Change Not Enforceable.

(a) A court may not change the substantive provisions of an order to be clarified under this subchapter.

(b)  A substantive change made by a clarification order is not enforceable.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.424.  Relation To Motion For Contempt.

The court may render a clarification order before a motion for contempt is made or heard, in conjunction with a motion for contempt, or after the denial of a motion for contempt.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.425.  Order Not Retroactive.

The court may not provide that a clarification order is retroactive for the purpose of enforcement by contempt.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.



Section  157.426.  Time Allowed To Comply.

(a) In a clarification order, the court shall provide a reasonable time for compliance.

(b)  The clarification order may be enforced by contempt after the time for compliance has expired.

Added by Acts 1995, 74th Leg., ch. 20, Sec. 1, eff. April 20, 1995.


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