Law:Rubber And Other Critical Agricultural Materials

From Law Delta

Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.171.Program for development of guayule and other rubber-bearing plants.172.Authorization of Secretary to appoint employees; delegation of powers; cooperation with other agencies; allotment of funds; leases of facilities and disposal of water.173.Authorization of appropriations.174.Omitted.175.Lease or sublease of unsuitable lands; disposal of water supply.176.Sale of guayule shrub to Reconstruction Finance Corporation.


SUBCHAPTER II—CRITICAL AGRICULTURAL MATERIALS

178.Congressional findings and declaration of policy.178a.Definitions.178b.Joint Commission on Research and Development of Critical Agricultural Materials.178c.Research and development program by Secretary of Agriculture.178d.Research and development program by Secretary of Commerce.178e.Cooperative projects with Mexico, Australia, and Israel.178f.Assistance from States and public agencies; contracts and agreements.178g.Powers of Secretary of Agriculture.178h.Powers of Secretary of Commerce.178i.Coordination of activities with Federal agencies.178j.Laws governing inventions under this subchapter.178k.Disposition of byproducts and strategic and industrially important products.178l.Rules and regulations.178m.Report to President and Congress.178n.Administration and funding.


SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§171. Program for development of guayule and other rubber-bearing plants

The Secretary of Agriculture (hereinafter called the “Secretary”) is authorized—

(1) To acquire by purchase, license, or other agreement, the right to operate under processes or patents relating to the growing and harvesting of guayule or the extraction of rubber therefrom, and such properties, processes, records, and data as are necessary to such operation, including but not limited to any such rights owned or controlled by the Intercontinental Rubber Company, or any of its subsidiaries, and all equipment, materials, structures, factories, real property, seed, seedlings, growing shrub, and other facilities, patents and processes of the Intercontinental Rubber Company, or any of its subsidiaries, located in California, and for such rights, properties, and facilities of the Intercontinental Rubber Company or any of its subsidiaries, the Secretary is authorized to pay not to exceed $2,000,000;

(2) To plant, or contract for the planting of, not in excess of five hundred thousand acres of guayule in areas in the Western Hemisphere where the best growth and yields may be expected in order to maintain a nucleus planting of guayule to serve as a domestic source of crude rubber as well as of planting material for use in further expanding guayule planting to meet emergency needs of the United States for crude rubber; to establish and maintain nurseries to provide seedlings for field plants; and to purchase necessary equipment, facilities, land for nurseries and administrative sites and water rights;

(3) To acquire by lease, or other agreement, for not exceeding ten years, rights to land for the purpose of making plantings of guayule; to acquire water rights; to erect necessary buildings on leased land where suitable land cannot be purchased; to make surveys, directly or through appropriate Government agencies, of areas in the Western Hemisphere where guayule might be grown; and to establish and maintain records indicating areas to which guayule cultivation could be extended for emergency production;

(4) To construct or operate, or to contract for the operation of, factories for the extraction of rubber from guayule, and from Chrysothamnus, commonly known as rabbit brush; to purchase guayule shrub; and to purchase, operate, and maintain equipment for the harvesting, storing, transporting, and complete processing of guayule, and Chrysothamnus, commonly known as rabbit brush, and to purchase land as sites for processing plants;

(5) To conduct studies, in which he may cooperate with any other public or private agency, designed to increase the yield of guayule by breeding or by selection, and to improve planting methods; to make surveys of areas suitable for cultivating guayule; to make experimental plantings; and to conduct agronomic tests;

(6) To conduct tests, in which he may cooperate with any other public or private agency, to determine the qualities of rubber obtained from guayule and to determine the most favorable methods of compounding and using guayule in rubber manufacturing processes;

(7) To improve methods of processing guayule shrubs and rubber and to obtain and hold patents on such new processes;

(8) To sell guayule or rubber processed from guayule and to use funds so obtained in replanting and maintaining an area not in excess of five hundred thousand acres of guayule inside the Western Hemisphere; and

(9) To exercise with respect to rubber-bearing plants other than guayule the same powers as are granted in the foregoing provisions of this section with respect to guayule.

(Mar. 5, 1942, ch. 140, §1, 56 Stat. 126; Oct. 20, 1942, ch. 617, §§1–4, 56 Stat. 796, 797.)


Amendments

1942—Par. (2). Act Oct. 20, 1942, §1, increased acreage from 75,000 to 500,000 and inserted reference to land for administrative sites and water rights.

Par. (3). Act Oct. 20, 1942, §2, inserted “to acquire water rights; to erect necessary buildings on leased land where suitable land cannot be purchased;”.

Par. (4). Act Oct. 20, 1942, §3, inserted “to purchase guayule shrub;”.

Par. (8). Act Oct. 20, 1942, §4, substituted “not in excess of five hundred” for “of seventy-five”.


Additional Acreage Authorized

Act Oct. 26, 1942, ch. 629, title II, 56 Stat. 1002, provided that: “The Secretary of Agriculture, in connection with the appropriations herein and heretofore made for such project, is authorized to plant, or contract for the planting of, not to exceed twenty-five thousand acres of guayule in areas in the Western Hemisphere in addition to the acreage permitted under the provisions of paragraph (1), section 1 of the act of March 5, 1942 (Public Law 473) (par. (1) of this section).”


§172. Authorization of Secretary to appoint employees; delegation of powers; cooperation with other agencies; allotment of funds; leases of facilities and disposal of water

(a) The Secretary is authorized to appoint such employees, including citizens of other countries, as may be necessary for carrying out the provisions of sections 171 to 173 of this title. Such appointments may be made without regard to the provisions of the civil-service laws. (Sections 321, 322, 324, and 325a of title 40 1 shall not apply to any nursery, planting, cultivating or harvesting operations conducted pursuant to sections 171 to 173 of this title.) All appointments so made by the Secretary shall be made only on the basis of merit and efficiency.

(b) The Secretary may delegate any of the powers and duties conferred on him by sections 171 to 173 of this title to any agency or bureau of the Department of Agriculture.

(c) The Secretary, with the consent of any board, commission, independent establishment, corporation, or executive department of the Government, including any field service thereof, may avail himself of the use of information, services, facilities, officers and employees thereof, in carrying out the provisions of sections 171 to 173 of this title.

(d) The Secretary may allot to bureaus and offices of the Department of Agriculture, or may transfer to such other agencies of the State and Federal Governments as may be requested by him to assist in carrying out sections 171 to 173 of this title, any funds made available to him under said sections.

(e) In carrying out the provisions of sections 171 to 173 of this title the Secretary shall have all of the authority conferred upon him by section 502 of title 16.

(f) The Secretary may lease at reasonable rentals structures erected by the Government with essential facilities for such periods as such structures and facilities are not required for the purposes of sections 171 to 173 of this title; and any part of land or structures with essential facilities acquired by lease, deed, or other agreement pursuant to said sections, which are not required or suitable for the purposes of said sections during the period the United States is entitled to possession thereof may be leased or subleased at a reasonable rental; and any surplus water controlled by the United States on land owned or leased by the United States for the purposes of said sections may be disposed of at reasonable rates.

(Mar. 5, 1942, ch. 140, §2, 56 Stat. 127; Oct. 20, 1942, ch. 617, §§5–7, 56 Stat. 797.)


References in Text

Sections 321, 322, 324, and 325a of title 40, referred to in subsec. (a), mean sections 321, 322, 324, and 325a of former title 40 which were repealed by Pub. L. 87–581, title II, §203, Aug. 13, 1962, 76 Stat. 360. See sections 3702, 3703, and 3708 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.


Codification

In the second sentence of subsec. (a), the words “and the compensation of the persons so appointed may be fixed without regard to the provisions of the Classification Act of 1923, as amended” were omitted as obsolete. Sections 1202 and 1204 of the Classification Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 972, 973, repealed the 1923 Act and all laws or parts of laws inconsistent with the 1949 Act. While section 1106(a) of the 1949 Act provided that references in other laws to the 1923 Act should be held and considered to mean the 1949 Act, it did not have the effect of continuing the exceptions contained in this subsection because of section 1106(b) which provided that the application of the 1949 Act of any position, officer, or employee shall not be affected by section 1106(a). The Classification Act of 1949 was repealed by Act Sept. 6, 1966, Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), 80 Stat. 632 (of which section 1 revised and enacted Title 5, U.S.C., into law). Section 5102 of Title 5 contains the applicability provisions of the 1949 Act, and section 5103 of Title 5 authorizes the Office of Personnel Management to determine the applicability to specific positions and employees.


Amendments

1942—Subsec. (a). Act Oct. 20, 1942, §§5, 7, substituted “other countries” for “countries in the Western Hemisphere” and inserted sentence relating to inapplicability of certain sections of title 40.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Act Oct. 20, 1942, §6, added subsecs. (e) and (f).


Transfer of Functions

Functions of all officers, agencies, and employees of Department of Agriculture transferred, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.


§173. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such amounts as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of sections 171 to 173 of this title. Any amounts so appropriated, and any funds received by the Secretary under said sections, shall remain permanently available for the purposes of said sections without regard to the provisions of any other laws relating to the availability and disposition of appropriated funds and the disposition of funds collected by officers or agencies of the United States.

(Mar. 5, 1942, ch. 140, §3, 56 Stat. 128.)


§174. Omitted

Codification

Section was from the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1946, act July 5, 1945, ch. 271, title I, 59 Stat. 423, provided for the disposition of proceeds from the sale of guayule and other rubber-bearing plants, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in prior appropriation acts as follows:

May 5, 1945, ch. 109, 59 Stat. 152.

June 28, 1944, ch. 296, 58 Stat. 447.

July 12, 1943, ch. 215, 57 Stat. 415.

July 2, 1942, ch. 476, title I, 56 Stat. 597.

Apr. 28, 1942, ch. 247, title III, 56 Stat. 240.


§175. Lease or sublease of unsuitable lands; disposal of water supply

Subject to conditions prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, any part of the land acquired by lease, deed, or other agreement pursuant to sections 171 to 173 of this title, which is not required or suitable for the purposes of said sections may be leased or subleased at a reasonable rental during the period the United States is entitled to possession thereof; and any surplus water supplies controlled by the United States on such land may be disposed of at reasonable rates.

(July 2, 1942, ch. 476, title I, 56 Stat. 597.)


§176. Sale of guayule shrub to Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Guayule shrub may be sold to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation at a price reflecting the net realization from the sale of the rubber recovered from such shrub in mills operated by said Corporation after deducting the cost of milling and amortization of the cost of mills constructed for the purpose by said Corporation.

(June 30, 1945, ch. 215, §1, 59 Stat. 310; July 5, 1945, ch. 271, title I, 59 Stat. 423.)


Transfer of Functions

Rubber Reserve Company dissolved and functions transferred to Reconstruction Finance Corporation by Joint Res. June 30, 1945, eff. July 1, 1945.


Abolition of Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Section 6(a) of 1957 Reorg. Plan No. 1, eff. June 30, 1957, 22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 649, set out as a note under section 601 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, abolished Reconstruction Finance Corporation.


SUBCHAPTER II—CRITICAL AGRICULTURAL MATERIALS

§178. Congressional findings and declaration of policy

(a)(1) Congress recognizes that natural latex rubber is a commodity of vital importance to the economy, the defense, and the general well-being of the Nation. The United States is totally dependent upon foreign sources for its supplies of natural (Hevea) latex, which total about one million tons per year. Synthetic rubber, manufactured from petroleum feedstocks, cannot be substituted for natural rubber.

(2) Congress further recognizes that certain plant species of the genus Parthenium (Guayule), native to Texas and the Republic of Mexico, as well as other plants, are known to contain commercial quantities of extractable rubber. During World War II, through research carried out by the Secretary of Agriculture in the Emergency Rubber Project, the United States demonstrated that Parthenium latex is a promising and realistic substitute for Hevea latex.

(3) Congress further recognizes that additional research and development are needed, especially into methods for increasing latex yields, before commercialization of native Parthenium latex or other hydrocarbon-containing plants by private industry is feasible.

(4) Congress further recognizes that the development of a domestic natural rubber industry, based on Parthenium and other hydrocarbon-containing plants, would not only relieve the Nation's dependence upon foreign latex sources but also convey substantial economic benefits to people living in arid and semiarid regions of the United States. Such an industry would comprise the agricultural production of the hydrocarbon-containing plants and the development of commercial processing and manufacturing facilities to extract the latex and other products.

(5) Congress further recognizes that ongoing research into the development and commercialization of native latex has been conducted by the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the National Science Foundation, and other public as well as private and industrial research groups, and that these research efforts should be continued and expanded.

(b) In addition, Congress recognizes that the development of a domestic industry or industries for the production and manufacture from native agricultural crops of products other than rubber which are of strategic and industrial importance but for which the Nation is now dependent upon foreign sources, would benefit the economy, the defense, and the general well-being of the Nation, and that additional research efforts in this area should be undertaken or continued and expanded.

(c) It is therefore the policy of the United States to provide for the development and demonstration of economically feasible means of culturing and manufacturing Parthenium and other hydrocarbon-containing plants, along with other native agricultural crops, for the production of critical agricultural materials to benefit the Nation and promote economic development.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §2, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2529; Pub. L. 98–284, §2, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 181.)


Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–284, §2(1), redesignated existing provisions of subsec. (a) as par. (1).

Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 98–284, §2(2), redesignated subsecs. (b), (c), and (d) as pars. (2), (3), and (4), respectively, of subsec. (a).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 98–284, §2(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (e) as par. (5) of subsec. (a), and in par. (5), as so redesignated, substituted “development and commercialization of native latex has been conducted by the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the National Science Foundation, and other public as well as private and industrial research groups,” for “commercialization of native latex has been conducted by the Department of Agriculture and by the Department of Commerce through the regional commissions”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–284, §2(4), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (a)(2).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–284, §2(4), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (a)(3).

Subsecs. (d) and (e). Pub. L. 98–284, §2(2), redesignated subsecs. (d) and (e) as (a)(4) and (a)(5), respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–284, §2(4), struck out subsec. (f) which provided: “It is the policy of the Congress, therefore, to provide for the development and demonstration of economically feasible means of culturing and manufacturing Parthenium and other hydrocarbon-containing plants for the extraction of natural rubber and other products to benefit the Nation and promote economic development”. See subsec. (c).


Short Title

Section 1 of Pub. L. 95–592, as amended by Pub. L. 98–284, §1, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 181, provided: “That this Act (enacting this subchapter and amending section 1314f of this title) may be cited as the ‘Critical Agricultural Materials Act’.” As originally enacted Pub. L. 95–592 had been cited as the “Native Latex Commercialization and Economic Development Act of 1978”.


§178a. Definitions

As used in this subchapter—

(a) The term “State” means each of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(b) The term “Secretaries” means the Secretary of Agriculture and/or the Secretary of Commerce acting each separately or jointly.

(c) The term “commercialization” means the stage in the development or advancement of a technology at which point private enterprise is willing to invest in a full-scale production facility.

(d) The term “native” means hydrocarbon-containing plants and other agricultural crops of strategic and industrial importance which may be cultured in North America, especially plants which are members of the genus Parthenium known as Guayule.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §3, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2529; Pub. L. 98–284, §3, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 181.)


Amendments

1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–284, §3(a), inserted “and other agricultural crops of strategic and industrial importance” and “plants which are”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–284, §3(b), struck out subsec. (e) which defined “Regional Commissions” as the Regional Action Planning Commissions established pursuant to title V of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965.


§178b. Joint Commission on Research and Development of Critical Agricultural Materials

(a) Establishment; function

There is established a Joint Commission on Research and Development of Critical Agricultural Materials, hereinafter referred to as the Joint Commission. The function of the Joint Commission shall be to assist the Secretaries in carrying out the purposes of this subchapter.


(b) Membership

The Joint Commission shall consist of the following members: Three individuals designated by the Secretary of Agriculture from among the staff of the Department of Agriculture; three individuals designated by the Secretary of Commerce from among the staff of the Department of Commerce; a representative of the Bureau of Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior; a representative of the National Science Foundation; a representative of the Department of State; a representative of the Department of Defense; and a representative of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Each of the members of the Joint Commission shall be an individual who, on behalf of the Department or agency which such individual represents, is engaged in the support of research, development, demonstration, and commercialization activities involving native latex and the production of other critical agricultural materials from native agricultural crops.


(c) Chairman

The Joint Commission shall be headed by a Chairman who shall be selected by the Secretary of Agriculture from among the three individuals designated by the Secretary as members under subsection (b) of this section.


(d) Delegation of responsibilities to Joint Commission; transfer and use of appropriated funds

The Secretaries may delegate to the Joint Commission one or more of their responsibilities under this subchapter, and transfer to the Joint Commission funds appropriated to carry out the purposes of this subchapter as they deem appropriate to achieve the purposes of this subchapter, and the Joint Commission is authorized to carry out such functions and expend such funds to achieve the purposes of the subchapter.


(e) Duties

The Joint Commission shall—

(1) develop a plan establishing goals, timetables, and tasks to be undertaken in carrying out the purposes of this subchapter;

(2) establish broad policy for implementing the plan carrying out the purposes of this subchapter;

(3) establish criteria for evaluating and awarding contracts for research, development, and demonstration projects; and

(4) review and advise the Secretaries with respect to grants, contracts, and other project expenditures.


(f) Administrative support services

The Secretaries are authorized to provide without reimbursement such administrative support services, including the detail of staff personnel not to exceed a total of five persons from each Department, as the Joint Commission may need to carry out its functions.


(g) Advice of scientific, engineering and business communities

To the maximum extent possible, the Secretaries and the Joint Commission shall seek the advice of the scientific, engineering and business communities with respect to the activities carried out under this subchapter. The Secretaries and the Commission shall specifically seek the advice of persons with expertise in appropriate fields of agricultural research in land grant colleges and other universities, in State agricultural experiment stations, and in other appropriate organizations; and, persons with expertise in manufacturing and commerce involving rubber and other critical agricultural materials in private enterprise and other appropriate organizations.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §4, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2530; Pub. L. 98–284, §4, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 181; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §881(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1175.)


Amendments

1996—Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 104–127 redesignated subsec. (h) as (g), and struck out former subsec. (g) which read as follows: “One year after November 4, 1978, and each year thereafter, the Joint Commission shall provide to the Congress a report on the implementation of the subchapter. Such report shall (1) recommend specific directions for further research, development, and other work, and (2) recommend funding levels for various elements of the overall project.”

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–284, §4(a), substituted “Research and Development of Critical Agricultural Materials” for “Guayule Research and Commercialization”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–284, §4(b), struck out provision mandating that two of the designees of the Secretary of Commerce be Federal Cochairmen of Regional Commissions engaged in the support of native latex research, development, demonstration, or commercialization activities, inserted provisions for the appointment of a representative of the Department of State, a representative of the Department of Defense, and a representative of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and inserted provisions that each of the members of the Joint Commission be an individual who, on behalf of the Department or agency which such individual represents, is engaged in the support of research, development, demonstration, and commercialization activities involving native latex and the production of other critical agricultural materials from native agricultural crops.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–284, §4(c), substituted “The Joint Commission shall be headed by a Chairman who shall be selected by the Secretary of Agriculture from among the three individuals designated by the Secretary as members under subsection (b) of this section” for “The Joint Commission shall be headed by a Chairman. The Secretary of Agriculture shall designate one of the two members from his Department to serve as Joint Commission Chairman during the first two-year period following November 4, 1978, and the Secretary of Commerce shall designate one of the two members from his Department as Joint Commission Chairman during the second two-year period following November 4, 1978. And the same process of designating Joint Commission Chairmen shall be followed in ensuing years”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–284, §4(d), substituted “manufacturing and commerce involving rubber and other critical agricultural materials” for “rubber manufacturing and commerce”.


Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.


§178c. Research and development program by Secretary of Agriculture

(a) Designation of Department as lead agency

The Department of Agriculture shall be the lead agency in carrying out this subchapter.


(b) Scope of program

The Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct, sponsor, promote, and coordinate basic and applied research, technology development, and technology transfer leading to effective and economical methods for large-scale culturing of plantations and the extraction of latex from Parthenium or other hydrocarbon-containing plants, and for the development of other critical agricultural materials from native agricultural crops having strategic and industrial importance. Such research shall include, but not be limited to—

(1) carrying out extensive seed collections from wild plants in Texas, Mexico, and other areas and borrowing or purchasing seeds from other sources;

(2) developing a stockpile of Parthenium seeds, such stockpile to be appropriately classified and stored at a suitable facility;

(3) accelerating present plant breeding, genetics, and selection programs for the purpose of improving and increasing latex yields, expanding insect and disease resistance, broadening the ranges of drought and cold resistance of the Parthenium plant, and providing a system of regional research trials for enhancing and increasing the supply of foundation seed for certified seed production;

(4) establishing a system of large-scale experimental plantings (aggregating ten thousand acres or more) to provide shrub for feedstock to process in the developmental rubber processing facility described in paragraph (7);

(5) carrying out specific studies on the effects of irrigation on plant growth and latex yield and survival potential;

(6) developing equipment needed to carry out nursery operations, planting, cultivating, harvesting, transporting the crop, and other necessary agricultural activities;

(7) accelerating the refinement of present extraction and processing technologies and future extraction technologies, including the development and construction of a developmental rubber processing facility for the extraction and production of test quantities of guayule natural rubber;

(8) establishing and maintaining a bank of all pertinent research data on native latex including extant United States Government publications and records from the emergency rubber project. Such data shall be made available to other Federal and State agencies and private persons who are interested or involved in native latex research, development, or manufacture; and

(9) studying the economic feasibility of developing other native agricultural crops (in addition to Parthenium and other hydrocarbon-containing plants) that would supply critical agricultural materials for strategic and industrial purposes, carrying out demonstration projects to promote the development or commercialization of such crops (including projects designed to expand domestic or foreign markets for such crops), and, to the extent appropriate, carrying out research activities with respect to such crops in the manner specified in paragraphs (1) through (8).


(c) Office of Critical Agricultural Materials

The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish within the Department of Agriculture an Office of Critical Agricultural Materials, as a central location where such Department can address research and development with respect to agricultural crops that have the potential of producing critical materials for strategic and industrial purposes.


(d) Authority of Secretary in carrying out demonstration project

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in carrying out a demonstration project referred to in subsection (b)(9) of this section, the Secretary may—

(1) enter into a contract or cooperative agreement with, or provide a grant to, any person, or public or private agency or organization, to participate in, carry out, support, or stimulate such project;

(2) make available for purposes of clause (1) agricultural commodities or the products thereof acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation under price support operations conducted by the Corporation; or

(3) use any funds appropriated pursuant to section 178n(a) of this title, or any funds provided by any person, or public or private agency or organization, to carry out such project or reimburse the Commodity Credit Corporation for agricultural commodities or products that are utilized in connection with such project.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §5, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2531; Pub. L. 98–284, §5, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 182; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1439, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1559; Pub. L. 102–237, title X, §1005(1), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1894.)


Amendments

1991—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 102–237 substituted “industrial purposes,” for “industrial purposes,,”.

1985—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 99–198, §1439(a), extended research program to carrying out demonstration projects to promote the development or commercialization of native agricultural crops, including projects designed to expand domestic or foreign markets for such crops.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–198, §1439(b), added subsec. (d).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(1), added subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(1), designated existing provisions as subsec. (b) and in first sentence of subsec. (b) as so designated inserted provision relating to development of other critical agricultural materials from native agricultural crops having strategic and industrial importance.

Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(2), redesignated cls. (a) and (b) as pars. (1) and (2) of subsec. (b).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(2), (3), redesignated cl. (c) as par. (3) of subsec. (b) and substituted “accelerating present plant breeding, genetics, and selection programs for the purpose of improving and increasing latex yields, expanding insect and disease resistance, broadening the ranges of drought and cold resistance of the Parthenium plant, and providing a system of regional research trials for enhancing and increasing the supply of foundation seed for certified seed production” for “carrying out breeding and selection programs for the purpose of improving latex yields, expanding insect and disease resistance, and broadening the ranges of drought and cold tolerance of the Parthenium plant”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(2), (4), redesignated cl. (d) as par. (4) of subsec. (b) and substituted “establishing a system of large-scale experimental plantings (aggregating ten thousand acres or more) to provide shrub for feedstock to process in the developmental rubber processing facility described in paragraph (7)” for “establishing a system of experimental plantings in arid and semiarid regions of the United States having suitable climatic and soil conditions for the culture of Parthenium”.

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(2), redesignated cls. (e) and (f) as pars. (5) and (6), respectively, of subsec. (b).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(2), (5), redesignated cl. (g) as par. (7) of subsec. (b) and substituted “accelerating the refinement of present extraction and processing technologies and future extraction technologies, including the development and construction of a developmental rubber processing facility for the extraction and production of test quantities of guayule natural rubber;” for “further refining present extraction technologies and future extraction technologies, including technologies which utilize solar energy; and”.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(2), redesignated cl. (h) as par. (8) of subsec. (b).

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(7), added par. (9).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–284, §5(8), added subsec. (c).


§178d. Research and development program by Secretary of Commerce

The Secretary of Commerce is authorized and directed to initiate and carry out research, technology development, technology transfer, and demonstration projects to test and demonstrate the economic feasibility of the manufacture and commercialization of natural rubber from Parthenium or other hydrocarbon-containing plants or the manufacture and commercialization of other critical agricultural materials from native agricultural crops having strategic and industrial importance. Such research shall include but not be limited to—

(a) conducting research and development on extraction and processing techniques;

(b) economic analysis of the production of native latex, including usable byproducts;

(c) studying the environmental, social, and economic impacts of the commercial development of native latex;

(d) evaluating the commercial marketability of Parthenium and rubber derived from other hydrocarbon-containing plants;

(e) further refining present extraction and manufacturing technologies and future extraction and manufacturing technologies, including technologies which utilize solar energy;

(f) developing pertinent material and records on manufacturing of natural rubber which shall be available to other Federal and State agencies and private persons who are interested in or involved in natural rubber development, or manufacture; and

(g) to the extent appropriate, carrying out research activities with respect to native agricultural crops (other than Parthenium and other hydrocarbon-containing plants) that would supply critical agricultural materials for strategic and industrial purposes, in the manner specified in clauses (a) through (f).

(Pub. L. 95–592, §6, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2531; Pub. L. 98–284, §6, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 183.)


Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–284, §6(1), (2), inserted in provisions preceding cl. (a) reference to the manufacture and commercialization of other critical agricultural materials from native agricultural crops having strategic and industrial importance, and struck out “may be carried out through the Regional Commissions or otherwise and” after “Such research”.

Cl. (g). Pub. L. 98–284, §6(5), added cl. (g).


§178e. Cooperative projects with Mexico, Australia, and Israel

The Secretaries, in consultation with the Secretary of State, are authorized and encouraged to enter into cooperative projects with the Government of Mexico, the Government of Australia, and the Government of Israel in order to accomplish appropriate aspects of the research and development provided for in this subchapter. Such cooperative projects should include, but not be limited to, projects to determine the economic feasibility of extraction and processing of latex and other critical agricultural materials produced in the United States.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §7, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2532; Pub. L. 98–284, §7, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 183.)


Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–284 inserted “, the Government of Australia, and the Government of Israel”, and substituted “extraction and processing of latex and other critical agricultural materials produced in the United States” for “latex extraction and processing”.


§178f. Assistance from States and public agencies; contracts and agreements

The Secretaries are authorized to accept financial or other assistance from any State or public agency to aid in carrying out the provisions of this subchapter and to enter into contracts with respect to such assistance and to enter into agreements with any State or public agency for the purpose of demonstrating, transferring, or applying results of research or methods of economic development relating to native latex or to other critical agricultural materials.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §8, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2532; Pub. L. 98–284, §8, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 183.)


Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–284 inserted “or to other critical agricultural materials”.


§178g. Powers of Secretary of Agriculture

In carrying out the provisions of this subchapter, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to—

(a) make grants to States, education institutions, scientific organizations, and Indian tribes as defined in the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (Public Law 93–638, 25 U.S.C. 450), and enter into contracts with such institutions and organizations and with industrial or engineering firms;

(b) acquire the services of biologists, agronomists, foresters, geneticists, chemists, engineers, economists, and other personnel by contract or otherwise;

(c) utilize the facilities of Federal and State scientific laboratories;

(d) establish and operate necessary facilities and plantations to carry out the continuous research, testing, development, and programing necessary to effectuate the purposes of this subchapter;

(e) acquire secret processes, technical data, inventions, patent applications, patents, licenses, land and interest in land (including water rights), facilities, and other property or rights by purchase, license, lease, or donation;

(f) assemble and maintain pertinent and current literature and publications, patents and licenses, land and interests in land;

(g) cause onsite inspections to be made of promising projects, domestic or foreign, and, in the case of projects located in the United States, cooperate and participate in their development when the Secretary determines that the purpose of this subchapter will be served thereby;

(h) foster and participate in regional, national, and international conferences relating to native latex culture or the culture of other native agricultural crops which could supply critical agricultural materials;

(i) coordinate, correlate, and publish information with a view to advancing the development of native latex technology or the technology of other native agricultural crops which could supply critical agricultural materials; and

(j) cooperate with other Federal departments and agencies, with State and local departments, agencies, and instrumentalities, and with interested persons, firms, institutions, and organizations.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §9, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2532; Pub. L. 98–284, §9, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 183.)


References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (Public Law 93–638, 25 U.S.C. 450), as amended, referred to in cl. (a), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 450 of Title 25 and Tables.


Amendments

1984—Cl. (h). Pub. L. 98–284, §9(1), inserted “or the culture of other native agricultural crops which could supply critical agricultural materials”.

Cl. (i). Pub. L. 98–284, §9(2), inserted “or the technology of other native agricultural crops which could supply critical agricultural materials”.


§178h. Powers of Secretary of Commerce

In carrying out the provisions of this subchapter, the Secretary of Commerce is authorized to—

(a) make grants to States, education institutions, scientific organizations, and Indian tribes as defined in the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (Public Law 93–638, 25 U.S.C. 450), and enter into contracts with such institutions and organizations and with industrial or engineering firms;

(b) acquire the services of biologists, agronomists, foresters, geneticists, engineers, economists, and other personnel having expertise in native agricultural crops which could supply critical agricultural materials by contract or otherwise;

(c) utilize the facilities of Federal and State institutions and other scientific laboratories;

(d) establish and operate necessary facilities and pilot plants to carry out the continuous research, testing, development, and programing necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section;

(e) acquire secret processes, technical data, invention, patent applications, patents, licenses, land and interests in land (including water rights), plants and facilities, and other property or rights by purchase, license, lease, or donation; and

(f) foster and participate in regional, national, and international conferences relating to the activities authorized by this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §10, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2533; Pub. L. 98–284, §10, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 184.)


References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (Public Law 93–638, 25 U.S.C. 450), as amended, referred to in cl. (a), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 450 of Title 25 and Tables.


Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–284, §10(1), (2), in provisions preceding cl. (a) substituted “this subchapter” for “this section” and struck out “, acting through the Regional Commissions or otherwise,” after “the Secretary of Commerce”.

Cl. (b). Pub. L. 98–284, §10(3), inserted “having expertise in native agricultural crops which could supply critical agricultural materials”.

Cl. (f). Pub. L. 98–284, §10(4), substituted “the activities authorized by this subchapter” for “natural rubber manufacture”.


§178i. Coordination of activities with Federal agencies

In carrying out the provisions of this subchapter, the Secretaries and the Joint Commission shall cooperate with each other in the conduct of their activities under this subchapter, and shall ensure that their activities under this subchapter are closely coordinated with the activities of other Federal agencies such as the Department of the Interior, National Science Foundation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Energy, Department of State, Department of Defense, Treasury Department, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and others, in order to prevent duplication of effort, ensure compatibility with ongoing programs and policies, and to fully exploit the opportunities inherent in the culture and manufacture of native latex.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §11, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2533; Pub. L. 98–284, §11, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 184; Pub. L. 102–237, title X, §1005(2), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1894.)


Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–237 substituted “ensure” for “insure” in two places.

1984—Pub. L. 98–284 substituted “shall cooperate with each other in the conduct of their activities under this subchapter, and shall insure that their activities under this subchapter are closely coordinated with the activities of other Federal agencies” for “shall insure that their activities are closely coordinated with the activities of other Federal agencies” and “Federal Emergency Management Agency, and others,” for “Federal Preparedness Agency, and others”, and inserted “Department of State,”.


Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.


§178j. Laws governing inventions under this subchapter

Relative to the definitions of, title to, and licensing of inventions made or conceived in the course of or under any contract or grant pursuant to this subchapter, and notwithstanding any other provisions of law, the provisions of sections 5908 and 5909 of title 42 shall govern.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §12, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2533.)


§178k. Disposition of byproducts and strategic and industrially important products

The Secretaries may dispose of any latex, resin, wax, pulp, and any other byproducts, as well as products, other than rubber, developed from agricultural crops which are of strategic and industrial importance, resulting from operations under this subchapter. Dispositions under this section may include sales of the materials involved to other Federal departments and agencies for testing purposes. All moneys received from dispositions under this section shall be paid into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §13, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2533; Pub. L. 98–284, §12, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 184.)


Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–284, substituted “The Secretaries” for “The Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Commerce”, and inserted “, as well as products, other than rubber, developed from agricultural crops which are of strategic and industrial importance,” and “Dispositions under this section may include sales of the materials involved to other Federal departments and agencies for testing purposes.”


§178l. Rules and regulations

The Secretaries may issue rules and regulations necessary to effectuate the purposes of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §14, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2533; Pub. L. 98–284, §13, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 184.)


Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–284 substituted “The Secretaries” for “The Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Commerce”.


§178m. Report to President and Congress

The Secretaries shall submit to the President and the Congress, no later than December 31, 1980, and each year thereafter through 1987, a report on the status of the research, development, and other work underway under this subchapter. Such report shall (1) recommend specific directions for further research, development and other work, and (2) recommend funding levels for various elements of the overall project.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §15, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2533; Pub. L. 98–284, §14, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 184.)


Amendments

1984—Pub. L. 98–284 substituted “The Secretaries” for “The Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Commerce” and “1987” for “1982”.


§178n. Administration and funding

(a) Authorization of appropriations to Secretary of Agriculture

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Agriculture such sums as are necessary to carry out this subchapter in each of the fiscal years 1991 through 2012.


(b) Administration and management

No more than 3 per centum of funds authorized under subsection (a) of this section shall be available for administration and management of the program.


(c) Contract authority as limited by amounts provided in appropriations acts

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter the authority to enter into contracts shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriations Acts.


(d) Activities limited to critical materials other than native latex after fiscal 1988

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the Secretaries and the Joint Commission shall limit their activities under this subchapter to critical agricultural materials other than native latex after the close of the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988.

(Pub. L. 95–592, §16, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2534; Pub. L. 98–284, §15, May 16, 1984, 98 Stat. 184; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1601(e), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3704; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §881(b), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1175; Pub. L. 105–185, title III, §301(c), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 563; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7138, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7401, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7401, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2007.)


Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.


Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–246, §7401, substituted “2012” for “2007”.

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–171 substituted “2007” for “2002”.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–185 substituted “2002” for “1997”.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–127 substituted “1997” for “1995”.

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–624, §1601(e)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: “There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Agriculture $2,500,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1980, and September 30, 1981, $5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1982, and September 30, 1983, $5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, $5,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985, $6,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986, $7,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987, and $8,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988, to carry out the purposes of this subchapter. Funds appropriated under this paragraph shall be available for obligation until the last day of the fiscal year after the year for which such funds are authorized.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–624, §1601(e)(2)–(4), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and substituted “subsection (a)” for “subsections (a) and (b)”, and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Commerce $2,500,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1980, and September 30, 1981, $5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1982, and September 30, 1983, $2,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985, $3,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986, $4,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987, and $4,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988, to carry out the purposes of this subchapter. Funds appropriated under this paragraph shall be available for obligation until the last day of the fiscal year after the year for which such funds are authorized.”

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 101–624, §1601(e)(4), redesignated subsecs. (c) to (e) as (b) to (d), respectively.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–284, §15(a), inserted “$5,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, $5,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985, $6,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986, $7,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987, and $8,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988,” and struck out “and” after “1981,”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–284, §15(b), inserted “$2,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985, $3,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986, $4,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987, and $4,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988,” and struck out “and” after “1981,”.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–284, §15(c), added subsec. (e).


Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.


Personal tools
Laws
Variants
Actions
Navigation
Toolbox