Law:Stabilization Of International Wheat Market
From Law Delta
Sec.1641.Availability of wheat for export; utilization of funds and facilities; prices; authorization of appropriations.1642.Enforcement by President.
The President is authorized, acting through the Commodity Credit Corporation, to make available or cause to be made available, notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, such quantities of wheat and wheat-flour and at such prices as are necessary to exercise the rights, obtain the benefits, and fulfill the obligations of the United States under the International Wheat Agreement of 1949 signed by Australia, Canada, France, the United States, Uruguay, and certain wheat importing countries, along with the agreements signed by the United States and certain other countries revising and renewing such agreement of 1949 for periods through July 31, 1965 (hereinafter collectively called the “International Wheat Agreement”). Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to preclude the Secretary of Agriculture, in carrying out programs to encourage the exportation of agricultural commodities and products thereof pursuant to section 612c of this title, from utilizing funds available for such programs in such manner as, either separately or jointly with the Commodity Credit Corporation, to exercise the rights, obtain the benefits, and fulfill all or any part of the obligations of the United States under the International Wheat Agreement or to preclude the Commodity Credit Corporation in otherwise carrying out wheat and wheat-flour export programs as authorized by law. Nothing contained in this chapter shall limit the duty of the Commodity Credit Corporation to the maximum extent practicable consistent with the fulfillment of the Corporation's purposes and the effective and efficient conduct of its business to utilize the usual and customary channels, facilities, and arrangements of trade and commerce in making available or causing to be made available wheat and wheat-flour under this chapter. The pricing provisions of section 1510(e) 1 of title 22 and section 713a–9 of title 15, shall not be applicable to domestic wheat and wheat-flour supplied to countries which are parties to the International Wheat Agreement and credited to their guaranteed purchases thereunder on and after August 1, 1949, and up to and including June 30, 1950. Where prices in excess of the International Wheat Agreement prices have been paid for such wheat and wheat-flour financed by the Economic Cooperation Administration on or after August 1, 1949, and up to and including June 30, 1950, the Secretary of Agriculture or Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to reimburse the Economic Cooperation Administration for such excess amounts. Funds realized from such reimbursement shall revert to the respective appropriation or appropriations from which funds were expended for the procurement of such wheat and wheat-flour. There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to make payments to the Commodity Credit Corporation of its estimated or actual net costs of carrying out its functions hereunder. Such net costs in connection with the International Wheat Agreement, 1959, shall include those with respect to all transactions which qualify as commercial purchases (as defined in such agreement) from the United States by importing member countries. Such net costs in connection with the International Wheat Agreement, 1962, shall include those with respect to all transactions which qualify as commercial purchases (as defined in such agreement) from the United States by member and provisional member importing countries, including transactions entered into prior to the deposit of instruments of acceptance or accession by any of the countries involved, if the loading period is not earlier than the date the agreement enters into force. The Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized in carrying out its functions under this chapter to utilize, in advance of such appropriations or payments, any assets available to it.
(Oct. 27, 1949, ch. 772, §2, 63 Stat. 945; Aug. 1, 1953, ch. 306, §1, 67 Stat. 358; Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 911, §1, 70 Stat. 966; Pub. L. 86–336, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 600; Pub. L. 87–632, Sept. 5, 1962, 76 Stat. 434.)
References in Text
Section 1510 of title 22, referred to in text, was repealed by act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, §542(a), 68 Stat. 861.
1962—Pub. L. 87–632 extended authority of President to act under wheat agreements revising and renewing the Agreement of 1949 for periods through July 31, 1965, included within the net costs connected with the International Wheat Agreement of 1962, those with respect to commercial purchases from the United States by member and provisional member importing countries, including transactions entered into prior to deposit of instruments of acceptance or accession, if the loading period is not earlier than the date the agreement enters force.
1959—Pub. L. 86–336 authorized this chapter to be used to implement the 1959 agreement and provided that net costs in connection with the 1959 agreement include those with respect to all transactions which qualify as commercial purchases from the United States by importing member countries.
1956—Act Aug. 3, 1956, permitted this chapter to be used to implement the new agreement ratified on July 11, 1956.
1953—Act Aug. 1, 1953, permitted this chapter to be used to implement the new agreement ratified on July 14, 1953.
Section 1 of act Oct. 27, 1949, provided that: “This Act (enacting this chapter) shall be known as the ‘International Wheat Agreement Act of 1949’.”
Transfer of Functions
Economic Cooperation Administration abolished by act Oct. 10, 1951, ch. 479, 65 Stat. 373. Its functions are exercised by Agency for International Development. See section 2381 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.
Exceptions From Transfer of Functions
Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.
References to International Wheat Agreement of 1949
Section 2 of act Aug. 3, 1956, provided that: “Reference in any law to the International Wheat Agreement of 1949 shall be deemed to include the Agreement (International Wheat Agreement, 1956) revising and renewing the International Wheat Agreement for a period ending July 31, 1959.”
Section 2 of act Aug. 1, 1953, provided that: “Reference in any law to the International Wheat Agreement of 1949 shall be deemed to include the agreement revising and renewing the International Wheat Agreement.”
1 See References in Text note below.
§1642. Enforcement by President
(a) Rules or regulations
The President is further authorized to take such other action, including prohibiting or restricting the importation or exportation of wheat or wheat-flour and to issue such rules or regulations which shall have the force and effect of law, as may be necessary in his judgment in the implementation of the International Wheat Agreement.
(b) Reports; keeping and examination of books and records
All persons exporting or importing wheat or wheat-flour or selling wheat or wheat-flour for export shall report to the President such information as he may from time to time require and keep such records as he finds to be necessary to enable him to carry out the purposes of this chapter. Such information shall be reported and such records shall be kept in accordance with such regulations as the President may prescribe. For the purposes of ascertaining the correctness of any report made or record kept, or of obtaining information required to be furnished in any report, but not so furnished, the President is authorized to examine such books, papers, records, accounts, correspondence, contracts, documents, and memoranda as are relevant to transactions under the International Wheat Agreement and are within the control of any such person.
(c) Penalty for violation
Any person failing to make any report or keep any record as required by or pursuant to this section, or making any false report or record or knowingly violating any rule or regulation of the President issued pursuant to this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000 for each violation.
(d) Forfeiture for excessive exports or imports
Any person who knowingly and willfully exports wheat or wheat-flour from the United States, or who knowingly and willfully imports wheat or wheat-flour into the United States for consumption therein, in excess of the quantity of wheat or wheat-flour permitted to be exported or imported, as the case may be, under regulations issued by the President shall forfeit to the United States a sum equal to two times the market value at the time of the commission of any such act, of the quantity of wheat or wheat-flour by which any such exportation or importation exceeds the authorized amount which forfeiture shall be recoverable in a civil suit brought in the name of the United States.
(e) Jurisdiction and venue of actions; remedies, fines, and forfeitures as additional
The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction of violations of this chapter or the rules and regulations thereunder, and of all suits in equity and actions at law brought to enforce any liability or duty created by this chapter or the rules and regulations thereunder. Any criminal proceeding may be brought in the district wherein any act or transaction constituting the violation occurred. Any suit or action to enforce any liability or duty created by this chapter or rules and regulations thereunder, or to enjoin any violation of such chapter or rules and regulations, may be brought in any such district wherein the defendant is found or is a resident or transacts business. The remedies, fines, and forfeitures provided for in this chapter shall be in addition to, and not exclusive of, any of the remedies, fines, and forfeitures under existing law.
Any power, authority, or discretion conferred on the President by this chapter may be exercised through such department, agency, or officer of the Government as the President may direct, and shall be exercised in conformity with such rules or regulations as he may prescribe.
(g) Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section, including the necessary expenses and contributions of the United States in connection with the administration of the International Wheat Agreement.
(h) Use of funds
Funds appropriated under authority of this chapter may be used for the purchase or hire of passenger motor vehicles, for printing and binding, for rent and personal services in the District of Columbia and elsewhere without regard to the limitation contained in section 607(g) of the Federal Employees Pay Act of 1945, as amended (5 U.S.C. 947(g)),1 and for the employment of experts or consultants or organization thereof, on a temporary basis, by contract or otherwise, without regard to chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, at rates not in excess of $50 per diem.
(i) Exclusion from Administrative Procedure Act
The functions exercised under authority of this chapter shall be excluded from the operation of the Administrative Procedure Act (60 Stat. 237) except as to the requirements of sections 3 and 10 thereof.
(j) “Person” defined
The term “person” as used in this section shall include the singular and the plural and any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or any other organized group of persons.
(Oct. 27, 1949, ch. 772, §3, 63 Stat. 946; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title II, §202(27), title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 956, 972.)
References in Text
Section 607(g) of the Federal Employees Pay Act of 1945, as amended, referred to in subsec. (h), was repealed by act Sept. 12, 1950, ch. 946, title III, §301 (85), 64 Stat. 843.
The Administrative Procedure Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is act June 11, 1946, ch. 324, 60 Stat. 237, as amended, which was repealed and reenacted as subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378, which enacted Title 5. Sections 3 and 10 thereof are covered by section 552 and chapter 7, respectively, of Title 5.
The words “and the District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia” in subsection (e) following “district courts of the United States” have been deleted as superfluous in view of section 132 (a) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, which states that “There shall be in each judicial district a district court which shall be a court of record known as the United States District Court for the district”, and section 88 of said Title 28 which states that “The District of Columbia constitutes one judicial district”.
In subsec. (h), “chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5” was substituted for “the Classification Act of 1949” on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
1949—Subsec. (h). Act Oct. 28, 1949, substituted “Classification Act of 1949” for “Classification Act (of 1923)”.
Act Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed (subject to a savings clause) by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8, 80 Stat. 632, 655.
Executive Order No. 11108
Ex. Ord. No. 11108, May 22, 1963, 28 F.R. 5185, which delegated to Secretary of Agriculture authority of President under this chapter, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.