Law:Part 3. Of Special Proceedings Of A Civil Nature Preliminary Provisions (California)

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Ca Codes (ccp:1063-1064) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1063-1064



1063. The party prosecuting a special proceeding may be known as the plaintiff, and the adverse party as the defendant.


1064. A judgment in a special proceeding is the final determination of the rights of the parties therein. The definitions of a motion and an order in a civil action are applicable to similar acts in a special proceeding.


Contents

Title 1. Of Writs Of Review, Mandate, And Prohibition

Chapter 1. Writ Of Review

Ca Codes (ccp:1067-1077) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1067-1077



�1067.) Section Ten Hundred and Sixty-seven. The writ of certiorari may be denominated the writ of review.


1068. (a) A writ of review may be granted by any court when an inferior tribunal, board, or officer, exercising judicial functions, has exceeded the jurisdiction of such tribunal, board, or officer, and there is no appeal, nor, in the judgment of the court, any plain, speedy, and adequate remedy. (b) The appellate division of the superior court may grant a writ of review directed to the superior court in a limited civil case or in a misdemeanor or infraction case. Where the appellate division grants a writ of review directed to the superior court, the superior court is an inferior tribunal for purposes of this chapter.


1069. The application must be made on the verified petition of the party beneficially interested, and the court may require a notice of the application to be given to the adverse party, or may grant an order to show cause why it should not be allowed, or may grant the writ without notice.


1069.1. The provisions of Section 1089 as to a return by demurrer or answer apply to a proceeding pursuant to this chapter.


1070. The writ may be directed to the inferior tribunal, Board, or officer, or to any other person having the custody of the record or proceedings to be certified. When directed to a tribunal, the Clerk, if there be one, must return the writ with the transcript required.


1071. The writ of review must command the party to whom it is directed to certify fully to the court issuing the writ at a time and place then or thereafter specified by court order a transcript of the record and proceedings (describing or referring to them with convenient certainty), that the same may be reviewed by the court; and requiring the party, in the meantime, to desist from further proceedings in the matter to be reviewed.


1072. If a stay of proceedings be not intended, the words requiring the stay must be omitted from the writ; these words may be inserted or omitted, in the sound discretion of the Court, but if omitted, the power of the inferior Court or officer is not suspended or the proceedings stayed.


1073. The writ must be served in the same manner as a summons in civil action, except when otherwise expressly directed by the Court.


1074. The review upon this writ cannot be extended further than to determine whether the inferior tribunal, Board, or officer has regularly pursued the authority of such tribunal, Board, or officer.


1075. If the return of the writ be defective, the Court may order a further return to be made. When a full return has been made, the Court must hear the parties, or such of them as may attend for that purpose, and may thereupon give judgment, either affirming or annulling, or modifying the proceedings below.


1076. A copy of the judgment, signed by the Clerk, must be transmitted to the inferior tribunal, Board, or officer having the custody of the record or proceeding certified up.


1077. A copy of the judgment, signed by the Clerk, entered upon or attached to the writ and return, constitute the judgment roll.


Chapter 2. Writ Of Mandate

Ca Codes (ccp:1084-1097) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1084-1097



�1084.) Section Ten Hundred and Eighty-four. The writ of mandamus may be denominated a writ of mandate.


1085. (a) A writ of mandate may be issued by any court to any inferior tribunal, corporation, board, or person, to compel the performance of an act which the law specially enjoins, as a duty resulting from an office, trust, or station, or to compel the admission of a party to the use and enjoyment of a right or office to which the party is entitled, and from which the party is unlawfully precluded by that inferior tribunal, corporation, board, or person. (b) The appellate division of the superior court may grant a writ of mandate directed to the superior court in a limited civil case or in a misdemeanor or infraction case. Where the appellate division grants a writ of mandate directed to the superior court, the superior court is an inferior tribunal for purposes of this chapter.


1085.5. Notwithstanding this chapter, in any action or proceeding to attack, review, set aside, void, or annul the activity of the Director of Food and Agriculture under Division 4 (commencing with Section 5001) or Division 5 (commencing with Section 9101) of the Food and Agricultural Code, the procedure for issuance of a writ of mandate shall be in accordance with Chapter 1.5 (commencing with Section 5051) of Part 1 of Division 4 of that code.


1086. The writ must be issued in all cases where there is not a plain, speedy, and adequate remedy, in the ordinary course of law. It must be issued upon the verified petition of the party beneficially interested.

1087. The writ may be either alternative or peremptory. The alternative writ must command the party to whom it is directed immediately after the receipt of the writ, or at some other specified time, to do the act required to be performed, or to show cause before the court at a time and place then or thereafter specified by court order why he has not done so. The peremptory writ must be in a similar form, except that the words requiring the party to show cause why he has not done as commanded must be omitted.


1088. When the application to the court is made without notice to the adverse party, and the writ is allowed, the alternative must be first issued; but if the application is upon due notice and the writ is allowed, the peremptory may be issued in the first instance. With the alternative writ and also with any notice of an intention to apply for the writ, there must be served on each person against whom the writ is sought a copy of the petition. The notice of the application, when given, must be at least ten days. The writ cannot be granted by default. The case must be heard by the court, whether the adverse party appears or not.

1088.5. In a trial court, if no alternative writ is sought, proof of service of a copy of the petition need not accompany the application for a writ at the time of filing, but proof of service of a copy of the filed petition must be lodged with the court prior to a hearing or any action by the court.


1089. On the date for return of the alternative writ, or on which the application for the writ is noticed, or, if the Judicial Council shall adopt rules relating to the return and answer, then at the time provided by those rules, the party upon whom the writ or notice has been served may make a return by demurrer, verified answer or both. If the return is by demurrer alone, the court may allow an answer to be filed within such time as it may designate. Nothing in this section affects rules of the Judicial Council governing original writ proceedings in reviewing courts.


1089.5. Where a petition for writ of mandate is filed in the trial court pursuant to Section 1088.5, and where a record of the proceedings to be reviewed has been filed with the petition or where no record of a proceeding is required, the respondent shall answer or otherwise respond within 30 days after service of the petition. However, where a record of the proceeding to be reviewed has been requested pursuant to Section 11523 of the Government Code, or otherwise, and has not been filed with the petition, the party upon whom the petition has been served, including any real party in interest, shall answer or otherwise respond within 30 days following receipt of a copy of the record.


1090. If a return be made, which raises a question as to a matter of fact essential to the determination of the motion, and affecting the substantial rights of the parties, and upon the supposed truth of the allegation of which the application for the writ is based, the court may, in its discretion, order the question to be tried before a jury, and postpone the argument until such trial can be had, and the verdict certified to the court. The question to be tried must be distinctly stated in the order for trial, and the county must be designated in which the same shall be had. The order may also direct the jury to assess any damages which the applicant may have sustained, in case they find for him.


1091. On the trial, the applicant is not precluded by the return from any valid objection to its sufficiency, and may countervail it by proof either in direct denial or by way of avoidance.


1092. The motion for new trial must be made in the Court in which the issue of fact is tried.


1093. If no notice of a motion for a new trial be given, or if given, the motion be denied, the Clerk, within five days after rendition of the verdict or denial of the motion, must transmit to the Court in which the application for the writ is pending, a certified copy of the verdict attached to the order of trial; after which either party may bring on the argument of the application, upon reasonable notice to the adverse party.


1094. If no return be made, the case may be heard on the papers of the applicant. If the return raises only questions of law, or puts in issue immaterial statements, not affecting the substantial rights of the parties, the court must proceed to hear or fix a day for hearing the argument of the case. If a petition for a writ of mandate filed pursuant to Section 1088.5 presents no triable issue of fact or is based solely on an administrative record, the matter may be determined by the court by noticed motion of any party for a judgment on the peremptory writ.


1094.5. (a) Where the writ is issued for the purpose of inquiring into the validity of any final administrative order or decision made as the result of a proceeding in which by law a hearing is required to be given, evidence is required to be taken, and discretion in the determination of facts is vested in the inferior tribunal, corporation, board, or officer, the case shall be heard by the court sitting without a jury. All or part of the record of the proceedings before the inferior tribunal, corporation, board, or officer may be filed with the petition, may be filed with respondent's points and authorities, or may be ordered to be filed by the court. Except when otherwise prescribed by statute, the cost of preparing the record shall be borne by the petitioner. Where the petitioner has proceeded pursuant to Section 68511.3 of the Government Code and the Rules of Court implementing that section and where the transcript is necessary to a proper review of the administrative proceedings, the cost of preparing the transcript shall be borne by the respondent. Where the party seeking the writ has proceeded pursuant to Section 1088.5, the administrative record shall be filed as expeditiously as possible, and may be filed with the petition, or by the respondent after payment of the costs by the petitioner, where required, or as otherwise directed by the court. If the expense of preparing all or any part of the record has been borne by the prevailing party, the expense shall be taxable as costs. (b) The inquiry in such a case shall extend to the questions whether the respondent has proceeded without, or in excess of jurisdiction; whether there was a fair trial; and whether there was any prejudicial abuse of discretion. Abuse of discretion is established if the respondent has not proceeded in the manner required by law, the order or decision is not supported by the findings, or the findings are not supported by the evidence. (c) Where it is claimed that the findings are not supported by the evidence, in cases in which the court is authorized by law to exercise its independent judgment on the evidence, abuse of discretion is established if the court determines that the findings are not supported by the weight of the evidence. In all other cases, abuse of discretion is established if the court determines that the findings are not supported by substantial evidence in the light of the whole record. (d) Notwithstanding subdivision (c), in cases arising from private hospital boards or boards of directors of districts organized pursuant to The Local Hospital District Law, Division 23 (commencing with Section 32000) of the Health and Safety Code or governing bodies of municipal hospitals formed pursuant to Article 7 (commencing with Section 37600) or Article 8 (commencing with Section 37650) of Chapter 5 of Division 3 of Title 4 of the Government Code, abuse of discretion is established if the court determines that the findings are not supported by substantial evidence in the light of the whole record. However, in all cases in which the petition alleges discriminatory actions prohibited by Section 1316 of the Health and Safety Code, and the plaintiff makes a preliminary showing of substantial evidence in support of that allegation, the court shall exercise its independent judgment on the evidence and abuse of discretion shall be established if the court determines that the findings are not supported by the weight of the evidence. (e) Where the court finds that there is relevant evidence that, in the exercise of reasonable diligence, could not have been produced or that was improperly excluded at the hearing before respondent, it may enter judgment as provided in subdivision (f) remanding the case to be reconsidered in the light of that evidence; or, in cases in which the court is authorized by law to exercise its independent judgment on the evidence, the court may admit the evidence at the hearing on the writ without remanding the case. (f) The court shall enter judgment either commanding respondent to set aside the order or decision, or denying the writ. Where the judgment commands that the order or decision be set aside, it may order the reconsideration of the case in the light of the court's opinion and judgment and may order respondent to take such further action as is specially enjoined upon it by law, but the judgment shall not limit or control in any way the discretion legally vested in the respondent. (g) Except as provided in subdivision (h), the court in which proceedings under this section are instituted may stay the operation of the administrative order or decision pending the judgment of the court, or until the filing of a notice of appeal from the judgment or until the expiration of the time for filing the notice, whichever occurs first. However, no such stay shall be imposed or continued if the court is satisfied that it is against the public interest. The application for the stay shall be accompanied by proof of service of a copy of the application on the respondent. Service shall be made in the manner provided by Title 5 (commencing with Section 405) of Part 2 or Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1010) of Title 14 of Part 2. If an appeal is taken from a denial of the writ, the order or decision of the agency shall not be stayed except upon the order of the court to which the appeal is taken. However, in cases where a stay is in effect at the time of filing the notice of appeal, the stay shall be continued by operation of law for a period of 20 days from the filing of the notice. If an appeal is taken from the granting of the writ, the order or decision of the agency is stayed pending the determination of the appeal unless the court to which the appeal is taken shall otherwise order. Where any final administrative order or decision is the subject of proceedings under this section, if the petition shall have been filed while the penalty imposed is in full force and effect, the determination shall not be considered to have become moot in cases where the penalty imposed by the administrative agency has been completed or complied with during the pendency of the proceedings. (h) (1) The court in which proceedings under this section are instituted may stay the operation of the administrative order or decision of any licensed hospital or any state agency made after a hearing required by statute to be conducted under the Administrative Procedure Act, as set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 11500) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, conducted by the agency itself or an administrative law judge on the staff of the Office of Administrative Hearings pending the judgment of the court, or until the filing of a notice of appeal from the judgment or until the expiration of the time for filing the notice, whichever occurs first. However, the stay shall not be imposed or continued unless the court is satisfied that the public interest will not suffer and that the licensed hospital or agency is unlikely to prevail ultimately on the merits. The application for the stay shall be accompanied by proof of service of a copy of the application on the respondent. Service shall be made in the manner provided by Title 5 (commencing with Section 405) of Part 2 or Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1010) of Title 14 of Part 2. (2) The standard set forth in this subdivision for obtaining a stay shall apply to any administrative order or decision of an agency that issues licenses pursuant to Division 2 (commencing with Section 500) of the Business and Professions Code or pursuant to the Osteopathic Initiative Act or the Chiropractic Initiative Act. With respect to orders or decisions of other state agencies, the standard in this subdivision shall apply only when the agency has adopted the proposed decision of the administrative law judge in its entirety or has adopted the proposed decision but reduced the proposed penalty pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 11517 of the Government Code; otherwise the standard in subdivision (g) shall apply. (3) If an appeal is taken from a denial of the writ, the order or decision of the hospital or agency shall not be stayed except upon the order of the court to which the appeal is taken. However, in cases where a stay is in effect at the time of filing the notice of appeal, the stay shall be continued by operation of law for a period of 20 days from the filing of the notice. If an appeal is taken from the granting of the writ, the order or decision of the hospital or agency is stayed pending the determination of the appeal unless the court to which the appeal is taken shall otherwise order. Where any final administrative order or decision is the subject of proceedings under this section, if the petition shall have been filed while the penalty imposed is in full force and effect, the determination shall not be considered to have become moot in cases where the penalty imposed by the administrative agency has been completed or complied with during the pendency of the proceedings. (i) Any administrative record received for filing by the clerk of the court may be disposed of as provided in Sections 1952, 1952.2, and 1952.3. (j) Effective January 1, 1996, this subdivision shall apply to state employees in State Bargaining Unit 5. For purposes of this section, the court is not authorized to review any disciplinary decisions reached pursuant to Section 19576.1 of the Government Code.


1094.6. (a) Judicial review of any decision of a local agency, other than school district, as the term local agency is defined in Section 54951 of the Government Code, or of any commission, board, officer or agent thereof, may be had pursuant to Section 1094.5 of this code only if the petition for writ of mandate pursuant to such section is filed within the time limits specified in this section. (b) Any such petition shall be filed not later than the 90th day following the date on which the decision becomes final. If there is no provision for reconsideration of the decision, or for a written decision or written findings supporting the decision, in any applicable provision of any statute, charter, or rule, for the purposes of this section, the decision is final on the date it is announced. If the decision is not announced at the close of the hearing, the date, time, and place of the announcement of the decision shall be announced at the hearing. If there is a provision for reconsideration, the decision is final for purposes of this section upon the expiration of the period during which such reconsideration can be sought; provided, that if reconsideration is sought pursuant to any such provision the decision is final for the purposes of this section on the date that reconsideration is rejected. If there is a provision for a written decision or written findings, the decision is final for purposes of this section upon the date it is mailed by first-class mail, postage prepaid, including a copy of the affidavit or certificate of mailing, to the party seeking the writ. Subdivision (a) of Section 1013 does not apply to extend the time, following deposit in the mail of the decision or findings, within which a petition shall be filed. (c) The complete record of the proceedings shall be prepared by the local agency or its commission, board, officer, or agent which made the decision and shall be delivered to the petitioner within 190 days after he has filed a written request therefor. The local agency may recover from the petitioner its actual costs for transcribing or otherwise preparing the record. Such record shall include the transcript of the proceedings, all pleadings, all notices and orders, any proposed decision by a hearing officer, the final decision, all admitted exhibits, all rejected exhibits in the possession of the local agency or its commission, board, officer, or agent, all written evidence, and any other papers in the case. (d) If the petitioner files a request for the record as specified in subdivision (c) within 10 days after the date the decision becomes final as provided in subdivision (b), the time within which a petition pursuant to Section 1094.5 may be filed shall be extended to not later than the 30th day following the date on which the record is either personally delivered or mailed to the petitioner or his attorney of record, if he has one. (e) As used in this section, decision means a decision subject to review pursuant to Section 1094.5, suspending, demoting, or dismissing an officer or employee, revoking, denying an application for a permit, license, or other entitlement, imposing a civil or administrative penalty, fine, charge, or cost, or denying an application for any retirement benefit or allowance. (f) In making a final decision as defined in subdivision (e), the local agency shall provide notice to the party that the time within which judicial review must be sought is governed by this section. As used in this subdivision, "party" means an officer or employee who has been suspended, demoted or dismissed; a person whose permit, license, or other entitlement has been revoked or suspended, or whose application for a permit, license, or other entitlement has been denied; or a person whose application for a retirement benefit or allowance has been denied. (g) This section shall prevail over any conflicting provision in any otherwise applicable law relating to the subject matter, unless the conflicting provision is a state or federal law which provides a shorter statute of limitations, in which case the shorter statute of limitations shall apply.


1094.8. (a) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this chapter, an action or proceeding to review the issuance, revocation, suspension, or denial of a permit or other entitlement for expressive conduct protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution shall be conducted in accordance with subdivision (d). (b) For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply: (1) The terms "permit" and "entitlement" are used interchangeably. (2) The term "permit applicant" means both an applicant for a permit and a permitholder. (3) The term "public agency" means a city, county, city and county, a joint powers authority or similar public entity formed pursuant to Section 65850.4 of the Government Code, or any other public entity authorized by law to issue permits for expressive conduct protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. (c) A public agency may, if it so chooses, designate the permits or entitlements to which this section applies by adopting an ordinance or resolution which contains a specific listing or other description of the permits or entitlements issued by the public agency which are eligible for expedited judicial review pursuant to this section because the permits regulate expressive conduct protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. (d) The procedure set forth in this subdivision, when applicable, shall supersede anything to the contrary set forth in this chapter. (1) Within five court days after receipt of written notification from a permit applicant that the permit applicant will seek judicial review of a public agency's action on the permit, the public agency shall prepare, certify, and make available the administrative record to the permit applicant. (2) Either the public agency or the permit applicant may bring an action in accordance with the procedure set forth in this section. If the permit applicant brings the action, the action shall be in the form of a petition for writ of mandate pursuant to Section 1085 or 1094.5, as appropriate. (3) The party bringing the action pursuant to this section shall file and serve the petition on the respondent no later than 21 calendar days following the public agency's final decision on the permit. The title page of the petition shall contain the following language in 18-point type: "ATTENTION: THIS MATTER IS ENTITLED TO PRIORITY AND SUBJECT TO THE EXPEDITED HEARING AND REVIEW PROCEDURES CONTAINED IN SECTION 1094.8 OF THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE." (4) The clerk of the court shall set a hearing for review of the petition no later than 25 calendar days from the date the petition is filed. Moving, opposition, and reply papers shall be filed as provided in the California Rules of Court. The petitioner shall lodge the administrative record with the court no later than 10 calendar days in advance of the hearing date. (5) Following the conclusion of the hearing, the court shall render its decision in an expeditious manner consistent with constitutional requirements in view of the particular facts and circumstances. In no event shall the decision be rendered later than 20 calendar days after the matter is submitted or 50 calendar days after the date the petition is filed pursuant to paragraph (4), whichever is earlier. (e) If the presiding judge of the court in which the action is filed determines that, as a result of either the press of other court business or other factors, the court will be unable to meet any one or more of the deadlines provided within this section, the presiding judge shall request the temporary assignment of a judicial officer to hear the petition and render a decision within the time limits contained herein, pursuant to Section 68543.8 of the Government Code. Given the short time period involved, the request shall be entitled to priority. (f) In any action challenging the issuance, revocation, suspension, or denial of a permit or entitlement, the parties to the action shall be permitted to jointly waive the time limits provided for herein.


1095. If judgment be given for the applicant, the applicant may recover the damages which the applicant has sustained, as found by the jury, or as may be determined by the court or referee, upon a reference to be ordered, together with costs; and a peremptory mandate must also be awarded without delay. Damages and costs may be enforced in the manner provided for money judgments generally. In all cases where the respondent is an officer of a public entity, all damages and costs, or either, which may be recovered or awarded, shall be recovered and awarded against the public entity represented by the officer, and not against the officer so appearing in the proceeding, and are a proper claim against the public entity for which the officer appeared and shall be paid as other claims against the public entity are paid; but in all such cases, the court shall first determine that the officer appeared and made defense in the proceeding in good faith. For the purpose of this section, "public entity" includes the state, a county, city, district or other public agency or public corporation. For the purpose of this section, "officer" includes officer, agent or employee.


1096. The writ must be served in the same manner as a summons in a civil action, except when otherwise expressly directed by order of the Court. Service upon a majority of the members of any Board or body, is service upon the Board or body, whether at the time of the service the Board or body was in session or not.


�1097.) Section Ten Hundred and Ninety-seven. When a peremptory mandate has been issued and directed to any inferior tribunal, corporation, Board, or person, if it appear to the Court that any member of such tribunal, corporation, or Board, or such person upon whom the writ has been personally served, has, without just excuse, refused or neglected to obey the same, the Court may, upon motion, impose a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars. In case of persistence in a refusal of obedience, the Court may order the party to be imprisoned until the writ is obeyed, and may make any orders necessary and proper for the complete enforcement of the writ.


Chapter 3. Writ Of Prohibition

Ca Codes (ccp:1102-1105) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1102-1105



1102. The writ of prohibition arrests the proceedings of any tribunal, corporation, board, or person exercising judicial functions, when such proceedings are without or in excess of the jurisdiction of such tribunal, corporation, board, or person.


1103. (a) A writ of prohibition may be issued by any court to an inferior tribunal or to a corporation, board, or person, in all cases where there is not a plain, speedy, and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law. It is issued upon the verified petition of the person beneficially interested. (b) The appellate division of the superior court may grant a writ of prohibition directed to the superior court in a limited civil case or in a misdemeanor or infraction case. Where the appellate division grants a writ of prohibition directed to the superior court, the superior court is an inferior tribunal for purposes of this chapter.


1104. The writ must be either alternative or peremptory. The alternative writ must command the party to whom it is directed to desist or refrain from further proceedings in the action or matter specified therein, until the further order of the court from which it is issued, and to show cause before such court at a time and place then or thereafter specified by court order why such party should not be absolutely restrained from any further proceedings in such action or matter. The peremptory writ must be in a similar form, except that the words requiring the party to show cause why he should not be absolutely restrained must be omitted.


1105. The provisions of the preceding Chapter, except of the first four sections thereof, apply to this proceeding.


Chapter 4. Writs Of Review, Mandate, And Prohibition May Issue And Be Heard At Chambers

Ca Codes (ccp:1107-1108) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1107-1108



1107. When an application is filed for the issuance of any prerogative writ, the application shall be accompanied by proof of service of a copy thereof upon the respondent and the real party in interest named in such application. The provisions of Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1010) of Title 14 of Part 2 shall apply to the service of the application. However, when a writ of mandate is sought pursuant to the provisions of Section 1088.5, the action may be filed and served in the same manner as an ordinary action under Part 2 (commencing with Section 307). Where the real party in respondent's interest is a board or commission, the service shall be made upon the presiding officer, or upon the secretary, or upon a majority of the members, of the board or commission. Within five days after service and filing of the application, the real party in interest or the respondent or both may serve upon the applicant and file with the court points and authorities in opposition to the granting of the writ. The court in which the application is filed, in its discretion and for good cause, may grant the application ex parte, without notice or service of the application as herein provided. The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to applications for the writ of habeas corpus, or to applications for writs of review of the Industrial Accident or Public Utilities Commissions.

1108. Writs of review, mandate, and prohibition issued by the Supreme Court, a court of appeal, or a superior court, may, in the discretion of the court issuing the writ, be made returnable, and a hearing thereon be had at any time.


Chapter 5. Rules Of Practice And Appeals

Ca Codes (ccp:1109-1110b) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1109-1110b



1109. Except as otherwise provided in this Title, the provisions of Part II of the Code are applicable to and constitute the rules of practice in the proceedings mentioned in this Title.


1110. The provisions of Part II of this Code relative to new trials and appeals, except in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Title, apply to the proceedings mentioned in this Title.

1110a. If an appeal be taken from an order or judgment directing the issuance of a writ of mandate commanding a party to deliver water, for irrigation purposes, such appeal shall not stay the operation of the order, judgment or writ as to the delivery of such water, but such water must until the final determination of said appeal be delivered as commanded by said writ; provided, that if any expense is necessary to be incurred by the defendant in connecting the water supply with the land to be irrigated, said defendant shall not be obliged to furnish water unless the plaintiff shall provide a bond in such sum as the court may fix, conditioned that in the event of the judgment being reversed, plaintiff will pay defendant the amount of the expense so incurred not exceeding the amount of said bond.


1110b. If an appeal be taken from an order or judgment granting a writ of mandate the court granting the writ, or the appellate court, may direct that the appeal shall not operate as a stay of execution if it is satisfied upon the showing made by the petitioner that he will suffer irreparable damage in his business or profession if the execution is stayed.


Title 3. Of Summary Proceedings

Chapter 1. Confession Of Judgment Without Action

Ca Codes (ccp:1132-1134) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1132-1134



1132. (a) A judgment by confession may be entered without action either for money due or to become due, or to secure any person against contingent liability on behalf of the defendant, or both, in the manner prescribed by this chapter. Such judgment may be entered in any superior court. (b) A judgment by confession shall be entered only if an attorney independently representing the defendant signs a certificate that the attorney has examined the proposed judgment and has advised the defendant with respect to the waiver of rights and defenses under the confession of judgment procedure and has advised the defendant to utilize the confession of judgment procedure. The certificate shall be filed with the filing of the statement required by Section 1133.


1133. A statement in writing must be made, signed by the defendant, and verified by his oath, to the following effect: 1. It must authorize the entry of judgment for a specified sum; 2. If it be for money due, or to become due, it must state concisely the facts out of which it arose, and show that the sum confessed therefor is justly due, or to become due; 3. If it be for the purpose of securing the plaintiff against a contingent liability, it must state concisely the facts constituting the liability, and show that the sum confessed therefor does not exceed the same.


1134. (a) The statement required by Section 1133 shall be filed with the clerk of the court in which the judgment is to be entered, who must endorse upon it, and enter a judgment of the court for the amount confessed with the costs provided in subdivision (b). (b) At the time of filing, the plaintiff shall pay as court costs that shall become a part of the judgment the fee as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 70626 of the Government Code. No fee shall be collected from the defendant.. (c) The statement and affidavit, with the judgment endorsed thereon, together with the certificate filed pursuant to Section 1132, becomes the judgment roll.


Chapter 2. Submitting A Controversy Without Action

Ca Codes (ccp:1138-1140) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1138-1140



1138. Parties to a question in difference, which might be the subject of a civil action, may, without action, agree upon a case containing the facts upon which the controversy depends, and present a submission of the same to any Court which would have jurisdiction if an action had been brought; but it must appear, by affidavit, that the controversy is real and the proceedings in good faith, to determine the rights of the parties. The Court must thereupon hear and determine the case, and render judgment thereon, as if an action were depending.

1139. Judgment must be entered as in other cases, but without costs for any proceeding prior to the trial. The case, the submission, and a copy of the judgment constitute the judgment roll.


1140. The judgment may be enforced in the same manner as if it had been rendered in an action of the same jurisdictional classification in the same court, and is in the same manner subject to appeal.


Chapter 2.5. Judicial Arbitration

Ca Codes (ccp:1141.10-1141.31) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1141.10-1141.31



1141.10. (a) The Legislature finds and declares that litigation involving small civil cases can be so costly and complex that efficiently resolving these civil cases is difficult, and that the resulting delays and expenses may deny parties their right to a timely resolution of minor civil disputes. The Legislature further finds and declares that arbitration has proven to be an efficient and equitable method for resolving small civil cases, and that courts should encourage or require the use of arbitration for those actions whenever possible. (b) It is the intent of the Legislature that: (1) Arbitration hearings held pursuant to this chapter shall provide parties with a simplified and economical procedure for obtaining prompt and equitable resolution of their disputes. (2) Arbitration hearings shall be as informal as possible and shall provide the parties themselves maximum opportunity to participate directly in the resolution of their disputes, and shall be held during nonjudicial hours whenever possible. (3) Members of the State Bar selected to serve as arbitrators should have experience with cases of the type under dispute and are urged to volunteer their services without compensation whenever possible.


1141.11. (a) In each superior court with 18 or more judges, all nonexempt unlimited civil cases shall be submitted to arbitration under this chapter if the amount in controversy, in the opinion of the court, will not exceed fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) for each plaintiff. (b) In each superior court with fewer than 18 judges, the court may provide by local rule, when it determines that it is in the best interests of justice, that all nonexempt, unlimited civil cases shall be submitted to arbitration under this chapter if the amount in controversy, in the opinion of the court, will not exceed fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) for each plaintiff. (c) Each superior court may provide by local rule, when it is determined to be in the best interests of justice, that all nonexempt, limited civil cases shall be submitted to arbitration under this chapter. This section does not apply to any action in small claims court, or to any action maintained pursuant to Section 1781 of the Civil Code or Section 1161. (d) (1) In each court that has adopted judicial arbitration pursuant to subdivision (c), all limited civil cases that involve a claim for money damages against a single defendant as a result of a motor vehicle collision, except those heard in the small claims division, shall be submitted to arbitration within 120 days of the filing of the defendant's answer to the complaint (except as may be extended by the court for good cause) before an arbitrator selected by the court. (2) The court may provide by local rule for the voluntary or mandatory use of case questionnaires, established under Section 93, in any proceeding subject to these provisions. Where local rules provide for the use of case questionnaires, the questionnaires shall be exchanged by the parties upon the defendant's answer and completed and returned within 60 days. (3) For the purposes of this subdivision, the term "single defendant" means any of the following: (A) An individual defendant, whether a person or an entity. (B) Two or more persons covered by the same insurance policy applicable to the motor vehicle collision. (C) Two or more persons residing in the same household when no insurance policy exists that is applicable to the motor vehicle collision. (4) The naming of one or more cross-defendants, not a plaintiff, shall constitute a multiple-defendant case not subject to the provisions of this subdivision.


1141.12. In all superior courts, the Judicial Council shall provide by rule for a uniform system of arbitration of the following causes: (a) Any cause, regardless of the amount in controversy, upon stipulation of the parties. (b) Upon filing of an election by the plaintiff, any cause in which the plaintiff agrees that the arbitration award shall not exceed the amount in controversy as specified in Section 1141.11.


1141.13. This chapter shall not apply to any civil action which includes a prayer for equitable relief, except that if the prayer for equitable relief is frivolous or insubstantial, this chapter shall be applicable.

1141.14. Notwithstanding any other provision of law except the provisions of this chapter, the Judicial Council shall provide by rule for practice and procedure for all actions submitted to arbitration under this chapter. The Judicial Council rules shall provide for and conform with the provisions of this chapter.


1141.15. The Judicial Council rules shall provide exceptions for cause to arbitration pursuant to subdivision (a), (b), or (c) of Section 1141.11. In providing for such exceptions, the Judicial Council shall take into consideration whether the civil action might not be amenable to arbitration.


1141.16. (a) The determination of the amount in controversy, under subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 1141.11, shall be made by the court and the case referred to arbitration after all named parties have appeared or defaulted. The determination shall be made at a case management conference or based upon review of the written submissions of the parties, as provided in rules adopted by the Judicial Council. The determination shall be based on the total amount of damages, and the judge may not consider questions of liability or comparative negligence or any other defense. At that time the court shall also make a determination whether any prayer for equitable relief is frivolous or insubstantial. The determination of the amount in controversy and whether any prayer for equitable relief is frivolous or insubstantial may not be appealable. No determination pursuant to this section shall be made if all parties stipulate in writing that the amount in controversy exceeds the amount specified in Section 1141.11. (b) The determination and any stipulation of the amount in controversy shall be without prejudice to any finding on the value of the case by an arbitrator or in a subsequent trial de novo. (c) Except as provided in this section, the arbitration hearing may not be held until 210 days after the filing of the complaint, or 240 days after the filing of a complaint if the parties have stipulated to a continuance pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 68616 of the Government Code. A case shall be submitted to arbitration at an earlier time upon any of the following: (1) The stipulation of the parties to an earlier arbitration hearing. (2) The written request of all plaintiffs, subject to a motion by a defendant for good cause shown to delay the arbitration hearing. (3) An order of the court if the parties have stipulated, or the court has ordered under Section 1141.24, that discovery other than that permitted under Chapter 18 (commencing with Section 2034.010) of Title 4 of Part 4 will be permitted after the arbitration award is rendered.


1141.17. (a) Submission of an action to arbitration pursuant to this chapter shall not suspend the running of the time periods specified in Chapter 1.5 (commencing with Section 583.110) of Title 8 of Part 2, except as provided in this section. (b) If an action is or remains submitted to arbitration pursuant to this chapter more than four years and six months after the plaintiff has filed the action, then the time beginning on the date four years and six months after the plaintiff has filed the action and ending on the date on which a request for a de novo trial is filed under Section 1141.20 shall not be included in computing the five-year period specified in Section 583.310.


1141.18. (a) Arbitrators shall be retired judges, retired court commissioners who were licensed to practice law prior to their appointment as a commissioner, or members of the State Bar, and shall sit individually. A judge may also serve as an arbitrator without compensation. People who are not attorneys may serve as arbitrators upon the stipulation of all parties. (b) The Judicial Council rules shall provide for the compensation, if any, of arbitrators. Compensation for arbitrators may not be less than one hundred fifty dollars ($150) per case, or one hundred fifty dollars ($150) per day, whichever is greater. A superior court may set a higher level of compensation for that court. Arbitrators may waive compensation in whole or in part. No compensation shall be paid before the filing of the award by the arbitrator, or before the settlement of the case by the parties. (c) In cases submitted to arbitration under Section 1141.11 or 1141.12, an arbitrator shall be assigned within 30 days from the time of submission to arbitration. (d) Any party may request the disqualification of the arbitrator selected for his or her case on the grounds and by the procedures specified in Section 170.1 or 170.6. A request for disqualification of an arbitrator on grounds specified in Section 170.6 shall be made within five days of the naming of the arbitrator. An arbitrator shall disqualify himself or herself, upon demand of any party to the arbitration made before the conclusion of the arbitration proceedings on any of the grounds specified in Section 170.1.


1141.19. Arbitrators approved pursuant to this chapter shall have the powers necessary to perform duties pursuant to this chapter as prescribed by the Judicial Council.


1141.19.5. In any arbitration proceeding under this chapter, no party may require the production of evidence specified in subdivision (a) of Section 3295 of the Civil Code at the arbitration, unless the court enters an order permitting pretrial discovery of that evidence pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 3295 of the Civil Code.


1141.20. (a) An arbitration award shall be final unless a request for a de novo trial is filed within 30 days after the date the arbitrator files the award with the court. (b) Any party may elect to have a de novo trial, by court or jury, both as to law and facts. Such trial shall be calendared, insofar as possible, so that the trial shall be given the same place on the active list as it had prior to arbitration, or shall receive civil priority on the next setting calendar.


1141.21. (a) (1) If the judgment upon the trial de novo is not more favorable in either the amount of damages awarded or the type of relief granted for the party electing the trial de novo than the arbitration award, the court shall order that party to pay the following nonrefundable costs and fees, unless the court finds in writing and upon motion that the imposition of these costs and fees would create such a substantial economic hardship as not to be in the interest of justice: (A) To the court, the compensation actually paid to the arbitrator, less any amount paid pursuant to subparagraph (D). (B) To the other party or parties, all costs specified in Section 1033.5, and the party electing the trial de novo shall not recover his or her costs. (C) To the other party or parties, the reasonable costs of the services of expert witnesses, who are not regular employees of any party, actually incurred or reasonably necessary in the preparation or trial of the case. (D) To the other party or parties, the compensation paid by the other party or parties to the arbitrator, pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1141.28. (2) Those costs and fees, other than the compensation of the arbitrator, shall include only those incurred from the time of election of the trial de novo. (b) If the party electing the trial de novo has proceeded in the action in forma pauperis and has failed to obtain a more favorable judgment, the costs and fees under subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) shall be imposed only as an offset against any damages awarded in favor of that party. (c) If the party electing the trial de novo has proceeded in the action in forma pauperis and has failed to obtain a more favorable judgment, the costs under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) shall be imposed only to the extent that there remains a sufficient amount in the judgment after the amount offset under subdivision (b) has been deducted from the judgment.


1141.22. The Judicial Council rules shall specify the grounds upon which the arbitrator or the court, or both, may correct, modify or vacate an award.

1141.23. The arbitration award shall be in writing, signed by the arbitrator and filed in the court in which the action is pending. If there is no request for a de novo trial and the award is not vacated, the award shall be entered in the judgment book in the amount of the award. Such award shall have the same force and effect as a judgment in any civil action or proceeding, except that it is not subject to appeal and it may not be attacked or set aside except as provided by Section 473, 1286.2, or Judicial Council rule.


1141.24. In cases ordered to arbitration pursuant to Section 1141.11, no discovery other than that permitted by Chapter 18 (commencing with Section 2034.010) of Title 4 of Part 4 is permissible after an arbitration award except by stipulation of the parties or by leave of court upon a showing of good cause.


1141.25. Any reference to the arbitration proceedings or arbitration award during any subsequent trial shall constitute an irregularity in the proceedings of the trial for the purposes of Section 657.


1141.26. Nothing in this act shall prohibit an arbitration award in excess of the amount in controversy as specified in Section 1141.11. No party electing a trial de novo after such award shall be subject to the provisions of Section 1141.21 if the judgment upon the trial de novo is in excess of the amount in controversy as specified in Section 1141.11.


1141.27. This chapter shall apply to any civil action otherwise within the scope of this chapter in which a party to the action is a public agency or public entity.


1141.28. (a) All administrative costs of arbitration, including compensation of arbitrators, shall be paid for by the court in which the arbitration costs are incurred, except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b) and in Section 1141.21. (b) The actual costs of compensation of arbitrators in any proceeding which would not otherwise be subject to the provisions of this chapter but in which arbitration is conducted pursuant to this chapter solely because of the stipulation of the parties, shall be paid for in equal shares by the parties. If the imposition of these costs would create such a substantial economic hardship for any party as not to be in the interest of justice, as determined by the arbitrator, that party's share of costs shall be paid for by the court in which the arbitration costs are incurred. The determination as to substantial economic hardship may be reviewed by the court.


1141.30. This chapter shall not be construed in derogation of Title 9 (commencing with Section 1280) of Part 3, and, to that extent, this chapter and that title, other than Section 1280.1, are mutually exclusive and independent of each other.


1141.31. The provisions of this chapter shall become operative July 1, 1979, except that the Judicial Council shall adopt the arbitration rules for practice and procedures on or before March 31, 1979.


Chapter 4. Summary Proceedings For Obtaining Possession Of Real Property In Certain Cases

Ca Codes (ccp:1159-1179a) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1159-1179a



1159. Every person is guilty of a forcible entry who either: 1. By breaking open doors, windows, or other parts of a house, or by any kind of violence or circumstance of terror enters upon or into any real property; or, 2. Who, after entering peaceably upon real property, turns out by force, threats, or menacing conduct, the party in possession. The "party in possession" means any person who hires real property and includes a boarder or lodger, except those persons whose occupancy is described in subdivision (b) of Section 1940 of the Civil Code.


1160. Every person is guilty of a forcible detainer who either: 1. By force, or by menaces and threats of violence, unlawfully holds and keeps the possession of any real property, whether the same was acquired peaceably or otherwise; or, 2. Who, in the night-time, or during the absence of the occupant of any lands, unlawfully enters upon real property, and who, after demand made for the surrender thereof, for the period of five days, refuses to surrender the same to such former occupant. The occupant of real property, within the meaning of this subdivision, is one who, within five days preceding such unlawful entry, was in the peaceable and undisturbed possession of such lands.


1161. A tenant of real property, for a term less than life, or the executor or administrator of his or her estate heretofore qualified and now acting or hereafter to be qualified and act, is guilty of unlawful detainer: 1. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by subtenant, of the property, or any part thereof, after the expiration of the term for which it is let to him or her; provided the expiration is of a nondefault nature however brought about without the permission of his or her landlord, or the successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable; including the case where the person to be removed became the occupant of the premises as a servant, employee, agent, or licensee and the relation of master and servant, or employer and employee, or principal and agent, or licensor and licensee, has been lawfully terminated or the time fixed for occupancy by the agreement between the parties has expired; but nothing in this subdivision shall be construed as preventing the removal of the occupant in any other lawful manner; but in case of a tenancy at will, it must first be terminated by notice, as prescribed in the Civil Code. 2. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by subtenant, without the permission of his or her landlord, or the successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, after default in the payment of rent, pursuant to the lease or agreement under which the property is held, and three days' notice, in writing, requiring its payment, stating the amount which is due, the name, telephone number, and address of the person to whom the rent payment shall be made, and, if payment may be made personally, the usual days and hours that person will be available to receive the payment (provided that, if the address does not allow for personal delivery, then it shall be conclusively presumed that upon the mailing of any rent or notice to the owner by the tenant to the name and address provided, the notice or rent is deemed received by the owner on the date posted, if the tenant can show proof of mailing to the name and address provided by the owner), or the number of an account in a financial institution into which the rental payment may be made, and the name and street address of the institution (provided that the institution is located within five miles of the rental property), or if an electronic funds transfer procedure has been previously established, that payment may be made pursuant to that procedure, or possession of the property, shall have been served upon him or her and if there is a subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, also upon the subtenant. The notice may be served at any time within one year after the rent becomes due. In all cases of tenancy upon agricultural lands, where the tenant has held over and retained possession for more than 60 days after the expiration of the term without any demand of possession or notice to quit by the landlord or the successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, he or she shall be deemed to be holding by permission of the landlord or successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, and shall be entitled to hold under the terms of the lease for another full year, and shall not be guilty of an unlawful detainer during that year, and the holding over for that period shall be taken and construed as a consent on the part of a tenant to hold for another year. 3. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by subtenant, after a neglect or failure to perform other conditions or covenants of the lease or agreement under which the property is held, including any covenant not to assign or sublet, than the one for the payment of rent, and three days' notice, in writing, requiring the performance of such conditions or covenants, or the possession of the property, shall have been served upon him or her, and if there is a subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, also, upon the subtenant. Within three days after the service of the notice, the tenant, or any subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, or any mortgagee of the term, or other person interested in its continuance, may perform the conditions or covenants of the lease or pay the stipulated rent, as the case may be, and thereby save the lease from forfeiture; provided, if the conditions and covenants of the lease, violated by the lessee, cannot afterward be performed, then no notice, as last prescribed herein, need be given to the lessee or his or her subtenant, demanding the performance of the violated conditions or covenants of the lease. A tenant may take proceedings, similar to those prescribed in this chapter, to obtain possession of the premises let to a subtenant or held by a servant, employee, agent, or licensee, in case of his or her unlawful detention of the premises underlet to him or her or held by him or her. 4. Any tenant, subtenant, or executor or administrator of his or her estate heretofore qualified and now acting, or hereafter to be qualified and act, assigning or subletting or committing waste upon the demised premises, contrary to the conditions or covenants of his or her lease, or maintaining, committing, or permitting the maintenance or commission of a nuisance upon the demised premises or using the premises for an unlawful purpose, thereby terminates the lease, and the landlord, or his or her successor in estate, shall upon service of three days' notice to quit upon the person or persons in possession, be entitled to restitution of possession of the demised premises under this chapter. For purposes of this subdivision, a person who commits an offense described in subdivision (c) of Section 3485 of the Civil Code, or subdivision (c) of Section 3486 of the Civil Code, or uses the premises to further the purpose of that offense shall be deemed to have committed a nuisance upon the premises. For purposes of this subdivision, if a person commits an act of domestic violence as defined in Section 6211 of the Family Code, sexual assault as defined in Section 261, 261.5, 262, 286, 288a, or 289 of the Penal Code, or stalking as defined in Section 1708.7 of the Civil Code, against another tenant or subtenant on the premises there is a rebuttable presumption affecting the burden of proof that the person has committed a nuisance upon the premises, provided, however, that this shall not apply if the victim of the act of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking, or a household member of the victim, other than the perpetrator, has not vacated the premises. This subdivision shall not be construed to supersede the provisions of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-162) that permit the removal from a lease of a tenant who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against cotenants. 5. When he or she gives written notice as provided in Section 1946 of the Civil Code of his or her intention to terminate the hiring of the real property, or makes a written offer to surrender which is accepted in writing by the landlord, but fails to deliver possession at the time specified in that written notice, without the permission of his or her landlord, or the successor in estate of the landlord, if applicable. As used in this section, tenant includes any person who hires real property except those persons whose occupancy is described in subdivision (b) of Section 1940 of the Civil Code. This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2012, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2012, deletes or extends that date.


1161. A tenant of real property, for a term less than life, or the executor or administrator of his or her estate heretofore qualified and now acting or hereafter to be qualified and act, is guilty of unlawful detainer: 1. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by subtenant, of the property, or any part thereof, after the expiration of the term for which it is let to him or her; provided the expiration is of a nondefault nature however brought about without the permission of his or her landlord, or the successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable; including the case where the person to be removed became the occupant of the premises as a servant, employee, agent, or licensee and the relation of master and servant, or employer and employee, or principal and agent, or licensor and licensee, has been lawfully terminated or the time fixed for occupancy by the agreement between the parties has expired; but nothing in this subdivision shall be construed as preventing the removal of the occupant in any other lawful manner; but in case of a tenancy at will, it must first be terminated by notice, as prescribed in the Civil Code. 2. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by subtenant, without the permission of his or her landlord, or the successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, after default in the payment of rent, pursuant to the lease or agreement under which the property is held, and three days' notice, in writing, requiring its payment, stating the amount which is due, the name, telephone number, and address of the person to whom the rent payment shall be made, and, if payment may be made personally, the usual days and hours that person will be available to receive the payment (provided that, if the address does not allow for personal delivery, then it shall be conclusively presumed that upon the mailing of any rent or notice to the owner by the tenant to the name and address provided, the notice or rent is deemed received by the owner on the date posted, if the tenant can show proof of mailing to the name and address provided by the owner), or the number of an account in a financial institution into which the rental payment may be made, and the name and street address of the institution (provided that the institution is located within five miles of the rental property), or if an electronic funds transfer procedure has been previously established, that payment may be made pursuant to that procedure, or possession of the property, shall have been served upon him or her and if there is a subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, also upon the subtenant. The notice may be served at any time within one year after the rent becomes due. In all cases of tenancy upon agricultural lands, where the tenant has held over and retained possession for more than 60 days after the expiration of the term without any demand of possession or notice to quit by the landlord or the successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, he or she shall be deemed to be holding by permission of the landlord or successor in estate of his or her landlord, if applicable, and shall be entitled to hold under the terms of the lease for another full year, and shall not be guilty of an unlawful detainer during that year, and the holding over for that period shall be taken and construed as a consent on the part of a tenant to hold for another year. 3. When he or she continues in possession, in person or by subtenant, after a neglect or failure to perform other conditions or covenants of the lease or agreement under which the property is held, including any covenant not to assign or sublet, than the one for the payment of rent, and three days' notice, in writing, requiring the performance of such conditions or covenants, or the possession of the property, shall have been served upon him or her, and if there is a subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, also, upon the subtenant. Within three days after the service of the notice, the tenant, or any subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, or any mortgagee of the term, or other person interested in its continuance, may perform the conditions or covenants of the lease or pay the stipulated rent, as the case may be, and thereby save the lease from forfeiture; provided, if the conditions and covenants of the lease, violated by the lessee, cannot afterward be performed, then no notice, as last prescribed herein, need be given to the lessee or his or her subtenant, demanding the performance of the violated conditions or covenants of the lease. A tenant may take proceedings, similar to those prescribed in this chapter, to obtain possession of the premises let to a subtenant or held by a servant, employee, agent, or licensee, in case of his or her unlawful detention of the premises underlet to him or her or held by him or her. 4. Any tenant, subtenant, or executor or administrator of his or her estate heretofore qualified and now acting, or hereafter to be qualified and act, assigning or subletting or committing waste upon the demised premises, contrary to the conditions or covenants of his or her lease, or maintaining, committing, or permitting the maintenance or commission of a nuisance upon the demised premises or using the premises for an unlawful purpose, thereby terminates the lease, and the landlord, or his or her successor in estate, shall upon service of three days' notice to quit upon the person or persons in possession, be entitled to restitution of possession of the demised premises under this chapter. For purposes of this subdivision, a person who commits an offense described in subdivision (c) of Section 3485 of the Civil Code, or subdivision (c) of Section 3486 of the Civil Code, or uses the premises to further the purpose of that offense shall be deemed to have committed a nuisance upon the premises. 5. When he or she gives written notice as provided in Section 1946 of the Civil Code of his or her intention to terminate the hiring of the real property, or makes a written offer to surrender which is accepted in writing by the landlord, but fails to deliver possession at the time specified in that written notice, without the permission of his or her landlord, or the successor in estate of the landlord, if applicable. As used in this section, tenant includes any person who hires real property except those persons whose occupancy is described in subdivision (b) of Section 1940 of the Civil Code. This section shall become operative on January 1, 2012.


1161.1. With respect to application of Section 1161 in cases of possession of commercial real property after default in the payment of rent: (a) If the amount stated in the notice provided to the tenant pursuant to subdivision (2) of Section 1161 is clearly identified by the notice as an estimate and the amount claimed is not in fact correct, but it is determined upon the trial or other judicial determination that rent was owing, and the amount claimed in the notice was reasonably estimated, the tenant shall be subject to judgment for possession and the actual amount of rent and other sums found to be due. However, if (1) upon receipt of such a notice claiming an amount identified by the notice as an estimate, the tenant tenders to the landlord within the time for payment required by the notice, the amount which the tenant has reasonably estimated to be due and (2) if at trial it is determined that the amount of rent then due was the amount tendered by the tenant or a lesser amount, the tenant shall be deemed the prevailing party for all purposes. If the court determines that the amount so tendered by the tenant was less than the amount due, but was reasonably estimated, the tenant shall retain the right to possession if the tenant pays to the landlord within five days of the effective date of the judgment (1) the amount previously tendered if it had not been previously accepted, (2) the difference between the amount tendered and the amount determined by the court to be due, and (3) any other sums as ordered by the court. (b) If the landlord accepts a partial payment of rent, including any payment pursuant to subdivision (a), after serving notice pursuant to Section 1161, the landlord, without any further notice to the tenant, may commence and pursue an action under this chapter to recover the difference between the amount demanded in that notice and the payment actually received, and this shall be specified in the complaint. (c) If the landlord accepts a partial payment of rent after filing the complaint pursuant to Section 1166, the landlord's acceptance of the partial payment is evidence only of that payment, without waiver of any rights or defenses of any of the parties. The landlord shall be entitled to amend the complaint to reflect the partial payment without creating a necessity for the filing of an additional answer or other responsive pleading by the tenant, and without prior leave of court, and such an amendment shall not delay the matter from proceeding. However, this subdivision shall apply only if the landlord provides actual notice to the tenant that acceptance of the partial rent payment does not constitute a waiver of any rights, including any right the landlord may have to recover possession of the property. (d) "Commercial real property" as used in this section, means all real property in this state except dwelling units made subject to Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1940) of Title 5 of Part 4 of Division 3 of the Civil Code, mobilehomes as defined in Section 798.3 of the Civil Code, or recreational vehicles as defined in Section 799.24 of the Civil Code. (e) For the purposes of this section, there is a presumption affecting the burden of proof that the amount of rent claimed or tendered is reasonably estimated if, in relation to the amount determined to be due upon the trial or other judicial determination of that issue, the amount claimed or tendered was no more than 20 percent more or less than the amount determined to be due. However, if the rent due is contingent upon information primarily within the knowledge of the one party to the lease and that information has not been furnished to, or has not accurately been furnished to, the other party, the court shall consider that fact in determining the reasonableness of the amount of rent claimed or tendered pursuant to subdivision (a).

1161.2. (a) The clerk may allow access to limited civil case records filed under this chapter, including the court file, index, and register of actions, only as follows: (1) To a party to the action, including a party's attorney. (2) To any person who provides the clerk with the names of at least one plaintiff and one defendant and the address of the premises, including the apartment or unit number, if any. (3) To a resident of the premises who provides the clerk with the name of one of the parties or the case number and shows proof of residency. (4) To any person by order of the court, which may be granted ex parte, on a showing of good cause. (5) Except as provided in paragraph (6), to any other person 60 days after the complaint has been filed, unless a defendant prevails in the action within 60 days of the filing of the complaint, in which case the clerk may not allow access to any court records in the action, except as provided in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive. (6) In the case of a complaint involving residential property based on Section 1161a as indicated in the caption of the complaint, as required in subdivision (c) of Section 1166, to any other person, if 60 days have elapsed since the complaint was filed with the court, and, as of that date, judgment against all defendants has been entered for the plaintiff, after a trial. If judgment is not entered under the conditions described in this paragraph, the clerk shall not allow access to any court records in the action, except as provided in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive. (b) For purposes of this section, "good cause" includes, but is not limited to, the gathering of newsworthy facts by a person described in Section 1070 of the Evidence Code. It is the intent of the Legislature that a simple procedure be established to request the ex parte order described in subdivision (a). (c) Upon the filing of any case so restricted, the court clerk shall mail notice to each defendant named in the action. The notice shall be mailed to the address provided in the complaint. The notice shall contain a statement that an unlawful detainer complaint (eviction action) has been filed naming that party as a defendant, and that access to the court file will be delayed for 60 days except to a party, an attorney for one of the parties, or any other person who (1) provides to the clerk the names of at least one plaintiff and one defendant in the action and provides to the clerk the address, including any applicable apartment, unit, or space number, of the subject premises, or (2) provides to the clerk the name of one of the parties in the action or the case number and can establish through proper identification that he or she lives at the subject premises. The notice shall also contain a statement that access to the court index, register of actions, or other records is not permitted until 60 days after the complaint is filed, except pursuant to an order upon a showing of good cause therefor. The notice shall contain on its face the name and telephone number of the county bar association and the name and telephone number of an office or offices funded by the federal Legal Services Corporation or qualified legal services projects that receive funds distributed pursuant to Section 6216 of the Business and Professions Code, that provide legal services to low-income persons in the county in which the action is filed. The notice shall state that these numbers may be called for legal advice regarding the case. The notice shall be issued between 24 and 48 hours of the filing of the complaint, excluding weekends and holidays. One copy of the notice shall be addressed to "all occupants" and mailed separately to the subject premises. The notice shall not constitute service of the summons and complaint. (d) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall charge an additional fee of fifteen dollars ($15) for filing a first appearance by the plaintiff. This fee shall be added to the uniform filing fee for actions filed under this chapter. (e) This section does not apply to a case that seeks to terminate a mobilehome park tenancy if the statement of the character of the proceeding in the caption of the complaint clearly indicates that the complaint seeks termination of a mobilehome park tenancy.


1161.3. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), a landlord shall not terminate a tenancy or fail to renew a tenancy based upon an act or acts against a tenant or a tenant's household member that constitute domestic violence as defined in Section 6211 of the Family Code, sexual assault as defined in Section 1219, or stalking as defined in Section 1708.7 of the Civil Code or Section 646.9 of the Penal Code, if both of the following apply: (1) The act or acts of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking have been documented by one of the following: (A) A temporary restraining order or emergency protective order lawfully issued within the last 180 days pursuant to Section 527.6, Part 3 (commencing with Section 6240), Part 4 (commencing with Section 6300), or Part 5 (commencing with Section 6400) of Division 10 of the Family Code, Section 136.2 of the Penal Code, or Section 213.5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code that protects the tenant or household member from domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (B) A copy of a written report, written within the last 180 days, by a peace officer employed by a state or local law enforcement agency acting in his or her official capacity, stating that the tenant or household member has filed a report alleging that he or she or the household member is a victim of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (2) The person against whom the protection order has been issued or who was named in the police report of the act or acts of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking is not a tenant of the same dwelling unit as the tenant or household member. (b) A landlord may terminate or decline to renew a tenancy after the tenant has availed himself or herself of the protections afforded by subdivision (a) if both of the following apply: (1) Either of the following: (A) The tenant allows the person against whom the protection order has been issued or who was named in the police report of the act or acts of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking to visit the property. (B) The landlord reasonably believes that the presence of the person against whom the protection order has been issued or who was named in the police report of the act or acts of domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking poses a physical threat to other tenants, guests, invitees, or licensees, or to a tenant's right to quiet possession pursuant to Section 1927 of the Civil Code. (2) The landlord previously gave at least three days' notice to the tenant to correct a violation of paragraph (1). (c) Notwithstanding any provision in the lease to the contrary, the landlord shall not be liable to any other tenants for any action that arises due to the landlord's compliance with this section. (d) For the purposes of this section, "tenant" means tenant, subtenant, lessee, or sublessee. (e) The Judicial Council shall, on or before January 1, 2012, develop a new form or revise an existing form that may be used by a party to assert in the responsive pleading the grounds set forth in this section as an affirmative defense to an unlawful detainer action.

1161.5. When the notice required by Section 1161 states that the lessor or the landlord may elect to declare the forfeiture of the lease or rental agreement, that declaration shall be nullified and the lease or rental agreement shall remain in effect if the lessee or tenant performs within three days after service of the notice or if the breach is waived by the lessor or the landlord after service of the notice.


1161a. (a) As used in this section: (1) "Manufactured home" has the same meaning as provided in Section 18007 of the Health and Safety Code. (2) "Mobilehome" has the same meaning as provided in Section 18008 of the Health and Safety Code. (3) "Floating home" has the same meaning as provided in subdivision (d) of Section 18075.55 of the Health and Safety Code. (b) In any of the following cases, a person who holds over and continues in possession of a manufactured home, mobilehome, floating home, or real property after a three-day written notice to quit the property has been served upon the person, or if there is a subtenant in actual occupation of the premises, also upon such subtenant, as prescribed in Section 1162, may be removed therefrom as prescribed in this chapter: (1) Where the property has been sold pursuant to a writ of execution against such person, or a person under whom such person claims, and the title under the sale has been duly perfected. (2) Where the property has been sold pursuant to a writ of sale, upon the foreclosure by proceedings taken as prescribed in this code of a mortgage, or under an express power of sale contained therein, executed by such person, or a person under whom such person claims, and the title under the foreclosure has been duly perfected. (3) Where the property has been sold in accordance with Section 2924 of the Civil Code, under a power of sale contained in a deed of trust executed by such person, or a person under whom such person claims, and the title under the sale has been duly perfected. (4) Where the property has been sold by such person, or a person under whom such person claims, and the title under the sale has been duly perfected. (5) Where the property has been sold in accordance with Section 18037.5 of the Health and Safety Code under the default provisions of a conditional sale contract or security agreement executed by such person, or a person under whom such person claims, and the title under the sale has been duly perfected. (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (b), a tenant or subtenant in possession of a rental housing unit which has been sold by reason of any of the causes enumerated in subdivision (b), who rents or leases the rental housing unit either on a periodic basis from week to week, month to month, or other interval, or for a fixed period of time, shall be given written notice to quit pursuant to Section 1162, at least as long as the term of hiring itself but not exceeding 30 days, before the tenant or subtenant may be removed therefrom as prescribed in this chapter. (d) For the purpose of subdivision (c), "rental housing unit" means any structure or any part thereof which is rented or offered for rent for residential occupancy in this state.


1161b. (a) Notwithstanding Section 1161a, a tenant or subtenant in possession of a rental housing unit at the time the property is sold in foreclosure shall be given 60 days' written notice to quit pursuant to Section 1162 before the tenant or subtenant may be removed from the property as prescribed in this chapter. (b) This section shall not apply if any party to the note remains in the property as a tenant, subtenant, or occupant. (c) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2013, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2013, deletes or extends that date.


1161c. (a) In the case of any foreclosure on a residential property, the immediate successor in interest in the property pursuant to the foreclosure shall attach a cover sheet, in the form as set forth in subdivision (b), to any notice of termination of tenancy served on a tenant of that property within the first year after the foreclosure sale. This notice shall not be required if any of the following apply: (1) The tenancy is terminated pursuant to Section 1161. (2) The successor in interest and the tenant have executed a written rental agreement or lease or a written acknowledgment of a preexisting rental agreement or lease. (3) The tenant receiving the notice was not a tenant at the time of the foreclosure. (b) The cover sheet shall consist of the following notice, in at least 12-point type: Notice to Any Renters Living At �street address of the unit) The attached notice means that your home was recently sold in foreclosure and the new owner plans to evict you. You should talk to a lawyer NOW to see what your rights are. You may receive court papers in a few days. If your name is on the papers it may hurt your credit if you do not respond and simply move out. Also, if you do not respond within five days of receiving the papers, even if you are not named in the papers, you will likely lose any rights you may have. In some cases, you can respond without hurting your credit. You should ask a lawyer about it. You may have the right to stay in your home for 90 days or longer, regardless of any deadlines stated on any attached papers. In some cases and in some cities with a "just cause for eviction law," you may not have to move at all. But you must take the proper legal steps in order to protect your rights. How to Get Legal Help If you cannot afford an attorney, you may be eligible for free legal services from a nonprofit legal services program. You can locate these nonprofit groups at the California Legal Services Web site (www.lawhelpcalifornia.org), the California Courts Online Self-Help Center (www.courtinfo.ca.gov/selfhelp), or by contacting your local court or county bar association. (c) If the notice to quit specifies an effective date of at least 90 days after the notice is served, without qualification, no cover sheet shall be required, provided that the notice incorporates the text of the cover sheet, as set forth in subdivision (b) in at least 10-point type. The incorporated text shall omit the caption and the first paragraph of the cover sheet and the fourth paragraph of the cover sheet shall be replaced by the following language: You may have the right to stay in your home for longer than 90 days. If you have a lease that ends more than 90 days from now, the new owner must honor the lease under many circumstances. Also, in some cases and in some cities with a "just cause for eviction law," you may not have to move at all. But you must take the proper legal steps in order to protect your rights. (d) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2013, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2013, deletes or extends that date.


1162. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), the notices required by Sections 1161 and 1161a may be served by any of the following methods: (1) By delivering a copy to the tenant personally. (2) If he or she is absent from his or her place of residence, and from his or her usual place of business, by leaving a copy with some person of suitable age and discretion at either place, and sending a copy through the mail addressed to the tenant at his or her place of residence. (3) If such place of residence and business cannot be ascertained, or a person of suitable age or discretion there can not be found, then by affixing a copy in a conspicuous place on the property, and also delivering a copy to a person there residing, if such person can be found; and also sending a copy through the mail addressed to the tenant at the place where the property is situated. Service upon a subtenant may be made in the same manner. (b) The notices required by Section 1161 may be served upon a commercial tenant by any of the following methods: (1) By delivering a copy to the tenant personally. (2) If he or she is absent from the commercial rental property, by leaving a copy with some person of suitable age and discretion at the property, and sending a copy through the mail addressed to the tenant at the address where the property is situated. (3) If, at the time of attempted service, a person of suitable age or discretion is not found at the rental property through the exercise of reasonable diligence, then by affixing a copy in a conspicuous place on the property, and also sending a copy through the mail addressed to the tenant at the address where the property is situated. Service upon a subtenant may be made in the same manner. (c) For purposes of subdivision (b), "commercial tenant" means a person or entity that hires any real property in this state that is not a dwelling unit, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1940 of the Civil Code, or a mobilehome, as defined in Section 798.3 of the Civil Code.

1162a. In any case in which service or exhibition of a receiver's or levying officer's deed is required, in lieu thereof service of a copy or copies of the deed may be made as provided in Section 1162.


1164. No person other than the tenant of the premises and subtenant, if there be one, in the actual occupation of the premises when the complaint is filed, need be made parties defendant in the proceeding, nor shall any proceeding abate, nor the plaintiff be nonsuited for the nonjoinder of any person who might have been made party defendant, but when it appears that any of the parties served with process, or appearing in the proceeding, are guilty of the offense charged, judgment must be rendered against him or her. In case a defendant has become a subtenant of the premises in controversy, after the service of the notice provided for by subdivision 2 of Section 1161 of this code, upon the tenant of the premises, the fact that such notice was not served on each subtenant shall constitute no defense to the action. All persons who enter the premises under the tenant, after the commencement of the suit, shall be bound by the judgment, the same as if he or they had been made party to the action.


1165. Except as provided in the preceding section, the provisions of Part II of this Code, relating to parties to civil actions, are applicable to this proceeding.


1166. (a) The complaint shall: (1) Be verified and include the typed or printed name of the person verifying the complaint. (2) Set forth the facts on which the plaintiff seeks to recover. (3) Describe the premises with reasonable certainty. (4) If the action is based on paragraph (2) of Section 1161, state the amount of rent in default. (5) State specifically the method used to serve the defendant with the notice or notices of termination upon which the complaint is based. This requirement may be satisfied by using and completing all items relating to service of the notice or notices in an appropriate Judicial Council form complaint, or by attaching a proof of service of the notice or notices of termination served on the defendant. (b) The complaint may set forth any circumstances of fraud, force, or violence that may have accompanied the alleged forcible entry or forcible or unlawful detainer, and claim damages therefor. (c) In an action regarding residential real property based on Section 1161a, the plaintiff shall state in the caption of the complaint "Action based on Code of Civil Procedure Section 1161a." (d) (1) In an action regarding residential property, the plaintiff shall attach to the complaint the following: (A) A copy of the notice or notices of termination served on the defendant upon which the complaint is based. (B) A copy of any written lease or rental agreement regarding the premises. Any addenda or attachments to the lease or written agreement that form the basis of the complaint shall also be attached. The documents required by this subparagraph are not required to be attached if the complaint alleges any of the following: (i) The lease or rental agreement is oral. (ii) A written lease or rental agreement regarding the premises is not in the possession of the landlord or any agent or employee of the landlord. (iii) An action based solely on subdivision (2) of Section 1161. (2) If the plaintiff fails to attach the documents required by this subdivision, the court shall grant leave to amend the complaint for a five-day period in order to include the required attachments. (e) Upon filing the complaint, a summons shall be issued thereon.


1166a. (a) Upon filing the complaint, the plaintiff may, upon motion, have immediate possession of the premises by a writ of possession of a manufactured home, mobilehome, or real property issued by the court and directed to the sheriff of the county or marshal, for execution, where it appears to the satisfaction of the court, after a hearing on the motion, from the verified complaint and from any affidavits filed or oral testimony given by or on behalf of the parties, that the defendant resides out of state, has departed from the state, cannot, after due diligence, be found within the state, or has concealed himself or herself to avoid the service of summons. The motion shall indicate that the writ applies to all tenants, subtenants, if any, named claimants, if any, and any other occupants of the premises. (b) Written notice of the hearing on the motion shall be served on the defendant by the plaintiff in accordance with the provisions of Section 1011, and shall inform the defendant as follows: "You may file affidavits on your own behalf with the court and may appear and present testimony on your own behalf. However, if you fail to appear, the plaintiff will apply to the court for a writ of possession of a manufactured home, mobilehome, or real property." (c) The plaintiff shall file an undertaking in a sum that shall be fixed and determined by the judge, to the effect that, if the plaintiff fails to recover judgment against the defendant for the possession of the premises or if the suit is dismissed, the plaintiff will pay to the defendant those damages, not to exceed the amount fixed in the undertaking, as may be sustained by the defendant by reason of that dispossession under the writ of possession of a manufactured home, mobilehome, or real property. (d) If, at the hearing on the motion, the findings of the court are in favor of the plaintiff and against the defendant, an order shall be entered for the immediate possession of the premises. (e) The order for the immediate possession of the premises may be enforced as provided in Division 3 (commencing with Section 712.010) of Title 9 of Part 2. (f) For the purposes of this section, references in Division 3 (commencing with Section 712.010) of Title 9 of Part 2 and in subdivisions (e) to (m), inclusive, of Section 1174, to the "judgment debtor" shall be deemed references to the defendant, to the "judgment creditor" shall be deemed references to the plaintiff, and to the "judgment of possession or sale of property" shall be deemed references to an order for the immediate possession of the premises.


1167. The summons shall be in the form specified in Section 412.20 except that when the defendant is served, the defendant's response shall be filed within five days, including Saturdays and Sundays but excluding all other judicial holidays, after the complaint is served upon him or her. If the last day for filing the response falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the response period shall be extended to and including the next court day. In all other respects the summons shall be issued and served and returned in the same manner as a summons in a civil action.


1167.3. In any action under this chapter, unless otherwise ordered by the court for good cause shown, the time allowed the defendant to answer the complaint, answer the complaint, if amended, or amend the answer under paragraph (2), (3), (5), (6), or (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 586 shall not exceed five days.

1167.4. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any action under this chapter: (a) Where the defendant files a notice of motion as provided for in subdivision (a) of Section 418.10, the time for making the motion shall be not less than three days nor more than seven days after the filing of the notice. (b) The service and filing of a notice of motion under subdivision (a) shall extend the defendant's time to plead until five days after service upon him of the written notice of entry of an order denying his motion, except that for good cause shown the court may extend the defendant's time to plead for an additional period not exceeding 15 days.


1167.5. Unless otherwise ordered by the court for good cause shown, no extension of time allowed in any action under this chapter for the causes specified in Section 1054 shall exceed 10 days without the consent of the adverse party.

1169. If, at the time appointed, any defendant served with a summons does not appear and defend, the clerk, upon written application of the plaintiff and proof of the service of summons and complaint, shall enter the default of any defendant so served, and, if requested by the plaintiff, immediately shall enter judgment for restitution of the premises and shall issue a writ of execution thereon. The application for default judgment and the default judgment shall include a place to indicate that the judgment includes tenants, subtenants, if any, named claimants, if any, and any other occupants of the premises. Thereafter, the plaintiff may apply to the court for any other relief demanded in the complaint, including the costs, against the defendant, or defendants, or against one or more of the defendants.


1170. On or before the day fixed for his appearance, the defendant may appear and answer or demur.


1170.5. (a) If the defendant appears pursuant to Section 1170, trial of the proceeding shall be held not later than the 20th day following the date that the request to set the time of the trial is made. Judgment shall be entered thereon and, if the plaintiff prevails, a writ of execution shall be issued immediately by the court upon the request of the plaintiff. (b) The court may extend the period for trial upon the agreement of all of the parties. No other extension of the time for trial of an action under this chapter may be granted unless the court, upon its own motion or on motion of any party, holds a hearing and renders a decision thereon as specified in subdivision (c). (c) If trial is not held within the time specified in this section, the court, upon finding that there is a reasonable probability that the plaintiff will prevail in the action, shall determine the amount of damages, if any, to be suffered by the plaintiff by reason of the extension, and shall issue an order requiring the defendant to pay that amount into court as the rent would have otherwise become due and payable or into an escrow designated by the court for so long as the defendant remains in possession pending the termination of the action. The determination of the amount of the payment shall be based on the plaintiff's verified statement of the contract rent for rental payment, any verified objection thereto filed by the defendant, and the oral or demonstrative evidence presented at the hearing. The court's determination of the amount of damages shall include consideration of any evidence, presented by the parties, embracing the issue of diminution of value or any set off permitted by law. (d) If the defendant fails to make a payment ordered by the court, trial of the action shall be held within 15 days of the date payment was due. (e) Any cost for administration of an escrow account pursuant to this section shall be recoverable by the prevailing party as part of any recoverable cost in the action. (f) After trial of the action, the court shall determine the distribution of the payment made into court or the escrow designated by the court. (g) Where payments into court or the escrow designated by the court are made pursuant to this section, the court may order that the payments be invested in an insured interest-bearing account. Interest on the account shall be allocated to the parties in the same proportions as the original funds are allocated. (h) If any provision of this section or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of the section which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this section are severable. (i) Nothing in this section shall be construed to abrogate or interfere with the precedence given to the trial of criminal cases over the trial of civil matters by Section 1050 of the Penal Code.


1170.7. A motion for summary judgment may be made at any time after the answer is filed upon giving five days notice. Summary judgment shall be granted or denied on the same basis as a motion under Section 437c.

1170.8. In any action under this chapter, a discovery motion may be made at any time upon giving five days' notice.


1170.9. The Judicial Council shall adopt rules, not inconsistent with statute, prescribing the time for filing and serving opposition and reply papers, if any, relating to a motion under Section 1167.4, 1170.7, or 1170.8.

1171. Whenever an issue of fact is presented by the pleadings, it must be tried by a jury, unless such jury be waived as in other cases. The jury shall be formed in the same manner as other trial juries in an action of the same jurisdictional classification in the Court in which the action is pending.


1172. On the trial of any proceeding for any forcible entry or forcible detainer, the plaintiff shall only be required to show, in addition to the forcible entry or forcible detainer complained of, that he was peaceably in the actual possession at the time of the forcible entry, or was entitled to the possession at the time of the forcible detainer. The defendant may show in his defense that he or his ancestors, or those whose interest in such premises he claims, have been in the quiet possession thereof for the space of one whole year together next before the commencement of the proceedings, and that his interest therein is not then ended or determined; and such showing is a bar to the proceedings.

1173. When, upon the trial of any proceeding under this chapter, it appears from the evidence that the defendant has been guilty of either a forcible entry or a forcible or unlawful detainer, and other than the offense charged in the complaint, the Judge must order that such complaint be forthwith amended to conform to such proofs; such amendment must be made without any imposition of terms. No continuance shall be permitted upon account of such amendment unless the defendant, by affidavit filed, shows to the satisfaction of the Court good cause therefor.


1174. (a) If upon the trial, the verdict of the jury, or, if the case be tried without a jury, the findings of the court be in favor of the plaintiff and against the defendant, judgment shall be entered for the possession of the premises; and if the proceedings be for an unlawful detainer after neglect, or failure to perform the conditions or covenants of the lease or agreement under which the property is held, or after default in the payment of rent, the judgment shall also declare the forfeiture of that lease or agreement if the notice required by Section 1161 states the election of the landlord to declare the forfeiture thereof, but if that notice does not so state that election, the lease or agreement shall not be forfeited. Except as provided in Section 1166a, in any action for unlawful detainer brought by a petroleum distributor against a gasoline dealer, possession shall not be restored to the petroleum distributor unless the court in the unlawful detainer action determines that the petroleum distributor had good cause under Section 20999.1 of the Business and Professions Code to terminate, cancel, or refuse to renew the franchise of the gasoline dealer. In any action for unlawful detainer brought by a petroleum distributor against the gasoline dealer, the court may, at the time of request of either party, require the tenant to make rental payments into the court, for the lessor, at the contract rate, pending the resolution of the action. (b) The jury or the court, if the proceedings be tried without a jury, shall also assess the damages occasioned to the plaintiff by any forcible entry, or by any forcible or unlawful detainer, alleged in the complaint and proved on the trial, and find the amount of any rent due, if the alleged unlawful detainer be after default in the payment of rent. If the defendant is found guilty of forcible entry, or forcible or unlawful detainer, and malice is shown, the plaintiff may be awarded statutory damages of up to six hundred dollars ($600), in addition to actual damages, including rent found due. The trier of fact shall determine whether actual damages, statutory damages, or both, shall be awarded, and judgment shall be entered accordingly. (c) When the proceeding is for an unlawful detainer after default in the payment of rent, and the lease or agreement under which the rent is payable has not by its terms expired, and the notice required by Section 1161 has not stated the election of the landlord to declare the forfeiture thereof, the court may, and, if the lease or agreement is in writing, is for a term of more than one year, and does not contain a forfeiture clause, shall order that a writ shall not be issued to enforce the judgment until the expiration of five days after the entry of the judgment, within which time the tenant, or any subtenant, or any mortgagee of the term, or any other party interested in its continuance, may pay into the court, for the landlord, the amount found due as rent, with interest thereon, and the amount of the damages found by the jury or the court for the unlawful detainer, and the costs of the proceedings, and thereupon the judgment shall be satisfied and the tenant be restored to the tenant's estate. If payment as provided in this subdivision is not made within five days, the judgment may be enforced for its full amount and for the possession of the premises. In all other cases the judgment may be enforced immediately. (d) Subject to subdivision (c), the judgment for possession of the premises may be enforced as provided in Division 3 (commencing with Section 712.010) of Title 9 of Part 2. (e) Personal property remaining on the premises which the landlord reasonably believes to have been lost shall be disposed of pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 2080) of Chapter 4 of Title 6 of Part 4 of Division 3 of the Civil Code. The landlord is not liable to the owner of any property which is disposed of in this manner. If the appropriate police or sheriff's department refuses to accept that property, it shall be deemed not to have been lost for the purposes of this subdivision. (f) The landlord shall give notice pursuant to Section 1983 of the Civil Code to any person (other than the tenant) reasonably believed by the landlord to be the owner of personal property remaining on the premises unless the procedure for surrender of property under Section 1965 of the Civil Code has been initiated or completed. (g) The landlord shall store the personal property in a place of safekeeping until it is either released pursuant to subdivision (h) or disposed of pursuant to subdivision (i). (h) The landlord shall release the personal property pursuant to Section 1965 of the Civil Code or shall release it to the tenant or, at the landlord's option, to a person reasonably believed by the landlord to be its owner if the tenant or other person pays the costs of storage as provided in Section 1990 of the Civil Code and claims the property not later than the date specified in the writ of possession before which the tenant must make his or her claim or the date specified in the notice before which a person other than the tenant must make his or her claim. (i) Personal property not released pursuant to subdivision (h) shall be disposed of pursuant to Section 1988 of the Civil Code. (j) Where the landlord releases personal property to the tenant pursuant to subdivision (h), the landlord is not liable with respect to that property to any person. (k) Where the landlord releases personal property pursuant to subdivision (h) to a person (other than the tenant) reasonably believed by the landlord to be its owner, the landlord is not liable with respect to that property to: (1) The tenant or to any person to whom notice was given pursuant to subdivision (f); or (2) Any other person, unless that person proves that, prior to releasing the property, the landlord believed or reasonably should have believed that the person had an interest in the property and also that the landlord knew or should have known upon reasonable investigation the address of that person. (l) Where personal property is disposed of pursuant to Section 1988 of the Civil Code, the landlord is not liable with respect to that property to: (1) The tenant or to any person to whom notice was given pursuant to subdivision (f); or (2) Any other person, unless that person proves that, prior to disposing of the property pursuant to Section 1988 of the Civil Code, the landlord believed or reasonably should have believed that the person had an interest in the property and also that the landlord knew or should have known upon reasonable investigation the address of that person. (m) For the purposes of subdivisions (e), (f), (h), (k), and (l), the terms "owner," "premises," and "reasonable belief" have the same meaning as provided in Section 1980 of the Civil Code.


1174.2. (a) In an unlawful detainer proceeding involving residential premises after default in payment of rent and in which the tenant has raised as an affirmative defense a breach of the landlord's obligations under Section 1941 of the Civil Code or of any warranty of habitability, the court shall determine whether a substantial breach of these obligations has occurred. If the court finds that a substantial breach has occurred, the court (1) shall determine the reasonable rental value of the premises in its untenantable state to the date of trial, (2) shall deny possession to the landlord and adjudge the tenant to be the prevailing party, conditioned upon the payment by the tenant of the rent that has accrued to the date of the trial as adjusted pursuant to this subdivision within a reasonable period of time not exceeding five days, from the date of the court's judgment or, if service of the court's judgment is made by mail, the payment shall be made within the time set forth in Section 1013, (3) may order the landlord to make repairs and correct the conditions which constitute a breach of the landlord's obligations, (4) shall order that the monthly rent be limited to the reasonable rental value of the premises as determined pursuant to this subdivision until repairs are completed, and (5) except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), shall award the tenant costs and attorneys' fees if provided by, and pursuant to, any statute or the contract of the parties. If the court orders repairs or corrections, or both, pursuant to paragraph (3), the court's jurisdiction continues over the matter for the purpose of ensuring compliance. The court shall, however, award possession of the premises to the landlord if the tenant fails to pay all rent accrued to the date of trial, as determined due in the judgment, within the period prescribed by the court pursuant to this subdivision. The tenant shall, however, retain any rights conferred by Section 1174. (b) If the court determines that there has been no substantial breach of Section 1941 of the Civil Code or of any warranty of habitability by the landlord or if the tenant fails to pay all rent accrued to the date of trial, as required by the court pursuant to subdivision (a), then judgment shall be entered in favor of the landlord, and the landlord shall be the prevailing party for the purposes of awarding costs or attorneys' fees pursuant to any statute or the contract of the parties. (c) As used in this section, "substantial breach" means the failure of the landlord to comply with applicable building and housing code standards which materially affect health and safety. (d) Nothing in this section is intended to deny the tenant the right to a trial by jury. Nothing in this section shall limit or supersede any provision of Chapter 12.75 (commencing with Section 7060) of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code.


1174.21. A landlord who institutes an unlawful detainer proceeding based upon a tenant's nonpayment of rent, and who is liable for a violation of Section 1942.4 of the Civil Code, shall be liable to the tenant or lessee for reasonable attorneys' fees and costs of the suit, in an amount to be fixed by the court.


1174.25. (a) Any occupant who is served with a prejudgment claim of right to possession in accordance with Section 415.46 may file a claim as prescribed in Section 415.46, with the court within 10 days of the date of service of the prejudgment claim to right of possession as shown on the return of service, which period shall include Saturday and Sunday but excluding all other judicial holidays. If the last day for filing the claim falls on a Saturday or Sunday, the filing period shall be extended to and including the next court day. Filing the prejudgment claim of right to possession shall constitute a general appearance for which a fee shall be collected as provided in Section 70614 of the Government Code. Section 68511.3 of the Government Code applies to the prejudgment claim of right to possession. (b) At the time of filing, the claimant shall be added as a defendant in the action for unlawful detainer and the clerk shall notify the plaintiff that the claimant has been added as a defendant in the action by mailing a copy of the claim filed with the court to the plaintiff with a notation so indicating. The claimant shall answer or otherwise respond to the summons and complaint within five days, including Saturdays and Sundays but excluding all other judicial holidays, after filing the prejudgment claim of possession. Thereafter, the name of the claimant shall be added to any pleading, filing or form filed in the action for unlawful detainer.


1174.3. (a) Unless a prejudgment claim of right to possession has been served upon occupants in accordance with Section 415.46, any occupant not named in the judgment for possession who occupied the premises on the date of the filing of the action may object to enforcement of the judgment against that occupant by filing a claim of right to possession as prescribed in this section. A claim of right to possession may be filed at any time after service or posting of the writ of possession pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 715.020, up to and including the time at which the levying officer returns to effect the eviction of those named in the judgment of possession. Filing the claim of right to possession shall constitute a general appearance for which a fee shall be collected as provided in Section 70614 of the Government Code. Section 68511.3 of the Government Code applies to the claim of right to possession. An occupant or tenant who is named in the action shall not be required to file a claim of right to possession to protect that occupant's right to possession of the premises. (b) The court issuing the writ of possession of real property shall set a date or dates when the court will hold a hearing to determine the validity of objections to enforcement of the judgment specified in subdivision (a). An occupant of the real property for which the writ is issued may make an objection to eviction to the levying officer at the office of the levying officer or at the premises at the time of the eviction. If a claim of right to possession is completed and presented to the sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer, the officer shall forthwith (1) stop the eviction of occupants at the premises, and (2) provide a receipt or copy of the completed claim of right of possession to the claimant indicating the date and time the completed form was received, and (3) deliver the original completed claim of right to possession to the court issuing the writ of possession of real property. (c) A claim of right to possession is effected by any of the following: (1) Presenting a completed claim form in person with identification to the sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer as prescribed in this section, and delivering to the court within two court days after its presentation, an amount equal to 15 days' rent together with the appropriate fee or form for proceeding in forma pauperis. Upon receipt of a claim of right to possession, the sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer shall indicate thereon the date and time of its receipt and forthwith deliver the original to the issuing court and a receipt or copy of the claim to the claimant and notify the plaintiff of that fact. Immediately upon receipt of an amount equal to 15 days' rent and the appropriate fee or form for proceeding in forma pauperis, the court shall file the claim of right to possession and serve an endorsed copy with the notice of the hearing date on the plaintiff and the claimant by first-class mail. The court issuing the writ of possession shall set and hold a hearing on the claim not less than five nor more than 15 days after the claim is filed with the court. (2) Presenting a completed claim form in person with identification to the sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer as prescribed in this section, and delivering to the court within two court days after its presentation, the appropriate fee or form for proceeding in forma pauperis without delivering the amount equivalent to 15 days' rent. In this case, the court shall immediately set a hearing on the claim to be held on the fifth day after the filing is completed. The court shall notify the claimant of the hearing date at the time the claimant completes the filing by delivering to the court the appropriate fee or form for proceeding in forma pauperis, and shall notify the plaintiff of the hearing date by first-class mail. Upon receipt of a claim of right to possession, the sheriff, marshal, or other levying officer shall indicate thereon the date and time of its receipt and forthwith deliver the original to the issuing court and a receipt or copy of the claim to the claimant and notify the plaintiff of that fact. (d) At the hearing, the court shall determine whether there is a valid claim of possession by the claimant who filed the claim, and the court shall consider all evidence produced at the hearing, including, but not limited to, the information set forth in the claim. The court may determine the claim to be valid or invalid based upon the evidence presented at the hearing. The court shall determine the claim to be invalid if the court determines that the claimant is an invitee, licensee, guest, or trespasser. If the court determines the claim is invalid, the court shall order the return to the claimant of the amount of the 15 days' rent paid by the claimant, if that amount was paid pursuant to paragraph (1) or (3) of subdivision (c), less a pro rata amount for each day that enforcement of the judgment was delayed by reason of making the claim of right to possession, which pro rata amount shall be paid to the landlord. If the court determines the claim is valid, the amount equal to 15 days' rent paid by the claimant shall be returned immediately to the claimant. (e) If, upon hearing, the court determines that the claim is valid, then the court shall order further proceedings as follows: (1) If the unlawful detainer is based upon a curable breach, and the claimant was not previously served with a proper notice, if any notice is required, then the required notice may at the plaintiff's discretion be served on the claimant at the hearing or thereafter. If the claimant does not cure the breach within the required time, then a supplemental complaint may be filed and served on the claimant as defendant if the plaintiff proceeds against the claimant in the same action. For the purposes of this section only, service of the required notice, if any notice is required, and of the supplemental complaint may be made by first-class mail addressed to the claimant at the subject premises or upon his or her attorney of record and, in either case, Section 1013 shall otherwise apply. Further proceedings on the merits of the claimant's continued right to possession after service of the Summons and Supplemental Complaint as prescribed by this subdivision shall be conducted pursuant to this chapter. (2) In all other cases, the court shall deem the unlawful detainer Summons and Complaint to be amended on their faces to include the claimant as defendant, service of the Summons and Complaint, as thus amended, may at the plaintiff's discretion be made at the hearing or thereafter, and the claimant thus named and served as a defendant in the action shall answer or otherwise respond within five days thereafter. (f) If a claim is made without delivery to the court of the appropriate filing fee or a form for proceeding in forma pauperis, as prescribed in this section, the claim shall be immediately deemed denied and the court shall so order. Upon the denial of the claim, the court shall immediately deliver an endorsed copy of the order to the levying officer and shall serve an endorsed copy of the order on the plaintiff and claimant by first-class mail. (g) If the claim of right to possession is denied pursuant to subdivision (f), or if the claimant fails to appear at the hearing or, upon hearing, if the court determines that there are no valid claims, or if the claimant does not prevail at a trial on the merits of the unlawful detainer action, the court shall order the levying officer to proceed with enforcement of the original writ of possession of real property as deemed amended to include the claimant, which shall be effected within a reasonable time not to exceed five days. Upon receipt of the court's order, the levying officer shall enforce the writ of possession of real property against any occupant or occupants. (h) The claim of right to possession shall be made on the following form:

NOTICE OF INCOMPLETE TEXT: The Claim of Right to Possession form appears in the hard-copy publication of the chaptered bill. See Sec. 43 of Chapter 75, Statutes of 2005.



1174.5. A judgment in unlawful detainer declaring the forfeiture of the lease or agreement under which real property is held shall not relieve the lessee from liability pursuant to Section 1951.2 of the Civil Code.

1176. (a) An appeal taken by the defendant shall not automatically stay proceedings upon the judgment. Petition for stay of the judgment pending appeal shall first be directed to the judge before whom it was rendered. Stay of judgment shall be granted when the court finds that the moving party will suffer extreme hardship in the absence of a stay and that the nonmoving party will not be irreparably injured by its issuance. If the stay is denied by the trial court, the defendant may forthwith file a petition for an extraordinary writ with the appropriate appeals court. If the trial or appellate court stays enforcement of the judgment, the court may condition the stay on whatever conditions the court deems just, but in any case it shall order the payment of the reasonable monthly rental value to the court monthly in advance as rent would otherwise become due as a condition of issuing the stay of enforcement. As used in this subdivision, "reasonable rental value" means the contract rent unless the rental value has been modified by the trial court in which case that modified rental value shall be used. (b) A new cause of action on the same agreement for the rental of real property shall not be barred because of an appeal by any party.


1177. Except as otherwise provided in this Chapter the provisions of Part II of this Code are applicable to, and constitute the rules of practice in the proceedings mentioned in this Chapter.


1178. The provisions of Part 2 of this code, relative to new trials and appeals, except insofar as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter or with rules adopted by the Judicial Council, apply to the proceedings mentioned in this chapter.


1179. The court may relieve a tenant against a forfeiture of a lease or rental agreement, whether written or oral, and whether or not the tenancy has terminated, and restore him or her to his or her former estate or tenancy, in case of hardship, as provided in Section 1174. The court has the discretion to relieve any person against forfeiture on its own motion. An application for relief against forfeiture may be made at any time prior to restoration of the premises to the landlord. The application may be made by a tenant or subtenant, or a mortgagee of the term, or any person interested in the continuance of the term. It must be made upon petition, setting forth the facts upon which the relief is sought, and be verified by the applicant. Notice of the application, with a copy of the petition, must be served at least five days prior to the hearing on the plaintiff in the judgment, who may appear and contest the application. Alternatively, a person appearing without an attorney may make the application orally, if the plaintiff either is present and has an opportunity to contest the application, or has been given ex parte notice of the hearing and the purpose of the oral application. In no case shall the application or motion be granted except on condition that full payment of rent due, or full performance of conditions or covenants stipulated, so far as the same is practicable, be made.


1179a. In all proceedings brought to recover the possession of real property pursuant to the provisions of this chapter all courts, wherein such actions are or may hereafter be pending, shall give such actions precedence over all other civil actions therein, except actions to which special precedence is given by law, in the matter of the setting the same for hearing or trial, and in hearing the same, to the end that all such actions shall be quickly heard and determined.


Title 4. Of The Enforcement Of Liens

Chapter 1. Liens In General

Ca Codes (ccp:1180) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1180



1180. A lien is a charge imposed upon specific property, by which it is made security for the performance of an act.


Chapter 2.5. Oil And Gas Liens

Ca Codes (ccp:1203.50-1203.66) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1203.50-1203.66



1203.50. This chapter shall be known and may be cited as the Oil and Gas Lien Act.


1203.51. Unless the context otherwise requires, the definitions set forth in this section shall govern the construction of this chapter. (a) "Person" means an individual, corporation, firm, partnership, limited liability company, or association. (b) "Owner" means a person holding any interest in the legal or equitable title or both to any leasehold for oil or gas purposes, or his or her agent and shall include purchasers under executory contract, receivers, and trustees. (c) "Contract" means a contract, written or oral, express or implied, or partly express and partly implied, or executory or executed, or partly executory and partly executed. (d) "Material" means any material, machinery, appliances, buildings, structures, casing, tanks, pipelines, tools, bits, or other equipment or supplies but does not include rigs or hoists or their integral component parts except wire lines. (e) "Labor" means work performed in return for wages. (f) "Services" means work performed exclusive of labor, including the hauling of material, whether or not involving the furnishing of material. (g) "Furnish" means sell or rent. (h) "Drilling" means drilling, digging, shooting, torpedoing, perforating, fracturing, testing, logging, acidizing, cementing, completing or repairing. (i) "Operating" means all operations conducted on the lease in connection with or necessary to the production of oil or gas, either in the development thereof or in working thereon by the subtractive process. (j) "Construction" means construction, maintenance, operation, or repair, either in the development thereof or in working thereon by the subtractive process. (k) "Original contractor" means any person for whose benefit a lien is prescribed under Section 1203.52.


1203.52. Any person who shall, under contract with the owner of any leasehold for oil or gas purposes perform any labor or furnish any material or services used or employed, or furnished to be used or employed in the drilling or operating of any oil or gas well upon such leasehold, or in the constructing, putting together, or repairing of any material so used or employed, or furnished to be so used or employed, shall be entitled to a lien under this chapter, whether or not a producing well is obtained and whether or not such material is incorporated in or becomes a part of the completed oil or gas well, for the amount due him for any such labor performed, or materials or services furnished, within six months prior to the date of recording the statement of lien as provided in Section 1203.58, including, without limitation, shipping and mileage charges connected therewith, and interest from the date the same was due.


1203.53. Liens created under Section 1203.52 shall extend to: (a) The leasehold for oil or gas purposes to which the materials or services were furnished, or for which the labor was performed, and the appurtenances thereunto belonging, exclusive of any and all royalty interest, overriding interests and production payments created by an instrument recorded prior to the date such materials or services were first furnished or such labor was first performed for which lien is claimed; and (b) All materials and fixtures owned by the owner or owners of such leasehold and used or employed, or furnished to be used or employed in the drilling or operating of any oil or gas well located thereon; and (c) All oil or gas wells located on such leasehold, and the oil or gas produced therefrom, and the proceeds thereof, except the interest therein owned by the owners of royalty interests, overriding royalty interests and production payments created by an instrument recorded prior to the date such materials or services were first furnished or such labor was first performed for which the lien is claimed.

1203.54. Any person who shall, under contract, perform any labor or furnish any material or services as a subcontractor under an original contractor or for or to an original contractor or a subcontractor under an original contractor, shall be entitled to a lien upon all the property upon which the lien of an original contactor may attach to the same extent as an original contractor, and the lien provided for in this section shall further extend and attach to all materials and fixtures owned by such original contractor or subcontractor to or for whom the labor is performed or material or services furnished and used or employed, or furnished to be used or employed in the drilling or operating of such oil or gas wells.


1203.55. When a lien provided for in this chapter shall have attached to a leasehold estate, forfeiture of such estate shall not impair any lien as to material, appurtenances and fixtures located thereon and to which such lien has attached prior to forfeiture. If a lien provided for in this chapter attaches to an equitable interest or to a legal interest contingent upon the happening of a condition subsequent, failure of such interest to ripen into legal title or such condition subsequent to be fulfilled, shall not impair any such lien as to material, appurtenances and fixtures located thereon and to which said lien had attached prior to such failure.


1203.56. The lien provided for in this chapter arises on the date of the furnishing of the first item of material or services or the date of performance of the first labor for which a lien is claimed under the provisions of this chapter. Upon compliance with the provisions of Section 1203.58, such lien shall be preferred to all other titles, charges, liens or encumbrances which may attach to or upon any of the property upon which a lien is given by this chapter subsequent to the date the lien herein provided for arises.


1203.57. All liens arising by virtue of this chapter upon the same property shall be of equal standing except that liens of persons for the performance of labor shall be preferred to all other liens arising by virtue of this chapter.

1203.58. Every person claiming a lien under this chapter, shall record in the office of the county recorder for the county in which such leasehold, or some part thereof, is situated, a verified statement setting forth the amount claimed and the items thereof, the dates on which labor was performed or material or services furnished, the name of the owner of the leasehold, if known, the name of the claimant and his mailing address, a description of the leasehold, and if the claimant be a claimant under Section 1203.54, the name of the person for whom the labor was immediately performed or the material or services were immediately furnished. The statement of lien must be recorded within six months after the date on which the claimant's labor was performed or his materials or services were furnished to be effective as to such labor, materials, or services.


1203.59. Anything in this chapter to the contrary notwithstanding, any lien claimed by virtue of this chapter, insofar as it may extend to oil or gas or the proceeds of the sale of oil or gas, shall not be effective against any purchaser of such oil or gas until written notice of such claim has been delivered to such purchaser. Such notice shall state the name of the claimant, his address, the amount for which the lien is claimed, and a description of the leasehold upon which the lien is claimed. Such notice shall be delivered personally to the purchaser or by registered letter or certified mail. Upon receipt of such notice the purchaser shall withhold payments for such oil or gas runs to the extent of the lien amount claimed until delivery of notice in writing that the claim has been paid. The funds so withheld by the purchaser shall be used in payment of the lien judgment upon foreclosure. The lien claimant shall within 10 days give notice in writing that the claim has been paid.


1203.60. (a) Whenever any lien or liens shall be claimed or recorded under the provisions of this chapter then the lessor or owner of the property on which the lien or liens are claimed or the contractor or subcontractor through whom such lien or liens are claimed, or either of them, may record a bond with the county recorder of the county in which the property is located as herein provided. Such bond shall describe the property on which lien or liens are claimed, shall refer to the lien or liens claimed in manner sufficient to identify them and shall be in an amount equal to 150 percent of the amount of the claimed lien or liens referred to and shall be payable to the party or parties claiming same. Such bond shall be executed by the party recording same as principal and by a corporate surety authorized to execute such bonds as surety and shall be conditioned substantially that the principal and surety will pay to the obligees named or their assigns the amounts of the liens so claimed by them with all costs in the event same shall be proven to be liens on such property. (b) Such bond, when recorded, shall take the place of the property against which any claim for lien referred to in such bond is asserted. At any time within the period of time provided in Section 1203.61, any person claiming such lien may sue upon such bond but no action shall be brought upon such bond after the expiration of such period. One action upon such bond shall not exhaust the remedies thereon but each obligee or assignee of an obligee named therein may maintain a separate suit thereon in any court having jurisdiction.


1203.61. (a) Any lien provided for by this chapter shall be enforced in the same manner as provided in Title l5 (commencing with Section 3082), Part 4, Division 3, of the Civil Code. Such action shall be filed within 180 days from the time of the recording of the lien provided for herein. If a credit be given and notice of the fact and terms of such credit be filed in the office of the county recorder subsequent to the filing of such lien and prior to the expiration of said 180-day period, then such lien continues in force until 180 days after the expiration of such credit, but no lien continues in force by reason of any agreement to give credit for a longer time than one year from the time the work is completed. If the proceedings to enforce the lien be not prosecuted to trial within two years after the commencement thereof, the court may in its discretion dismiss the same for want of prosecution, and in all cases the dismissal of such action (unless it be expressly stated that the same is without prejudice) or a judgment rendered therein that no lien exists shall be equivalent to the cancellation and removal from the record of such lien. (b) As against any purchaser or encumbrancer for value and in good faith whose rights are acquired subsequent to the expiration of the 180-day period following the filing of such lien, no giving of credit or extension of the lien or time to enforce the same shall be effective unless evidenced by a notice or agreement filed for record in the office of the county recorder prior to the acquisition of the rights of such purchaser or encumbrancer.


1203.61. (a) Any lien provided for by this chapter shall be enforced in the same manner as provided in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 8400) of Title 2 of Part 6 of Division 4 of the Civil Code. The action shall be filed within 180 days from the time of the recording of the lien. If a credit is given and notice of the fact and terms of the credit is filed in the office of the county recorder subsequent to the filing of the lien and prior to the expiration of the 180-day period, then the lien continues in force until 180 days after the expiration of the credit, but no lien continues in force by reason of any agreement to give credit for a longer time than one year from the time the work is completed. If the proceedings to enforce the lien are not prosecuted to trial within two years after commencement, the court may in its discretion dismiss the action for want of prosecution, and in all cases the dismissal of the action (unless it is expressly stated that it is without prejudice) or a judgment in the action that no lien exists is equivalent to the cancellation and removal from the record of the lien. (b) As against any purchaser or encumbrancer for value and in good faith whose rights are acquired subsequent to the expiration of the 180-day period following the filing of the lien, no giving of credit or extension of the lien or time to enforce the lien shall be effective unless evidenced by a notice or agreement filed for record in the office of the county recorder prior to the acquisition of the rights of the purchaser or encumbrancer.


1203.62. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to impair or affect the right of any person to whom any debt may be due for work performed or materials or services furnished to maintain a personal action against the person liable for such debt.


1203.63. The taking of any note or any additional security by any person given a lien by this chapter shall not constitute a waiver of the lien given by this chapter unless made a waiver by express agreement of the parties in writing. The claiming of a lien under this chapter shall not constitute a waiver of any other right or security held by the claimant unless made a waiver by express agreement of the parties in writing.


1203.64. All claims for liens and likewise all actions to recover therefor under this chapter shall be assignable upon compliance with the provisions of Section 1203.58 so as to vest in the assignee all rights and remedies herein given subject to all defenses thereto that might be raised if such assignments had not been made.


1203.65. All liens granted by this chapter shall be perfected and enforced in accordance with the provisions hereof whether such liens arise before or after the effective date of this chapter; provided, however, that any unperfected lien granted under any statute in effect prior to the effective date of this chapter and which could be subsequently perfected in accordance with such prior statute were it not for the existence of this chapter may be perfected and enforced in accordance with the provisions of this chapter if the statement of lien required to be recorded under Section 1203.58 is recorded within the time therein required or within two months after the effective date of this chapter, whichever period is longer; and provided further, that the validity of any lien perfected prior to the effective date of this chapter in accordance with the requirements of any statute in effect prior to such effective date shall be determined on the basis of such prior statute but the enforcement thereof shall insofar as possible be governed by the provisions of this chapter.


1203.66. This chapter shall be given liberal construction in favor of all persons entitled to any lien under it.


Chapter 3. Certain Liens And Priorities For Salaries, Wages And Consumer Debts

Ca Codes (ccp:1204-1208) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1204-1208



1204. When any assignment, whether voluntary or involuntary, and whether formal or informal, is made for the benefit of creditors of the assignor, or results from any proceeding in insolvency or receivership commenced against him or her, or when any property is turned over to the creditors of a person, firm, association or corporation, or to a receiver or trustee for the benefit of creditors, the following claims have priority in the following order: (a) Allowed unsecured claims, but only to the extent of four thousand three hundred dollars ($4,300) for each individual or corporation, as the case may be, earned within 90 days before the date of the making of such assignment or the taking over of the property or the commencement of the court proceeding or the date of the cessation of the debtor's business, whichever occurs first, for either of the following: (1) Wages, salaries, or commissions, including vacation, severance and sick leave pay earned by an individual. (2) Sales commissions earned by an individual, or by a corporation with only one employee, acting as an independent contractor in the sale of goods or services of the debtor in the ordinary course of the debtor's business if, and only if, during the 12 months preceding the date of the making of the assignment or the taking over of the property or the commencement of the proceeding or the date of the cessation of the debtor's business, whichever occurs first, at least 75 percent of the amount that the individual or corporation earned by acting as an independent contractor in the sale of goods or services was earned from the debtor. (b) Allowed unsecured claims for contributions to employee benefit plans arising from services rendered within 180 days before the date of the making of the assignment or the taking over of the property or the commencement of the court proceeding or the date of the cessation of the debtor's business, whichever occurs first; but only for each employee benefit plan, to the extent of the number of employees covered by the plan multiplied by four thousand three hundred dollars ($4,300), less the aggregate amount paid to the employees under subdivision (a), plus the aggregate amount paid by the estate on behalf of the employees to any other employee benefit plan. (c) The above claims shall be paid by the trustee, assignee or receiver before the claim of any other creditor of the assignor, insolvent, or debtor whose property is so turned over, and shall be paid as soon as the money with which to pay same becomes available. If there is insufficient money to pay all the labor claims in full, the money available shall be distributed among the claimants in proportion to the amount of their respective claims. The trustee, receiver or assignee for the benefit of creditors shall have the right to require sworn claims to be presented and shall have the right to refuse to pay any such preferred claim, either in whole or in part, if he or she has reasonable cause to believe that a claim is not valid but shall pay any part thereof that is not disputed, without prejudice to the claimant's rights, as to the balance of his or her claim, and withhold sufficient money to cover the disputed portion until the claimant in question has a reasonable opportunity to establish the validity of his or her claim by court action, either in his or her own name or through an assignee. (d) This section is binding upon all the courts of this state and in all receivership actions the court shall order the receiver to pay promptly out of the first receipts and earnings of the receivership, after paying the current operating expenses, such preferred labor claims.


1204.5. In any general assignment for the benefit of creditors, the following claims shall have priority, subordinate to the priorities for labor claims under Section 1204, but prior to all other unsecured claims: allowed unsecured claims of individuals, to the extent of nine hundred dollars ($900) for each such individual, arising from the deposit, before the commencement of the case, of money in connection with the purchase, lease, or rental of property, or the purchase of services, for the personal, family, or household use of such individuals, that were not delivered or provided. The priority granted by this section shall be subordinate to that granted by Sections 18933 and 26312 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.


1205. Upon the sale or transfer of any business or the stock in trade, in bulk, or a substantial part thereof, not in the ordinary and regular course of business or trade, unpaid wages of employees of the seller or transferor earned within ninety (90) days prior to the sale, transfer, or opening of an escrow for the sale thereof, shall constitute preferred claims and liens thereon as between creditors of the seller or transferor and must be paid first from the proceeds of the sale or transfer.


1206. (a) Upon the levy under a writ of attachment or execution not founded upon a claim for labor, any miner, mechanic, salesman, servant, clerk, laborer or other person who has performed work or rendered personal services for the defendant within 90 days prior to the levy may file a verified statement of the claim with the officer executing the writ, file a copy with the court that issued the writ, and give copies, containing his or her address, to the plaintiff and the defendant, or any attorney, clerk or agent representing them, or mail copies to them by registered mail at their last known address, return of which by the post office undelivered shall be deemed a sufficient service if no better address is available, and that claim, not exceeding nine hundred dollars ($900), unless disputed, shall be paid by the officer, immediately upon the expiration of the time for dispute of the claim as prescribed in Section 1207, from the proceeds of the levy remaining in the officer's hands at the time of the filing of the statement or collectible by the officer on the basis of the writ. (b) The court issuing the writ shall make a notation in the register of actions of every preferred labor claim of which it receives a copy and shall endorse on any writ of execution or abstract of judgment issued subsequently in the case that it is issued subject to the rights of a preferred labor claimant or claimants and giving the names and amounts of all preferred labor claims of which it has notice. In levying under any writ of execution the officer making the levy shall include in the amount due under the execution all preferred labor claims that have been filed in the action and of which the officer has notice, except any claims that may have been finally disallowed by the court under this procedure and of which disallowance the officer has actual notice. The amount due on preferred labor claims that have not been finally disallowed by the court shall be considered a part of the sum due under any writ of attachment or execution in augmentation of that amount and any person, firm, association, or corporation on whom a writ of attachment or execution is levied shall immediately pay to the levying officer the amount of the preferred labor claims, out of any money belonging to the defendant in the action, before paying the principal sum called for in the writ. (c) If any claim is disputed within the time, and in the manner prescribed in Section 1207, and a copy of the dispute is mailed by registered mail to the claimant or the claimant's attorney at the address given in the statement of claim and the registry receipt is attached to the original of the dispute when it is filed with the levying officer, or is handed to the claimant or the claimant's attorney, the claimant, or the claimant's assignee, must within 10 days after the copy is deposited in the mail or is handed to the claimant or the claimant's attorney, petition the court having jurisdiction of the action on which the writ is based, for a hearing before it to determine the claim for priority, or the claim to priority is barred. If more than one attachment or execution is involved, the petition shall be filed in the court having jurisdiction over the senior attachment or execution. The hearing shall be held within 20 days from the filing of the petition, unless the court continues it for good cause. Ten days' notice of the hearing shall be given by the petitioner to the plaintiff, the defendant, and all parties claiming an interest in the property, or their attorneys. The notice may be informal and need specify only the name of the court, the names of the principal parties to the senior attachment or execution, and the name of the wage claimant or claimants on whose behalf it is filed but shall specify that the hearing is for the purpose of determining the claim for priority. The plaintiff, the defendant, or any other party claiming an interest may contest the amount or validity of the claim in spite of any confession of judgment or failure to appear or to contest the claim on the part of any other person. (d) There shall be no cost for filing or hearing the petition. The hearing on the petition shall be informal but all parties testifying shall be sworn. Any claimant may appear on the claimant's own behalf at the hearing and may call and examine witnesses to substantiate his or her claim. An appeal may be taken from a judgment in a proceeding under this section in the manner provided for appeals from judgments of the court where the proceeding occurred, in an action of the same jurisdictional classification. (e) The officer shall keep, until the determination of the claim for priority, any amount of the proceeds of the writ necessary to satisfy the claim. If the claim for priority is allowed, the officer shall pay the amount due, including the claimant's cost of suit, from those proceeds, immediately after the order allowing the claim becomes final.


1207. Within five days after receiving a copy of the statement provided for in the next preceding section, either the plaintiff or the defendant in the action in which the writ issued may file with the officer a sworn statement denying that any part of such claim is due for services rendered within ninety days next preceding the levy of the writ, or denying that any part of such claim, beyond a sum specified, is so due. Such sworn statement can not be made on information and belief unless the party swearing to same has actual information and belief that the wage claim, or the portion thereof that is contested, is not justly due, and in such case the nature and source of the information must be given. If a part of the claim is admitted to be due, and the claimant nevertheless files a petition for hearing and the court does not allow more than the amount so admitted, he can not recover costs but the costs must be adjudged against him, and the amount thereof deducted from the sum found due him.

1208. If the claims presented under Section 1206 and not disputed, or, if disputed, established by judgment, exceed the proceeds of the writ not disposed of before their presentation, such proceeds shall be distributed among the claimants in proportion to the amount of their respective claims after the costs incurred by the senior attaching plaintiff or judgment creditor in such action have first been taken care of. If sufficient money to pay in full all preferred labor claims filed under an attachment or execution does not become available immediately upon the expiration of the time for dispute of such claims under Section 1207, any of the claimants, or their assignees, have the right to proceed directly against the money or other property levied on in individual or joint actions by themselves or their assignees against the defendant, and the attachment or execution under which the preferred claims were filed shall be considered set aside as far as such claimants, or their assignees, are concerned so as to enable them, or any of them, or any of their assignees, to proceed directly against any or all of the money or other property in question by means of their own attachments or executions; provided, however, that any money collected on behalf of any such labor claimant, or his or her assignee, on the basis of such new attachment or execution shall be shared in by the other preferred labor claimants who have filed claims that have not been disputed, or, if disputed, established by judgment, in proportion to the amount of their respective claims, deducting only the costs in the action brought by the said labor claimant, or his or her assignee, and the costs in the original action brought by the senior attaching plaintiff or judgment creditor. If such senior attaching plaintiff or judgment creditor requests a release of his or her original attachment or execution, and the preferred labor claims filed under same are not released, the officer who levied the writ must first mail notices of such request to release to each of the labor claimants who have filed claims, or their attorneys, which notices must specify that unless the claimants bring attachment actions of their own and levy on the money or property in question within five days from the date thereof the money or property will be released from the attachment or execution; provided, however, that such officer may instead collect sufficient money on the basis of the original writ to pay off the preferred labor claims in full and then release the attachment or execution, but in no case shall the officer release the attachment or execution without first taking care of the labor claims until the five-day period has expired, unless the officer's costs, keepers' fees or storage charges have not been immediately taken care of by some of the parties involved. In any case it shall be lawful for a garnishee to pay over to the officer levying the writ any money held by the garnishee without waiting for execution to be levied and the officer' s receipt for the money shall be a sufficient quittance, and the officer shall collect such money and immediately pay off the established preferred labor claims in all cases where it is possible to do so without additional court proceedings on the officer's part.


Chapter 4. Certain Liens Upon Animals

Ca Codes (ccp:1208.5) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1208.5



1208.5. Any person having a lien upon any animal or animals under the provisions of Section 597a or 597f of the Penal Code may satisfy the lien as follows: If the lien is not discharged and satisfied, by the person responsible, within three days after the obligation becomes due, then the person holding the lien may resort to the proper court to satisfy the claim; or may, three days after the charges against the property become due, sell the property, or an undivided fraction thereof as may become necessary, to defray the amount due and costs of sale, by giving three days' notice of the sale by advertising in some newspaper published in the county, or city and county, in which the lien has attached to the property; or, if there is no newspaper published in the county, then by posting notices of the sale in three of the most public places in the town or county for three days previous to the sale. The notices shall contain an accurate description of the property to be sold, together with the terms of sale, which must be for cash, payable on the consummation of the sale. The proceeds of the sale shall be applied to the discharge of the lien and the costs of sale; the remainder, if any, shall be paid over to the owner, if known, and if not known shall be paid into the treasury of the humane society of the county, or city and county, wherein the sale takes place; if no humane society exists in the county, then the remainder shall be paid into the county treasury.


Chapter 5. Liens On Aircraft

Ca Codes (ccp:1208.61-1208.70) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1208.61-1208.70



1208.61. Subject to the limitations set forth in this chapter, every person has a lien dependent upon possession for the compensation to which he is legally entitled for making repairs or performing labor upon, and furnishing supplies or materials for, and for the storage, repair, or safekeeping of, any aircraft, also for reasonable charges for the use of any landing aid furnished such aircraft and reasonable landing fees.


1208.62. That portion of such lien in excess of two hundred fifty dollars ($250) for work or services rendered or performed at the request of any person other than the holder of the legal title is invalid, unless prior to commencing such work or service the person claiming the lien gives actual notice to the legal owner and the mortgagee, if any, of the aircraft, and the written consent of the legal owner and the mortgagee of the aircraft is obtained before such work or services are performed. For the purposes of this chapter the person named in the federal aircraft registration certificate issued by the Administrator of Civil Aeronautics shall be deemed to be the legal owner.

1208.63. Any lien for labor or materials provided for in this chapter may be assigned by written instrument accompanied by delivery of possession of the aircraft subject to the lien and the assignee may exercise the rights of a lienholder pursuant to this chapter. Any lienholder assigning a lien shall at the time of the assignment give written notice, either by personal delivery or by registered mail with return receipt requested, to the legal owner of the property covered by the lien, including the name and address of the person to whom the lien is assigned.


1208.64. Whenever the lien upon any aircraft is lost by reason of the loss of possession through trick, fraud, or device, the repossession of such aircraft by the lienholder revives the lien, but the lien so revived is subordinate to any right, title, or interest of any person under any sale, transfer, encumbrance, lien, or other interest acquired or secured in good faith and for value between the time of the loss of possession and the time of repossession.


1208.65. If the lienholder is not paid the amount due within 10 days after it becomes due, the lienholder may proceed to sell the property, or so much thereof as is necessary to satisfy the lien and costs of sale, at public auction.

1208.66. Prior to any such sale the lienholder shall publish a notice of the sale pursuant to Section 6062 of the Government Code in a newspaper published in the county in which the aircraft is situated, or if there is no such newspaper, by posting notice of sale in three of the most public places in the city or place where such aircraft is to be sold for 10 days previous to the date of the sale. Prior to the sale of any aircraft to satisfy any such lien, 20 days' notice by registered mail shall be given to the legal owner as it appears in the registration certificate.


1208.67. The proceeds of the sale must be applied to the discharge of the lien and the cost of keeping and selling the property. The remainder, if any, shall be paid to the legal owner.


1208.68. Within 20 days after the sale, the legal owner may redeem the aircraft so sold upon the payment of the amount of the lien, all costs and expenses of sale, and interest on such sum at the rate of 12 percent a year from the date it became due or the date when the amounts were advanced until the repayment.

1208.69. It is a misdemeanor for any person to obtain possession of all or any part of any aircraft subject to a lien under this chapter through surreptitious removal or by trick, fraud, or device perpetrated upon the lienholder.

1208.70. This chapter shall not apply to aircraft operated exclusively by an air carrier or a foreign air carrier, as defined in subdivisions (2) and (19) of Section 1 of Chapter 601 of the Statutes of the Seventy-fifth United States Congress, Second Session (1938), engaged in air transportation as defined in subdivision (10) of the same section while there is in force a certificate by, or a foreign air carrier permit of, the Civil Aeronautics Board of the United States, or its successor, authorizing such air carrier to engage in such transportation.


Title 5. Of Contempts

Ca Codes (ccp:1209-1222) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1209-1222



1209. (a) The following acts or omissions in respect to a court of justice, or proceedings therein, are contempts of the authority of the court: 1. Disorderly, contemptuous, or insolent behavior toward the judge while holding the court, tending to interrupt the due course of a trial or other judicial proceeding; 2. A breach of the peace, boisterous conduct, or violent disturbance, tending to interrupt the due course of a trial or other judicial proceeding; 3. Misbehavior in office, or other willful neglect or violation of duty by an attorney, counsel, clerk, sheriff, coroner, or other person, appointed or elected to perform a judicial or ministerial service; 4. Abuse of the process or proceedings of the court, or falsely pretending to act under authority of an order or process of the court; 5. Disobedience of any lawful judgment, order, or process of the court; 6. Rescuing any person or property in the custody of an officer by virtue of an order or process of such court; 7. Unlawfully detaining a witness, or party to an action while going to, remaining at, or returning from the court where the action is on the calendar for trial; 8. Any other unlawful interference with the process or proceedings of a court; 9. Disobedience of a subpoena duly served, or refusing to be sworn or answer as a witness; 10. When summoned as a juror in a court, neglecting to attend or serve as such, or improperly conversing with a party to an action, to be tried at such court, or with any other person, in relation to the merits of such action, or receiving a communication from a party or other person in respect to it, without immediately disclosing the same to the court; 11. Disobedience by an inferior tribunal, magistrate, or officer, of the lawful judgment, order, or process of a superior court, or proceeding in an action or special proceeding contrary to law, after such action or special proceeding is removed from the jurisdiction of such inferior tribunal, magistrate, or officer. (b) No speech or publication reflecting upon or concerning any court or any officer thereof shall be treated or punished as a contempt of such court unless made in the immediate presence of such court while in session and in such a manner as to actually interfere with its proceedings. (c) Notwithstanding Section 1211 or any other provision of law, if an order of contempt is made affecting an attorney, his agent, investigator, or any person acting under the attorney's direction, in the preparation and conduct of any action or proceeding, the execution of any sentence shall be stayed pending the filing within three judicial days of a petition for extraordinary relief testing the lawfulness of the court's order, the violation of which is the basis of the contempt, except for such conduct as may be proscribed by subdivision (b) of Section 6068 of the Business and Professions Code, relating to an attorney's duty to maintain respect due to the courts and judicial officers. (d) Notwithstanding Section 1211 or any other provision of law, if an order of contempt is made affecting a public safety employee acting within the scope of employment for reason of the employee's failure to comply with a duly issued subpoena or subpoena duces tecum, the execution of any sentence shall be stayed pending the filing within three judicial days of a petition for extraordinary relief testing the lawfulness of the court's order, a violation of which is the basis for the contempt. As used in this subdivision, "public safety employee" includes any peace officer, firefighter, paramedic, or any other employee of a public law enforcement agency whose duty is either to maintain official records or to analyze or present evidence for investigative or prosecutorial purposes.


1209.5. When a court of competent jurisdiction makes an order compelling a parent to furnish support or necessary food, clothing, shelter, medical attendance, or other remedial care for his or her child, proof that the order was made, filed, and served on the parent or proof that the parent was present in court at the time the order was pronounced and proof that the parent did not comply with the order is prima facie evidence of a contempt of court.


1210. Every person dispossessed or ejected from any real property by the judgment or process of any court of competent jurisdiction, who, not having right so to do, reenters into or upon or takes possession of the real property, or induces or procures any person not having right so to do, or aids or abets such a person therein, is guilty of a contempt of the court by which the judgment was rendered or from which the process issued. Upon a conviction for contempt the court must immediately issue an alias process, directed to the proper officer, and requiring the officer to restore possession to the party entitled under the original judgment or process, or to the party's lessee, grantee, or successor in interest. No appeal from the order directing the issuance of an alias writ of possession stays the execution of the writ, unless an undertaking is executed on the part of the appellant to the effect that the appellant will not commit or suffer to be committed any waste on the property, and if the order is affirmed, or the appeal dismissed, the appellant will pay the value of the use and occupation of the property from the time of the unlawful reentry until the delivery of the possession of the property, pursuant to the judgment or order, not exceeding a sum to be fixed by the judge of the court by which the order for the alias writ was made.


1211. (a) When a contempt is committed in the immediate view and presence of the court, or of the judge at chambers, it may be punished summarily; for which an order must be made, reciting the facts as occurring in such immediate view and presence, adjudging that the person proceeded against is thereby guilty of a contempt, and that he or she be punished as therein prescribed. When the contempt is not committed in the immediate view and presence of the court, or of the judge at chambers, an affidavit shall be presented to the court or judge of the facts constituting the contempt, or a statement of the facts by the referees or arbitrators, or other judicial officers. (b) In family law matters, filing of the Judicial Council form entitled "Order to Show Cause and Affidavit for Contempt (Family Law)" shall constitute compliance with this section.


1211.5. At all stages of all proceedings, the affidavit or statement of facts, as the case may be, required by Section 1211 shall be construed, amended, and reviewed according to the followings rules: (a) If no objection is made to the sufficiency of such affidavit or statement during the hearing on the charges contained therein, jurisdiction of the subject matter shall not depend on the averments of such affidavit or statement, but may be established by the facts found by the trial court to have been proved at such hearing, and the court shall cause the affidavit or statement to be amended to conform to proof. (b) The court may order or permit amendment of such affidavit or statement for any defect or insufficiency at any stage of the proceedings, and the trial of the person accused of contempt shall continue as if the affidavit or statement had been originally filed as amended, unless substantial rights of such person accused would be prejudiced thereby, in which event a reasonable postponement, not longer than the ends of justice require, may be granted. (c) No such affidavit or statement is insufficient, nor can the trial, order, judgment, or other proceeding thereon be affected by reason of any defect or imperfection in matter of form which does not prejudice a substantial right of the person accused on the merits. No order or judgment of conviction of contempt shall be set aside, nor new trial granted, for any error as to any matter of pleading in such affidavit or statement, unless, after an examination of the entire cause, including the evidence, the court shall be of the opinion that the error complained of has resulted in a miscarriage of justice.


1212. When the contempt is not committed in the immediate view and presence of the court or judge, a warrant of attachment may be issued to bring the person charged to answer, or, without a previous arrest, a warrant of commitment may, upon notice, or upon an order to show cause, be granted; and no warrant of commitment can be issued without such previous attachment to answer, or such notice or order to show cause.


1213. Whenever a warrant of attachment is issued pursuant to this title the court or judge must direct, by an endorsement on the warrant, that the person charged may give an undertaking for the person's appearance in an amount to be specified in such endorsement.


1214. Upon executing the warrant of attachment, the officer executing the warrant must keep the person in custody, bring him before the court or judge, and detain him until an order be made in the premises, unless the person arrested entitle himself to be discharged, as provided in the next section.


1215. The person arrested must be discharged from the arrest upon executing and delivering to the officer, at any time before the return day of the warrant, an undertaking to the effect that the person arrested will appear on the return of the warrant and abide the order of the court or judge thereupon.


1216. The officer must return the warrant of arrest and undertaking, if any, received by him from the person arrested, by the return day specified therein.

1217. When the person arrested has been brought up or appeared, the court or judge must proceed to investigate the charge, and must hear any answer which the person arrested may make to the same, and may examine witnesses for or against him, for which an adjournment may be had from time to time if necessary.

1218. (a) Upon the answer and evidence taken, the court or judge shall determine whether the person proceeded against is guilty of the contempt charged, and if it be adjudged that he or she is guilty of the contempt, a fine may be imposed on him or her not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), payable to the court, or he or she may be imprisoned not exceeding five days, or both. In addition, a person who is subject to a court order as a party to the action, or any agent of this person, who is adjudged guilty of contempt for violating that court order may be ordered to pay to the party initiating the contempt proceeding the reasonable attorney's fees and costs incurred by this party in connection with the contempt proceeding. (b) No party, who is in contempt of a court order or judgment in a dissolution of marriage, dissolution of domestic partnership, or legal separation action, shall be permitted to enforce such an order or judgment, by way of execution or otherwise, either in the same action or by way of a separate action, against the other party. This restriction shall not affect nor apply to the enforcement of child or spousal support orders. (c) In any court action in which a party is found in contempt of court for failure to comply with a court order pursuant to the Family Code, the court shall order the following: (1) Upon a first finding of contempt, the court shall order the contemner to perform community service of up to 120 hours, or to be imprisoned up to 120 hours, for each count of contempt. (2) Upon the second finding of contempt, the court shall order the contemner to perform community service of up to 120 hours, in addition to ordering imprisonment of the contemner up to 120 hours, for each count of contempt. (3) Upon the third or any subsequent finding of contempt, the court shall order both of the following: (A) The court shall order the contemner to serve a term of imprisonment of up to 240 hours, and to perform community service of up to 240 hours, for each count of contempt. (B) The court shall order the contemner to pay an administrative fee, not to exceed the actual cost of the contemner's administration and supervision, while assigned to a community service program pursuant to this paragraph. (4) The court shall take parties' employment schedules into consideration when ordering either community service or imprisonment, or both. (d) Pursuant to Section 1211 and this section, a district attorney or city attorney may initiate and pursue a court action for contempt against a party for failing to comply with a court order entered pursuant to the Domestic Violence Protection Act (Division 10 (commencing with Section 6200) of the Family Code). Any attorney's fees and costs ordered by the court pursuant to subdivision (a) against a party who is adjudged guilty of contempt under this subdivision shall be paid to the California Emergency Management Agency's account established for the purpose of funding domestic violence shelter service providers pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 13823.15 of the Penal Code.

1218.5. (a) If the contempt alleged is for failure to pay child, family, or spousal support, each month for which payment has not been made in full may be alleged as a separate count of contempt and punishment imposed for each count proven. (b) If the contempt alleged is the failure to pay child, family, or spousal support, the period of limitations for commencing a contempt action is three years from the date that the payment was due. If the action before the court is enforcement of another order under the Family Code, the period of limitations for commencing a contempt action is two years from the time that the alleged contempt occurred.


1219. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), when the contempt consists of the omission to perform an act which is yet in the power of the person to perform, he or she may be imprisoned until he or she has performed it, and in that case the act shall be specified in the warrant of commitment. (b) Notwithstanding any other law, no court may imprison or otherwise confine or place in custody the victim of a sexual assault or domestic violence crime for contempt when the contempt consists of refusing to testify concerning that sexual assault or domestic violence crime. (c) As used in this section, the following terms have the following meanings: (1) "Sexual assault" means any act made punishable by Section 261, 262, 264.1, 285, 286, 288, 288a, or 289 of the Penal Code. (2) "Domestic violence" means "domestic violence" as defined in Section 6211 of the Family Code.


1219.5. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (c), in any case in which a contempt consists of the refusal of a minor under the age of 16 years to take the oath or to testify, before imposing any sanction for the contempt, the court shall first refer the matter to the probation officer in charge of matters coming before the juvenile court for a report and recommendation as to the appropriateness of the imposition of a sanction. The probation officer shall prepare and file the report and recommendation within the time directed by the court. In making the report and recommendation, the probation officer shall consider factors such as the maturity of the minor, the reasons for the minor's refusal to take the oath or to testify, the probability that available sanctions will affect the decision of the minor not to take the oath or not to testify, the potential impact on the minor of his or her testimony, the potential impact on the pending litigation of the minor's unavailability as a witness, and the appropriateness of the various available sanctions in the minor's case. The court shall consider the report and recommendation in imposing a sanction in the case. (b) In any such case in which the court orders the minor to be placed outside of his or her home, the placement shall be in the least restrictive setting available. Except as provided in subdivision (d), the court shall not order the minor to be placed in a secure facility unless other placements have been made and the minor has fled the custody and control of the person under the control of whom he or she has been placed or has persistently refused to obey the reasonable and proper orders or directions of the person under the control of whom he or she has been placed. (c) The court may impose a sanction for contempt prior to receipt of the report and recommendation required by subdivision (a) if the court enters a finding, supported by specific facts stated on the record, that the minor would be likely to flee if released before the receipt of the report and recommendation. (d) The court may order the minor placed in a secure facility without first attempting the nonsecure placement required by subdivision (b) if the court enters a finding, supported by specific facts stated on the record, that the minor would be likely to flee if released to nonsecure placement as a prerequisite to secure confinement.


1220. When the warrant of arrest has been returned served, if the person arrested does not appear on the return day, the court or judge may issue another warrant of arrest or may order the undertaking to be enforced, or both. If the undertaking is enforced, the measure of damages is the extent of the loss or injury sustained by the aggrieved party by reason of the misconduct for which the warrant was issued.


1221. Whenever, by the provisions of this title, an officer is required to keep a person arrested on a warrant of attachment in custody, and to bring him before a court or judge, the inability, from illness or otherwise, of the person to attend, is a sufficient excuse for not bringing him up; and the officer must not confine a person arrested upon the warrant in a prison, or otherwise restrain him of personal liberty, except so far as may be necessary to secure his personal attendance.


1222. The judgment and orders of the court or judge, made in cases of contempt, are final and conclusive.


Title 7. Eminent Domain Law

Chapter 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (ccp:1230.010-1230.070) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1230.010-1230.070



1230.010. This title shall be known and may be cited as the Eminent Domain Law.


1230.020. Except as otherwise specifically provided by statute, the power of eminent domain may be exercised only as provided in this title.

1230.030. Nothing in this title requires that the power of eminent domain be exercised to acquire property necessary for public use. Whether property necessary for public use is to be acquired by purchase or other means or by eminent domain is a decision left to the discretion of the person authorized to acquire the property.


1230.040. Except as otherwise provided in this title, the rules of practice that govern civil actions generally are the rules of practice for eminent domain proceedings.


1230.050. The court in which a proceeding in eminent domain is brought has the power to: (a) Determine the right to possession of the property, as between the plaintiff and the defendant, in accordance with this title. (b) Enforce any of its orders for possession by appropriate process. The plaintiff is entitled to enforcement of an order for possession as a matter of right.

1230.060. Nothing in this title affects any other statute granting jurisdiction over any issue in eminent domain proceedings to the Public Utilities Commission.


1230.065. (a) This title becomes operative July 1, 1976. (b) This title does not apply to an eminent domain proceeding commenced prior to January 1, 1976. Subject to subdivisions (c) and (d), in the case of an eminent domain proceeding which is commenced on or after January 1, 1976, but prior to the operative date, this title upon the operative date applies to the proceeding to the fullest extent practicable with respect to issues to be tried or retried. (c) Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 1240.010), Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 1245.010), and Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1250.010) do not apply to a proceeding commenced prior to the operative date. (d) If, on the operative date, an appeal, motion to modify or vacate the verdict or judgment, or motion for new trial is pending, the law applicable thereto prior to the operative date governs the determination of the appeal or motion.


1230.070. No judgment rendered prior to the operative date of this title in a proceeding to enforce the right of eminent domain is affected by the enactment of this title and the repeal of former Title 7 of this part.


Chapter 2. Principles Of Construction; Definitions

Article 1. Construction

Ca Codes (ccp:1235.010-1235.070) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1235.010-1235.070



1235.010. Unless the provision or context otherwise requires, these preliminary provisions and rules of construction shall govern the construction of this title.


1235.020. Chapter, article, and section headings do not in any manner affect the scope, meaning, or intent of the provisions of this title.

1235.030. Whenever any reference is made to any portion of this title or to any other statute, such reference shall apply to all amendments and additions heretofore or hereafter made.


1235.040. Unless otherwise expressly stated: (a) "Chapter" means a chapter of this title. (b) "Article" means an article of the chapter in which that term occurs. (c) "Section" means a section of this code. (d) "Subdivision" means a subdivision of the section in which that term occurs. (e) "Paragraph" means a paragraph of the subdivision in which that term occurs.

1235.050. The present tense includes the past and future tenses; and the future, the present.


1235.060. "Shall" is mandatory and "may" is permissive.


1235.070. If any provision or clause of this title or application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of the title that can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this title are severable.


Article 2. Words And Phrases Defined

Ca Codes (ccp:1235.110-1235.210) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1235.110-1235.210



1235.110. Unless the provision or context otherwise requires, these definitions govern the construction of this title.


1235.120. "Final judgment" means a judgment with respect to which all possibility of direct attack by way of appeal, motion for a new trial, or motion under Section 663 to vacate the judgment has been exhausted.

1235.125. When used with reference to property, "interest" includes any right, title, or estate in property.


1235.130. "Judgment" means the judgment determining the right to take the property by eminent domain and fixing the amount of compensation to be paid by the plaintiff.


1235.140. "Litigation expenses" includes both of the following: (a) All expenses reasonably and necessarily incurred in the proceeding in preparing for trial, during trial, and in any subsequent judicial proceedings. (b) Reasonable attorney's fees, appraisal fees, and fees for the services of other experts where such fees were reasonably and necessarily incurred to protect the defendant's interests in the proceeding in preparing for trial, during trial, and in any subsequent judicial proceedings whether such fees were incurred for services rendered before or after the filing of the complaint.


1235.150. "Local public entity" means any public entity other than the state.

1235.155. "Nonprofit, special use property" means property which is operated for a special nonprofit, tax-exempt use such as a school, church, cemetery, hospital, or similar property. "Nonprofit, special use property" does not include property owned by a public entity.


1235.160. "Person" includes any public entity, individual, association, organization, partnership, trust, limited liability company, or corporation.

1235.165. "Proceeding" means an eminent domain proceeding under this title.

1235.170. "Property" includes real and personal property and any interest therein.


1235.180. "Property appropriated to public use" means property either already in use for a public purpose or set aside for a specific public purpose with the intention of using it for such purpose within a reasonable time.


1235.190. "Public entity" includes the state, a county, city, district, public authority, public agency, and any other political subdivision in the state.

1235.193. "Electric, gas, or water public utility property" means property appropriated to a public use by a public utility, as defined in Section 218, 222, or 241 of the Public Utilities Code.


1235.195. "Resolution" includes ordinance.


1235.200. "State" means the State of California and includes the Regents of the University of California.


1235.210. "Statute" means a constitutional provision or statute, but does not include a charter provision or ordinance.


Chapter 3. The Right To Take

Article 1. General Limitations On Exercise Of Power Of Eminent Domain

Ca Codes (ccp:1240.010-1240.050) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1240.010-1240.050



1240.010. The power of eminent domain may be exercised to acquire property only for a public use. Where the Legislature provides by statute that a use, purpose, object, or function is one for which the power of eminent domain may be exercised, such action is deemed to be a declaration by the Legislature that such use, purpose, object, or function is a public use.


1240.020. The power of eminent domain may be exercised to acquire property for a particular use only by a person authorized by statute to exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire such property for that use.

1240.030. The power of eminent domain may be exercised to acquire property for a proposed project only if all of the following are established: (a) The public interest and necessity require the project. (b) The project is planned or located in the manner that will be most compatible with the greatest public good and the least private injury. (c) The property sought to be acquired is necessary for the project.


1240.040. A public entity may exercise the power of eminent domain only if it has adopted a resolution of necessity that meets the requirements of Article 2 (commencing with Section 1245.210) of Chapter 4.

1240.050. A local public entity may acquire by eminent domain only property within its territorial limits except where the power to acquire by eminent domain property outside its limits is expressly granted by statute or necessarily implied as an incident of one of its other statutory powers.


Article 2. Rights Included In Grant Of Eminent Domain Authority

Ca Codes (ccp:1240.110-1240.160) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1240.110-1240.160



1240.110. (a) Except to the extent limited by statute, any person authorized to acquire property for a particular use by eminent domain may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire any interest in property necessary for that use including, but not limited to, submerged lands, rights of any nature in water, subsurface rights, airspace rights, flowage or flooding easements, aircraft noise or operation easements, right of temporary occupancy, public utility facilities and franchises, and franchises to collect tolls on a bridge or highway. (b) Where a statute authorizes the acquisition by eminent domain only of specified interests in or types of property, this section does not expand the scope of the authority so granted.


1240.120. (a) Subject to any other statute relating to the acquisition of property, any person authorized to acquire property for a particular use by eminent domain may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire property necessary to carry out and make effective the principal purpose involved including but not limited to property to be used for the protection or preservation of the attractiveness, safety, and usefulness of the project. (b) Subject to any applicable procedures governing the disposition of property, a person may acquire property under subdivision (a) with the intent to sell, lease, exchange, or otherwise dispose of the property, or an interest therein, subject to such reservations or restrictions as are necessary to protect or preserve the attractiveness, safety, and usefulness of the project.


1240.125. Except as otherwise expressly provided by statute and subject to any limitations imposed by statute, a local public entity may acquire property by eminent domain outside its territorial limits for water, gas, or electric supply purposes or for airports, drainage or sewer purposes if it is authorized to acquire property by eminent domain for the purposes for which the property is to be acquired.


1240.130. Subject to any other statute relating to the acquisition of property, any public entity authorized to acquire property for a particular use by eminent domain may also acquire such property for such use by grant, purchase, lease, gift, devise, contract, or other means.

1240.140. (a) As used in this section, "public agencies" includes all those agencies included within the definition of "public agency" in Section 6500 of the Government Code. (b) Two or more public agencies may enter into an agreement for the joint exercise of their respective powers of eminent domain, whether or not possessed in common, for the acquisition of property as a single parcel. Such agreement shall be entered into and performed pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 6500) of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code.


1240.150. Whenever a part of a larger parcel of property is to be acquired by a public entity for public use and the remainder, or a portion of the remainder, will be left in such size, shape, or condition as to be of little value to its owner or to give rise to a claim for severance or other damages, the public entity may acquire the remainder, or portion of the remainder, by any means (including eminent domain) expressly consented to by the owner.


1240.160. (a) None of the provisions of this article is intended to limit, or shall limit, any other provision of this article, each of which is a distinct and separate authorization. (b) None of the provisions of Article 2 (commencing with Section 1240.110), Article 3 (commencing with Section 1240.210), Article 4 (commencing with Section 1240.310), Article 5 (commencing with Section 1240.410), Article 6 (commencing with Section 1240.510), or Article 7 (commencing with Section 1240.610) is intended to limit, or shall limit, the provisions of any other of the articles, each of which articles is a distinct and separate authorization.



Article 3. Future Use

Ca Codes (ccp:1240.210-1240.250) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1240.210-1240.250



1240.210. For the purposes of this article, the "date of use" of property taken for public use is the date when the property is devoted to that use or when construction is started on the project for which the property is taken with the intent to complete the project within a reasonable time. In determining the "date of use," periods of delay caused by extraordinary litigation or by failure to obtain from any public entity any agreement or permit necessary for construction shall not be included.


1240.220. (a) Any person authorized to acquire property for a particular use by eminent domain may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire property to be used in the future for that use, but property may be taken for future use only if there is a reasonable probability that its date of use will be within seven years from the date the complaint is filed or within such longer period as is reasonable. (b) Unless the plaintiff plans that the date of use of property taken will be within seven years from the date the complaint is filed, the complaint, and the resolution of necessity if one is required, shall refer specifically to this section and shall state the estimated date of use.

1240.230. (a) If the defendant objects to a taking for future use, the burden of proof is as prescribed in this section. (b) Unless the complaint states an estimated date of use that is not within seven years from the date the complaint is filed, the defendant has the burden of proof that there is no reasonable probability that the date of use will be within seven years from the date the complaint is filed. (c) If the defendant proves that there is no reasonable probability that the date of use will be within seven years from the date the complaint is filed, or if the complaint states an estimated date of use that is not within seven years from the date the complaint is filed, the plaintiff has the burden of proof that a taking for future use satisfies the requirements of this article.


1240.240. Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, any public entity authorized to acquire property for a particular use by eminent domain may acquire property to be used in the future for that use by any means (including eminent domain) expressly consented to by its owner.

1240.250. Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, where property is taken pursuant to the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1973: (a) A date of use within 10 years from the date the complaint is filed shall be deemed reasonable. (b) The resolution of necessity and the complaint shall indicate that the taking is pursuant to the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1973 and shall state the estimated date of use. (c) If the defendant objects to the taking, the defendant has the burden of proof that there is no reasonable probability that the date of use will be within 10 years from the date the complaint is filed. If the defendant proves that there is no reasonable probability that the date of use will be within 10 years from the date the complaint is filed, the plaintiff has the burden of proof that the taking satisfies the requirements of this article.


Article 4. Substitute Condemnation

Ca Codes (ccp:1240.310-1240.350) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1240.310-1240.350



1240.310. As used in this article: (a) "Necessary property" means property to be used for a public use for which the public entity is authorized to acquire property by eminent domain. (b) "Substitute property" means property to be exchanged for necessary property.


1240.320. (a) Any public entity authorized to exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire property for a particular use may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire for that use substitute property if all of the following are established: (1) The owner of the necessary property has agreed in writing to the exchange. (2) The necessary property is devoted to or held for some public use and the substitute property will be devoted to or held for the same public use by the owner of the necessary property. (3) The owner of the necessary property is authorized to exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire the substitute property for such use. (b) Where property is sought to be acquired pursuant to this section, the resolution of necessity and the complaint filed pursuant to such resolution shall specifically refer to this section and shall include a statement that the property is necessary for the purpose specified in this section. The determination in the resolution that the taking of the substitute property is necessary has the effect prescribed in Section 1245.250.


1240.330. (a) Where necessary property is devoted to public use, any public entity authorized to exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire such property for a particular use may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire substitute property in its own name, relocate on such substitute property the public use to which necessary property is devoted, and thereafter convey the substitute property to the owner of the necessary property if all of the following are established: (1) The public entity is required by court order or judgment in an eminent domain proceeding, or by agreement with the owner of the necessary property, to relocate the public use to which the necessary property is devoted and thereafter to convey the property upon which the public use has been relocated to the owner of the necessary property. (2) The substitute property is necessary for compliance with the court order or judgment or agreement. (3) The owner of the necessary property will devote the substitute property to the public use being displaced from the necessary property. (b) Where property is sought to be acquired pursuant to this section, the resolution of necessity and the complaint filed pursuant to such resolution shall specifically refer to this section and shall include a statement that the property is necessary for the purpose specified in this section. The determination in the resolution that the taking of the substitute property is necessary has the effect prescribed in Section 1245.250.


1240.350. (a) Whenever a public entity acquires property for a public use and exercises or could have exercised the power of eminent domain to acquire such property for such use, the public entity may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire such additional property as appears reasonably necessary and appropriate (after taking into account any hardship to the owner of the additional property) to provide utility service to, or access to a public road from, any property that is not acquired for such public use but which is cut off from utility service or access to a public road as a result of the acquisition by the public entity. (b) Where property is sought to be acquired pursuant to this section, the resolution of necessity and the complaint filed pursuant to such resolution shall specifically refer to this section and shall include a statement that the property is necessary for the purpose specified in this section. The determination in the resolution that the taking of the substitute property is necessary has the effect prescribed in Section 1245.250.


Article 5. Excess Condemnation

Ca Codes (ccp:1240.410-1240.430) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1240.410-1240.430



1240.410. (a) As used in this section, "remnant" means a remainder or portion thereof that will be left in such size, shape, or condition as to be of little market value. (b) Whenever the acquisition by a public entity by eminent domain of part of a larger parcel of property will leave a remnant, the public entity may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire the remnant in accordance with this article. (c) Property may not be acquired under this section if the defendant proves that the public entity has a reasonable, practicable, and economically sound means to prevent the property from becoming a remnant.

1240.420. When property is sought to be acquired pursuant to Section 1240.410, the resolution of necessity and the complaint filed pursuant to such resolution shall specifically refer to that section. It shall be presumed from the adoption of the resolution that the taking of the property is authorized under Section 1240.410. This presumption is a presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence.


1240.430. A public entity may sell, lease, exchange, or otherwise dispose of property taken under this article and may credit the proceeds to the fund or funds available for acquisition of the property being acquired for the public work or improvement. Nothing in this section relieves a public entity from complying with any applicable statutory procedures governing the disposition of property.


Article 6. Condemnation For Compatible Use

Ca Codes (ccp:1240.510-1240.530) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1240.510-1240.530



1240.510. Any person authorized to acquire property for a particular use by eminent domain may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire for that use property appropriated to public use if the proposed use will not unreasonably interfere with or impair the continuance of the public use as it then exists or may reasonably be expected to exist in the future. Where property is sought to be acquired pursuant to this section, the complaint, and the resolution of necessity if one is required, shall refer specifically to this section.

1240.520. If the defendant objects to a taking under Section 1240.510, the defendant has the burden of proof that his property is appropriated to public use. If it is established that the property is appropriated to public use, the plaintiff has the burden of proof that its proposed use satisfies the requirements of Section 1240.510.


1240.530. (a) Where property is taken under Section 1240.510, the parties shall make an agreement determining the terms and conditions upon which the property is taken and the manner and extent of its use by each of the parties. Except as otherwise provided by statute, if the parties are unable to agree, the court shall fix the terms and conditions upon which the property is taken and the manner and extent of its use by each of the parties. (b) If the court determines that the use in the manner proposed by the plaintiff would not satisfy the requirements of Section 1240.510, the court shall further determine whether the requirements of Section 1240.510 could be satisfied by fixing terms and conditions upon which the property may be taken. If the court determines that the requirements of Section 1240.510 could be so satisfied, the court shall permit the plaintiff to take the property upon such terms and conditions and shall prescribe the manner and extent of its use by each of the parties. (c) Where property is taken under this article, the court may order any necessary removal or relocation of structures or improvements if such removal or relocation would not require any significant alteration of the use to which the property is appropriated. Unless otherwise provided by statute, all costs and damages that result from the relocation or removal shall be paid by the plaintiff.


Article 7. Condemnation For More Necessary Public Use 1240.610-1240.700

Ca Codes (ccp:1240.610-1240.700) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1240.610-1240.700



1240.610. Any person authorized to acquire property for a particular use by eminent domain may exercise the power of eminent domain to acquire for that use property appropriated to public use if the use for which the property is sought to be taken is a more necessary public use than the use to which the property is appropriated. Where property is sought to be acquired pursuant to this section, the complaint, and the resolution of necessity if one is required, shall refer specifically to this section.


1240.620. If the defendant objects to a taking under Section 1240.610, the defendant has the burden of proof that his property is appropriated to public use. If it is established that the property is appropriated to public use, the plaintiff has the burden of proof that its use satisfies the requirements of Section 1240.610.


1240.630. (a) Where property is sought to be taken under Section 1240.610, the defendant is entitled to continue the public use to which the property is appropriated if the continuance of such use will not unreasonably interfere with or impair, or require a significant alteration of, the more necessary public use as it is then planned or exists or may reasonably be expected to exist in the future. (b) If the defendant objects to a taking under this article on the ground that he is entitled under subdivision (a) to continue the public use to which the property is appropriated, upon motion of either party, the court shall determine whether the defendant is entitled under subdivision (a) to continue the use to which the property is appropriated; and, if the court determines that the defendant is so entitled, the parties shall make an agreement determining the terms and conditions upon which the defendant may continue the public use to which the property is appropriated, the terms and conditions upon which the property is taken by the plaintiff is acquired, and the manner and extent of the use of the property by each of the parties. Except as otherwise provided by statute, if the parties are unable to agree, the court shall fix such terms and conditions and the manner and extent of the use of the property by each of the parties.

1240.640. (a) Where property has been appropriated to public use by any person other than the state, the use thereof by the state for the same use or any other public use is presumed to be a more necessary use than the use to which such property has already been appropriated. (b) Where property has been appropriated to public use by the state, the use thereof by the state is presumed to be a more necessary use than any use to which such property might be put by any other person. (c) The presumptions established by this section are presumptions affecting the burden of proof.


1240.650. (a) Where property has been appropriated to public use by any person other than a public entity, the use thereof by a public entity for the same use or any other public use is a more necessary use than the use to which such property has already been appropriated. (b) Where property has been appropriated to public use by a public entity, the use thereof by the public entity is a more necessary use than any use to which such property might be put by any person other than a public entity. (c) Where property which has been appropriated to a public use is electric, gas, or water public utility property which the public entity intends to put to the same use, the presumption of a more necessary use established by subdivision (a) is a rebuttable presumption affecting the burden of proof, unless the acquiring public entity is a sanitary district exercising the powers of a county water district pursuant to Section 6512.7 of the Health and Safety Code.


1240.660. Where property has been appropriated to public use by a local public entity, the use thereof by the local public entity is presumed to be a more necessary use than any use to which such property might be put by any other local public entity. The presumption established by this section is a presumption affecting the burden of proof.


1240.670. (a) Subject to Section 1240.690, notwithstanding any other provision of law, property is presumed to have been appropriated for the best and most necessary public use if all of the following are established: (1) The property is owned by a nonprofit organization contributions to which are deductible for state and federal income tax purposes under the laws of this state and of the United States and having the primary purpose of preserving areas in their natural condition. (2) The property is open to the public subject to reasonable restrictions and is appropriated, and used exclusively, for the preservation of native plants or native animals including, but not limited to, mammals, birds, and marine life, or biotic communities, or geological or geographical formations of scientific or educational interest. (3) The property is irrevocably dedicated to such uses so that, upon liquidation, dissolution, or abandonment of or by the owner, such property will be distributed only to a fund, foundation, or corporation whose property is likewise irrevocably dedicated to such uses, or to a governmental agency holding land for such uses. (b) The presumption established by this section is a presumption affecting the burden of proof.


1240.680. (a) Subject to Sections 1240.690 and 1240.700, notwithstanding any other provision of law, property is presumed to have been appropriated for the best and most necessary public use if the property is appropriated to public use as any of the following: (1) A state, regional, county, or city park, open space, or recreation area. (2) A wildlife or waterfowl management area established by the Department of Fish and Game pursuant to Section 1525 of the Fish and Game Code. (3) A historic site included in the National Register of Historic Places or state-registered landmarks. (4) An ecological reserve as provided for in Article 4 (commencing with Section 1580) of Chapter 5 of Division 2 of the Fish and Game Code. (b) The presumption established by this section is a presumption affecting the burden of proof.


1240.690. (a) When property described in Section 1240.670 or 1240.680 is sought to be acquired for state highway purposes, and the property was dedicated or devoted to a use described in those sections prior to the initiation of highway route location studies, an action for declaratory relief may be brought by the public entity or nonprofit organization owning the property in the superior court to determine the question of which public use is the best and most necessary public use for the property. (b) The action for declaratory relief shall be filed and served within 120 days after the California Transportation Commission has published in a newspaper of general circulation pursuant to Section 6061 of the Government Code, and delivered to the public entity or nonprofit organization owning the property a written notice that a proposed route or an adopted route includes the property. In the case of nonprofit organizations, the written notice need only be given to nonprofit organizations that are on file with the Registrar of Charitable Trusts of this state. (c) In the declaratory relief action, the resolution of the California Transportation Commission is not conclusive evidence of the matters set forth in Section 1240.030. (d) With respect to property described in Section 1240.670 or 1240.680 which is sought to be acquired for state highway purposes: (1) If an action for declaratory relief is not filed and served within the 120-day period established by subdivision (b), the right to bring the action is waived and Sections 1240.670 and 1240.680 do not apply. (2) When a declaratory relief action may not be brought pursuant to this section, Sections 1240.670 and 1240.680 do not apply.


1240.700. (a) When property described in Section 1240.680 is sought to be acquired for city or county road, street, or highway purposes, and such property was dedicated or devoted to regional park, recreational, or open-space purposes prior to the initiation of road, street, or highway route location studies, an action for declaratory relief may be brought in the superior court by the regional park district which operates the park, recreational, or open-space area to determine the question of which public use is the best and most necessary public use for such property. (b) The action for declaratory relief shall be filed and served within 120 days after the city or county, as the case may be, has published in a newspaper of general circulation pursuant to Section 6061 of the Government Code, and delivered to the regional park district, a written notice that a proposed route or site or an adopted route includes such property. (c) With respect to property dedicated or devoted to regionl park, recreational, or open-space purposes which is sought to be acquired for city or county road, street, or highway purposes: (1) If an action for declaratory relief is not filed and served within the 120-day period established by subdivision (b), the right to bring such action is waived and the provisions of Section 1240.680 do not apply. (2) When a declaratory relief action may not be brought pursuant to this section, the provisions of Section 1240.680 do not apply.


Chapter 4. Precondemnation Activities

Article 1. Preliminary Location, Survey, And Tests

Ca Codes (ccp:1245.010-1245.060) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1245.010-1245.060



1245.010. Subject to requirements of this article, any person authorized to acquire property for a particular use by eminient domain may enter upon property to make photographs, studies, surveys, examinations, tests, soundings, borings, samplings, or appraisals or to engage in similar activities reasonably related to acquisition or use of the property for that use.


1245.020. In any case in which the entry and activities mentioned in Section 1245.010 will subject the person having the power of eminent domain to liability under Section 1245.060, before making such entry and undertaking such activities, the person shall secure: (a) The written consent of the owner to enter upon his property and to undertake such activities; or (b) An order for entry from the superior court in accordance with Section 1245. 030.

1245.030. (a) The person seeking to enter upon the property may petition the court for an order permitting the entry and shall give such prior notice to the owner of the property as the court determines is appropriate under the circumstances of the particular case. (b) Upon such petition and after such notice has been given, the court shall determine the purpose for the entry, the nature and scope of the activities reasonably necessary to accomplish such purpose, and the probable amount of compensation to be paid to the owner of the property for the actual damage to the property and interference with its possession and use. (c) After such determination, the court may issue its order permitting the entry. The order shall prescribe the purpose for the entry and the nature and scope of the activities to be undertaken and shall require the person seeking to enter to deposit with the court the probable amount of compensation.


1245.040. (a) The court, after notice and hearing, may modify any of the provisions of an order made under Section 1245.030. (b) If the amount required to be deposited is increased by an order of modification, the court shall specify the time within which the additional amount shall be deposited and may direct that any further entry or that specified activities under the order as modified be stayed until the additional amount has been deposited.


1245.050. (a) Unless sooner disbursed by court order, the amount deposited under this article shall be retained on deposit for six months following the termination of the entry. The period of retention may be extended by the court for good cause. (b) The deposit shall be made in the Condemnation Deposits Fund in the State Treasury or, upon written request of the plaintiff filed with the deposit, in the county treasury. If made in the State Treasury, the deposit shall be held, invested, deposited, and disbursed in accordance with Article 10 (commencing with Section 16429) of Chapter 2 of Part 2 of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code.


1245.060. (a) If the entry and activities upon property cause actual damage to or substantial interference with the possession or use of the property, whether or not a claim has been presented in compliance with Part 3 (commencing with Section 900) of Divison 3.6 of Title 1 of the Government Code, the owner may recover for such damage or interference in a civil action or by application to the court under subdivision (c). (b) The prevailing claimant in an action or proceeding under this section shall be awarded his costs and, if the court finds that any of the following occurred, his litigation expenses incurred in proceedings under this article: (1) The entry was unlawful. (2) The entry was lawful but the activities upon the property were abusive or lacking in due regard for the interests of the owner. (3) There was a failure substantially to comply with the terms of an order made under Section 1245.030 or 1245.040. (c) If funds are on deposit under this article, upon application of the owner, the court shall determine and award the amount the owner is entitled to recover under this section and shall order such amount paid out of the funds on deposit. If the funds on deposit are insufficient to pay the full amount of the award, the court shall enter judgment for the unpaid portion. (d) Nothing in this section affects the availability of any other remedy the owner may have for the damaging of his property.



Article 2. Resolution Of Necessity

Ca Codes (ccp:1245.210-1245.270) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1245.210-1245.270



1245.210. As used in this article, "governing body" means: (a) In the case of a taking by a local public entity, the legislative body of the local public entity. (b) In the case of a taking by the Sacramento and San Joaquin Drainage District, the State Reclamation Board. (c) In the case of a taking by the State Public Works Board pursuant to the Property Acquisition Law (Part 11 (commencing with Section 15850) of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code), the State Public Works Board. (d) In the case of a taking by the Department of Fish and Game pursuant to Section 1348 of the Fish and Game Code, the Wildlife Conservation Board. (e) In the case of a taking by the Department of Transportation (other than a taking pursuant to Section 21633 of the Public Utilities Code or Section 30100 of the Streets and Highways Code), the California Transportation Commission. (f) In the case of a taking by the Department of Transportation pursuant to Section 21633 of the Public Utilities Code, the California Transportation Commission. (g) In the case of a taking by the Department of Transportation pursuant to Section 30100 of the Streets and Highways Code, the California Transportation Commission. (h) In the case of a taking by the Department of Water Resources, the California Water Commission. (i) In the case of a taking by the University of California, the Regents of the University of California. (j) In the case of a taking by the State Lands Commission, the State Lands Commission. (k) In the case of a taking by Hastings College of Law, the board of directors of that college.


1245.220. A public entity may not commence an eminent domain proceeding until its governing body has adopted a resolution of necessity that meets the requirements of this article.


1245.230. In addition to other requirements imposed by law, the resolution of necessity shall contain all of the following: (a) A general statement of the public use for which the property is to be taken and a reference to the statute that authorizes the public entity to acquire the property by eminent domain. (b) A description of the general location and extent of the property to be taken, with sufficient detail for reasonable identification. (c) A declaration that the governing body of the public entity has found and determined each of the following: (1) The public interest and necessity require the proposed project. (2) The proposed project is planned or located in the manner that will be most compatible with the greatest public good and the least private injury. (3) The property described in the resolution is necessary for the proposed project. (4) That either the offer required by Section 7267.2 of the Government Code has been made to the owner or owners of record, or the offer has not been made because the owner cannot be located with reasonable diligence. If at the time the governing body of a public entity is requested to adopt a resolution of necessity and the project for which the property is needed has been determined by the public entity to be an emergency project, which project is necessary either to protect or preserve health, safety, welfare, or property, the requirements of Section 7267.2 of the Government Code need not be a prerequisite to the adoption of an authorizing resolution at the time. However, in those cases the provisions of Section 7267.2 of the Government Code shall be implemented by the public entity within a reasonable time thereafter but in any event, not later than 90 days after adoption of the resolution of necessity.


1245.235. (a) The governing body of the public entity may adopt a resolution of necessity only after the governing body has given each person whose property is to be acquired by eminent domain and whose name and address appears on the last equalized county assessment roll notice and a reasonable opportunity to appear and be heard on the matters referred to in Section 1240.030. (b) The notice required by subdivision (a) shall be sent by first-class mail to each person described in subdivision (a) and shall state all of the following: (1) The intent of the governing body to adopt the resolution. (2) The right of such person to appear and be heard on the matters referred to in Section 1240.030. (3) Failure to file a written request to appear and be heard within 15 days after the notice was mailed will result in waiver of the right to appear and be heard. (c) The governing body, or a committee of not less than 11 members thereof designated by the governing body if the governing body has more than 40 members, shall hold a hearing at which all persons described in subdivision (a) who filed a written request within the time specified in the notice may appear and be heard on the matters referred to in Section 1240.030. Such a committee shall be reasonably representative of the various geographical areas within the public entity's jurisdiction. The governing body need not give an opportunity to appear and be heard to any person who fails to so file a written request within the time specified in the notice. If a committee is designated by the governing body pursuant to this subdivision to hold the hearing, the committee, subsequent to the hearing, shall provide the governing body and any person described in subdivision (a) who has appeared before the committee with a written summary of the hearing and a written recommendation as to whether to adopt the resolution of necessity. Any person described in subdivision (a) who has appeared before the committee shall also be given an opportunity to appear and be heard before the governing body on the matters referred to in Section 1240.030. (d) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), the governing body may satisfy the requirements of this section through any other procedure that has given each person described in subdivision (a) reasonable written personal notice and a reasonable opportunity to appear and be heard on the matters referred to in Section 1240.030.


1245.240. Unless a greater vote is required by statute, charter, or ordinance, the resolution shall be adopted by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of the governing body of the public entity.


1245.245. (a) Property acquired by a public entity by any means set forth in subdivision (e) that is subject to a resolution of necessity adopted pursuant to this article shall only be used for the public use stated in the resolution unless the governing body of the public entity adopts a resolution authorizing a different use of the property by a vote of at least two-thirds of all members of the governing body of the public entity, or a greater vote as required by statute, charter, or ordinance. The resolution shall contain all of the following: (1) A general statement of the new public use that is proposed for the property and a reference to the statute that would have authorized the public entity to acquire the property by eminent domain for that use. (2) A description of the general location and extent of the property proposed to be used for the new use, with sufficient detail for reasonable identification. (3) A declaration that the governing body has found and determined each of the following: (A) The public interest and necessity require the proposed use. (B) The proposed use is planned and located in the manner that will be most compatible with the greatest public good and least private injury. (C) The property described in the resolution is necessary for the proposed use. (b) Property acquired by a public entity by any means set forth in subdivision (e) that is subject to a resolution of necessity pursuant to this article, and is not used for the public use stated in the resolution of necessity within 10 years of the adoption of the resolution of necessity, shall be sold in accordance with the terms of subdivisions (f) and (g), unless the governing body adopts a resolution according to the terms of subdivision (a) or a resolution according to the terms of this subdivision reauthorizing the existing stated public use of the property by a vote of at least two-thirds of all members of the governing body of the public entity or a greater vote as required by statute, charter, or ordinance. A reauthorization resolution under this subdivision shall contain all of the following: (1) A general statement of the public use that is proposed to be reauthorized for the property and a reference to the statute that authorized the public entity to acquire the property by eminent domain for that use. (2) A description of the general location and extent of the property proposed to be used for the public use, but not yet in use for the public use, with sufficient detail for reasonable identification. (3) A declaration that the governing body has found and determined each of the following: (A) The public interest and necessity require the proposed use. (B) The proposed use is planned and located in the manner that will be most compatible with the greatest public good and least private injury. (C) The property described in the resolution is necessary for the proposed use. (c) In addition to any notice required by law, the notice required for a new or reauthorization resolution sought pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) shall comply with Section 1245.235 and shall be sent to each person who was given notice required by Section 1245.235 in connection with the original acquisition of the property by the public entity. (d) Judicial review of an action pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) may be obtained by a person who had an interest in the property described in the resolution at the time that the property was acquired by the public entity, and shall be governed by Section 1085. (e) The following property acquisitions are subject to the requirements of this section: (1) Any acquisition by a public entity pursuant to eminent domain. (2) Any acquisition by a public entity following adoption of a resolution of necessity pursuant to this article for the property. (3) Any acquisition by a public entity prior to the adoption of a resolution of necessity pursuant to this article for the property, but subsequent to a written notice that the public entity may take the property by eminent domain. (f) If the public entity fails to adopt either a new resolution pursuant to subdivision (a) or a reauthorization resolution pursuant to subdivision (b), as required by this section, and that property was not used for the public use stated in a resolution of necessity adopted pursuant to this article or a resolution adopted pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) between the time of its acquisition and the time of the public entity's failure to adopt a resolution pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b), the public entity shall offer the person or persons from whom the property was acquired the right of first refusal to purchase the property pursuant to this section, as follows: (1) At the present market value, as determined by independent licensed appraisers. (2) For property that was a single-family residence at the time of acquisition, at an affordable price, which price shall not be greater than the price paid by the agency for the original acquisition, adjusted for inflation, and shall not be greater than fair market value, if the following requirements are met: (A) The person or persons from whom the property was acquired certify their income to the public entity as persons or families of low or moderate income. (B) If the single-family residence is offered at a price that is less than fair market value, the public entity may verify the certifications of income in accordance with procedures used for verification of incomes of purchasers and occupants of housing financed by the California Housing Finance Agency. (C) If the single-family residence is offered at a price that is less than fair market value, the public entity shall impose terms, conditions, and restrictions to ensure that the residence will either: (i) Remain owner-occupied by the person or persons from whom the property was acquired for at least five years. (ii) Remain available to persons or families of low or moderate income and households with incomes no greater than the incomes of the present occupants in proportion to the area median income for the longest feasible time, but for not less than 55 years for rental units and 45 years for home ownership units. (D) The Department of Housing and Community Development shall provide to the public entity recommendations of standards and criteria for those prices, terms, conditions, and restrictions. (g) If after a diligent effort the public entity is unable to locate the person from whom the property was acquired, if the person from whom the property was acquired does not choose to purchase the property as provided in subdivision (f), or if the public entity fails to adopt a resolution as required pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) but is not required to offer a right of first refusal pursuant to subdivision (f), the public entity shall sell the property as surplus property pursuant to Article 8 (commencing with Section 54220) of Chapter 5 of Part 1 of Division 2 of Title 5 of the Government Code. (h) If residential property acquired by a public entity by any means set forth in subdivision (e) is sold as surplus property pursuant to subdivision (g), and that property was not used for the public use stated in a resolution of necessity adopted pursuant to this article or a resolution adopted pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) between the time of its acquisition and the time of its sale as surplus property, the public entity shall pay to the person or persons from whom the public entity acquired the property the sum of any financial gain between the original acquisition price, adjusted for inflation, and the final sale price. (i) Upon completion of any acquisition described in subdivision (e) or upon the adoption of a resolution of necessity pursuant to this section, whichever is later, the public entity shall give written notice to the person or persons from whom the property was acquired as described in subdivision (e) stating that the notice, right of first refusal, and return of financial gain rights discussed in this section may accrue. (j) At least 60 days before selling the property pursuant to subdivision (g), the public entity shall make a diligent effort to locate the person from whom the property was acquired. At any time before the proposed sale, the person from whom the property was acquired may exercise the rights provided by this section. As used in this section, "diligent effort" means that the public entity has done all of the following: (1) Mailed the notice of the proposed sale by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the last known address of the person from whom the property was acquired. (2) Mailed the notice of the proposed sale by certified mail, return receipt requested, to each person with the same name as the person from whom the property was acquired at any other address on the last equalized assessment roll. (3) Published the notice of the proposed sale pursuant to Section 6061 of the Government Code in at least one newspaper of general circulation within the city or county in which the property is located. (4) Posted the notice of the proposed sale in at least three public places within the city or county in which the property is located. (5) Posted the notice of the proposed sale on the property proposed to be sold. (k) For purposes of this section, "adjusted for inflation" means the original acquisition price increased to reflect the proportional increase in the Consumer Price Index for all items for the State of California, as determined by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, for the period from the date of acquisition to the date the property is offered for sale.


1245.250. (a) Except as otherwise provided by statute, a resolution of necessity adopted by the governing body of the public entity pursuant to this article conclusively establishes the matters referred to in Section 1240.030. (b) If the taking is by a local public entity, other than a sanitary district exercising the powers of a county water district pursuant to Section 6512.7 of the Health and Safety Code, and the property is electric, gas, or water public utility property, the resolution of necessity creates a rebuttable presumption that the matters referred to in Section 1240.030 are true. This presumption is a presumption affecting the burden of proof. (c) If the taking is by a local public entity and the property described in the resolution is not located entirely within the boundaries of the local public entity, the resolution of necessity creates a presumption that the matters referred to in Section 1240.030 are true. This presumption is a presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence. (d) For the purposes of subdivision (b), a taking by the State Reclamation Board for the Sacramento and San Joaquin Drainage District is not a taking by a local public entity.


1245.255. (a) A person having an interest in the property described in a resolution of necessity adopted by the governing body of the public entity pursuant to this article may obtain judicial review of the validity of the resolution: (1) Before the commencement of the eminent domain proceeding, by petition for a writ of mandate pursuant to Section 1085. The court having jurisdiction of the writ of mandate action, upon motion of any party, shall order the writ of mandate action dismissed without prejudice upon commencement of the eminent domain proceeding unless the court determines that dismissal will not be in the interest of justice. (2) After the commencement of the eminent domain proceeding, by objection to the right to take pursuant to this title. (b) A resolution of necessity does not have the effect prescribed in Section 1245.250 to the extent that its adoption or contents were influenced or affected by gross abuse of discretion by the governing body. (c) Nothing in this section precludes a public entity from rescinding a resolution of necessity and adopting a new resolution as to the same property subject, after the commencement of an eminent domain proceeding, to the same consequences as a conditional dismissal of the proceeding under Section 1260.120.


1245.260. (a) If a public entity has adopted a resolution of necessity but has not commenced an eminent domain proceeding to acquire the property within six months after the date of adoption of the resolution, or has commenced such proceeding but has not within six months after the commencement of such proceeding attempted diligently to serve the complaint and the summons relating to such proceeding, the property owner may, by an action in inverse condemnation, do either or both of the following: (1) Require the public entity to take the property and pay compensation therefor. (2) Recover damages from the public entity for any interference with the possession and use of the property resulting from adoption of the resolution. Service by mail pursuant to Section 415.30 shall constitute a diligent attempt at service within the meaning of this section. (b) No claim need be presented against a public entity under Part 3 (commencing with Section 900) of Division 3.6 of Title 1 of the Government Code as a prerequisite to commencement or maintenance of an action under subdivision (a), but any such action shall be commenced within one year and six months after the date the public entity adopted the resolution of necessity. (c) A public entity may commence an eminent domain proceeding or rescind a resolution of necessity as a matter of right at any time before the property owner commences an action under this section. If the public entity commences an eminent domain proceeding or rescinds the resolution of necessity before the property owner commences an action under this section, the property owner may not thereafter bring an action under this section. (d) After a property owner has commenced an action under this section, the public entity may rescind the resolution of necessity and abandon the taking of the property only under the same circumstances and subject to the same conditions and consequences as abandonment of an eminent domain proceeding. (e) Commencement of an action under this section does not affect any authority a public entity may have to commence an eminent domain proceeding, take possession of the property pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 1255.410) of Chapter 6, or abandon the eminent domain proceeding. (f) In lieu of bringing an action under subdivision (a) or if the limitations period provided in subdivision (b) has run, the property owner may obtain a writ of mandate to compel the public entity, within such time as the court deems appropriate, to rescind the resolution of necessity or to commence an eminent domain proceeding to acquire the property.


1245.270. (a) A resolution of necessity does not meet the requirements of this article if the defendant establishes by a preponderance of the evidence both of the following: (1) A member of the governing body who voted in favor of the resolution received or agreed to receive a bribe (as that term is defined in subdivision 6 of Section 7 of the Penal Code) involving adoption of the resolution. (2) But for the conduct described in paragraph (1), the resolution would not otherwise have been adopted. (b) Where there has been a prior criminal prosecution of the member for the conduct described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), proof of conviction shall be conclusive evidence that the requirement of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) is satisfied, and proof of acquittal or other dismissal of the prosecution shall be conclusive evidence that the requirement of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) is not satisfied. Where there is a pending criminal prosecution of the member for the conduct described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), the court may take such action as is just under the circumstances of the case. (c) Nothing in this section precludes a public entity from rescinding a resolution of necessity and adopting a new resolution as to the same property, subject to the same consequences as a conditional dismissal of the proceeding under Section 1260.120.


Article 3. Resolution Consenting To Eminent Domain Proceeding By Quasi-public Entity

Ca Codes (ccp:1245.310-1245.390) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1245.310-1245.390



1245.310. As used in this article, "legislative body" means both of the following: (a) The legislative body of each city within whose boundaries property sought to be taken by the quasi-public entity by eminent domain is located. (b) If property sought to be taken by the quasi-public entity is not located within city boundaries, the legislative body of each county within whose boundaries such property is located.


1245.320. As used in this article, "quasi-public entity" means: (a) An educational institution of collegiate grade not conducted for profit that seeks to take property by eminent domain under Section 94500 of the Education Code. (b) A nonprofit hospital that seeks to take property by eminent domain under Section 1260 of the Health and Safety Code. (c) A cemetery authority that seeks to take property by eminent domain under Section 8501 of the Health and Safety Code. (d) A limited-dividend housing corporation that seeks to take property by eminent domain under Section 34874 of the Health and Safety Code. (e) A land-chest corporation that seeks to take property by eminent domain under former Section 35167 of the Health and Safety Code. (f) A mutual water company that seeks to take property by eminent domain under Section 2729 of the Public Utilities Code.


1245.325. Where an owner of real property seeks to acquire an appurtenant easement by eminent domain pursuant to Section 1001 of the Civil Code: (a) The person seeking to exercise the power of eminent domain shall be deemed to be a "quasi-public entity" for the purposes of this article. (b) In lieu of the requirements of subdivision (c) of Section 1245.340, the resolution required by this article shall contain a declaration that the legislative body has found and determined each of the following: (1) There is a great necessity for the taking. (2) The location of the easement affords the most reasonable service to the property to which it is appurtenant, consistent with the least damage to the burdened property. (3) The hardship to the owner of the appurtenant property, if the taking is not permitted, clearly outweighs any hardship to the owner of the burdened property.


1245.326. Where an owner of real property seeks to acquire by eminent domain a temporary right of entry pursuant to Section 1002 of the Civil Code: (a) The person seeking to exercise the power of eminent domain shall be deemed to be a "quasi-public entity" for the purposes of this article. (b) In lieu of the requirements of subdivision (c) of Section 1245.340, the resolution required by this article shall contain a declaration that the legislative body has found and determined that each of the conditions required by Section 1002 of the Civil Code appears to exist.


1245.330. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a quasi-public entity may not commence an eminent domain proceeding to acquire any property until the legislative body has adopted a resolution consenting to the acquisition of such property by eminent domain.


1245.340. The resolution required by this article shall contain all of the following: (a) A general statement of the public use for which the property is to be taken and a reference to the statute that authorizes the quasi-public entity to acquire the property by eminent domain. (b) A description of the general location and extent of the property to be taken, with sufficient detail for reasonable identification. (c) A declaration that the legislative body has found and determined each of the following: (1) The public interest and necessity require the proposed project. (2) The proposed project is planned or located in the manner that will be most compatible with the greatest good and least private injury. (3) The property described in the resolution is necessary for the proposed project. (4) The hardship to the quasi-public entity if the acquisition of the property by eminent domain is not permitted outweighs any hardship to the owners of such property.


1245.350. (a) The legislative body may refuse to consent to the acquisition with or without a hearing, but it may adopt the resolution required by this article only after the legislative body has held a hearing at which persons whose property is to be acquired by eminent domain have had a reasonable opportunity to appear and be heard. (b) Notice of the hearing shall be sent by first-class mail to each person whose property is to be acquired by eminent domain if the name and address of the person appears on the last equalized county assessment roll (including the roll of state-assessed property). The notice shall state the time, place, and subject of the hearing and shall be mailed at least 15 days prior to the date of the hearing.


1245.360. The resolution required by this article shall be adopted by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of the legislative body.


1245.370. The legislative body may require that the quasi-public entity pay all of the costs reasonably incurred by the legislative body under this article. The legislative body may require that such costs be secured by payment or deposit or other satisfactory security in advance of any action by the legislative body under this article.


1245.380. The requirement of this article is in addition to any other requirements imposed by law. Nothing in this article relieves the quasi-public entity from satisfying the requirements of Section 1240.030 or any other requirements imposed by law.


1245.390. The adoption of a resolution pursuant to this article does not make the city or county liable for any damages caused by the acquisition of the property or by the project for which it is acquired.


Chapter 5. Commencement Of Proceeding

Article 1. Jurisdiction And Venue

Ca Codes (ccp:1250.010-1250.040) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1250.010-1250.040



1250.010. Except as otherwise provided in Section 1230.060 and in Chapter 12 (commencing with Section 1273.010), all eminent domain proceedings shall be commenced and prosecuted in the superior court.


1250.020. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), the proceeding shall be commenced in the county in which the property sought to be taken is located. (b) When property sought to be taken is situated in more than one county, the plaintiff may commence the proceeding in any one of such counties.

1250.030. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), the county in which the proceeding is commenced pursuant to Section 1250.020 is the proper county for trial of the proceeding. (b) Where the court changes the place of trial pursuant to Section 1250.040, the county to which the proceeding is transferred is the proper county for trial of the proceeding.


1250.040. The provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure for the change of place of trial of actions apply to eminent domain proceedings.


Article 2. Commencement Of Proceeding Generally

Ca Codes (ccp:1250.110-1250.150) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1250.110-1250.150



1250.110. An eminent domain proceeding is commenced by filing a complaint with the court.


1250.120. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), the form and contents of the summons shall be as in civil actions generally. (b) Where process is served by publication, in addition to the summons, the publication shall describe the property sought to be taken in a manner reasonably calculated to give persons with an interest in the property actual notice of the pending proceeding.


1250.125. (a) Where summons is served by publication, the publication may name only the defendants to be served thereby and describe only the property in which the defendants to be served thereby have or claim interests. (b) Judgment based on failure to appear and answer following service under this section shall be conclusive against the defendants named in respect only to property described in the publication. (c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), a defendant who did not receive the offer required by Section 7267.2 of the Government Code because the owner could not be located with reasonable diligence, who was served by publication, and who failed to appear, may contest the amount of compensation within one year of the judgment and for good cause shown, whereupon that issue shall be litigated according to the provisions of this title.


1250.130. Where the court orders service by publication, it shall also order the plaintiff (1) to post a copy of the summons and complaint on the property sought to be taken and (2), if not already recorded, to record a notice of the pendency of the proceeding in the manner provided by Section 1250.150. Such posting and recording shall be done not later than 10 days after the date the order is made.


1250.140. Where the state is a defendant, the summons and the complaint shall be served on the Attorney General.


1250.150. The plaintiff, at the time of the commencement of the proceeding, shall record a notice of the pendency of the proceeding in the office of the county recorder of any county in which property described in the complaint is located. A copy of the notice shall be served with the summons and complaint.


Article 3. Parties; Joinder Of Property

Ca Codes (ccp:1250.210-1250.250) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1250.210-1250.250



1250.210. Each person seeking to take property by eminent domain shall be named as a plaintiff.


1250.220. (a) The plaintiff shall name as defendants, by their real names, those persons who appear of record or are known by the plaintiff to have or claim an interest in the property described in the complaint. (b) If a person described in subdivision (a) is dead and the plaintiff knows of a duly qualified and acting personal representative of the estate of such person, the plaintiff shall name such personal representative as a defendant. If a person described in subdivision (a) is dead or is believed by the plaintiff to be dead and if plaintiff knows of no duly qualified and acting personal representative of the estate of such person and states these facts in an affidavit filed with the complaint, plaintiff may name as defendants "the heirs and devisees of ____ (naming such deceased person), deceased, and all persons claiming by, through, or under said decedent," naming them in that manner and, where it is stated in the affidavit that such person is believed by the plaintiff to be dead, such person also may be named as a defendant. (c) In addition to those persons described in subdivision (a), the plaintiff may name as defendants "all persons unknown claiming an interest in the property," naming them in that manner. (d) A judgment rendered in a proceeding under this title is binding and conclusive upon all persons named as defendants as provided in this section and properly served.


1250.230. Any person who claims a legal or equitable interest in the property described in the complaint may appear in the proceeding. Whether or not such person is named as a defendant in the complaint, he shall appear as a defendant.

1250.240. The plaintiff may join in one complaint all property located within the same county which is sought to be acquired for the same project.

1250.250. (a) If the only interest of the county or other taxing agency in the property described in the complaint is a lien for ad valorem taxes, the county or other taxing agency need not be named as a defendant. (b) The holder of a lien that secures a special assessment or a bond representing the special assessment shall be named as a defendant, regardless of the nature of the special assessment and the manner of collection of the special assessment. The holder of the lien may, instead of an answer, certify to the court within 30 days after service of the summons and complaint on the holder all of the following information: (1) A complete description of the lien. (2) A description of the property encumbered by the lien. (3) The amount remaining due on the lien as of the date of the certificate. (4) The date upon which each installment payable on the lien is due and the amount of each installment. (c) A copy of the certification shall be sent by first-class mail to all parties to the proceeding at the time it is provided to the court. The filing of the certification or answer shall be considered as a general appearance.


Article 4. Pleadings

Ca Codes (ccp:1250.310-1250.345) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1250.310-1250.345



1250.310. The complaint shall contain all of the following: (a) The names of all plaintiffs and defendants. (b) A description of the property sought to be taken. The description may, but is not required to, indicate the nature or extent of the interest of the defendant in the property. (c) If the plaintiff claims an interest in the property sought to be taken, the nature and extent of such interest. (d) A statement of the right of the plaintiff to take by eminent domain the property described in the complaint. The statement shall include: (1) A general statement of the public use for which the property is to be taken. (2) An allegation of the necessity for the taking as required by Section 1240.030; where the plaintiff is a public entity, a reference to its resolution of necessity; where the plaintiff is a quasi-public entity within the meaning of Section 1245.320, a reference to the resolution adopted pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 1245.310) of Chapter 4; where the plaintiff is a nonprofit hospital, a reference to the certificate required by Section 1260 of the Health and Safety Code; where the plaintiff is a public utility and relies on a certification of the State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission or a requirement of that commission that development rights be acquired, a reference to such certification or requirement. (3) A reference to the statute that authorizes the plaintiff to acquire the property by eminent domain. Specification of the statutory authority may be in the alternative and may be inconsistent. (e) A map or diagram portraying as far as practicable the property described in the complaint and showing its location in relation to the project for which it is to be taken.


1250.320. (a) The answer shall include a statement of the nature and extent of the interest the defendant claims in the property described in the complaint. (b) Where the defendant seeks compensation provided in Article 6 (commencing with Section 1263.510) (goodwill) of Chapter 9, the answer shall include a statement that the defendant claims compensation under Section 1263.510, but the answer need not specify the amount of such compensation.


1250.325. (a) A defendant may file a disclaimer at any time, whether or not he is in default, and the disclaimer supersedes an answer previously filed by the defendant. The disclaimer need not be in any particular form. It shall contain a statement that the defendant claims no interest in the property or in the compensation that may be awarded. Notwithstanding Section 1250.330, the disclaimer shall be signed by the defendant. (b) Subject to subdivision (c), a defendant who has filed a disclaimer has no right to participate in further proceedings or to share in the compensation awarded. (c) The court may implement the disclaimer by appropriate orders including, where justified, awarding costs and litigation expenses.


1250.330. Where a party is represented by an attorney, his pleading need not be verified but shall be signed by the attorney for the party. The signature of the attorney constitutes a certificate by him that he has read the pleading and that to the best of his knowledge, information, and belief there is ground to support it. If the pleading is not signed or is signed with intent to defeat the purposes of this section, it may be stricken.


1250.340. (a) Subject to subdivisions (b) and (c), the court may allow upon such terms and conditions as may be just an amendment or supplement to any pleading. In the case of an amendment or supplement to the complaint, such terms and conditions may include a change in the applicable date of valuation for the proceeding and an award of costs and litigation expenses which would not have been incurred had the proceeding as originally commenced been the same as the proceeding following such amendment or supplement. (b) A public entity may add to the property sought to be taken only if it has adopted a resolution of necessity that satisfies the requirements of Article 2 (commencing with Section 1245.210) of Chapter 4 for the property to be added. (c) Property previously sought to be taken may be deleted from the complaint only if the plaintiff has followed the procedure for partial abandonment of the proceeding as to that property.


1250.345. Subject to the power of the court to permit an amendment of the answer, if the defendant fails to object to the complaint, either by demurrer or answer, he is deemed to have waived the objection.


Article 5. Objections To Right To Take

Ca Codes (ccp:1250.350-1250.370) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1250.350-1250.370



1250.350. A defendant may object to the plaintiff's right to take, by demurrer or answer as provided in Section 430.30, on any ground authorized by Section 1250.360 or Section 1250.370. The demurrer or answer shall state the specific ground upon which the objection is taken and, if the objection is taken by answer, the specific facts upon which the objection is based. An objection may be taken on more than one ground, and the grounds may be inconsistent.


1250.360. Grounds for objection to the right to take, regardless of whether the plaintiff has adopted a resolution of necessity that satisfies the requirements of Article 2 (commencing with Section 1245.210) of Chapter 4, include: (a) The plaintiff is not authorized by statute to exercise the power of eminent domain for the purpose stated in the complaint. (b) The stated purpose is not a public use. (c) The plaintiff does not intend to devote the property described in the complaint to the stated purpose. (d) There is no reasonable probability that the plaintiff will devote the described property to the stated purpose within (1) seven years, or (2) 10 years where the property is taken pursuant to the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1973, or (3) such longer period as is reasonable. (e) The described property is not subject to acquisition by the power of eminent domain for the stated purpose. (f) The described property is sought to be acquired pursuant to Section 1240.410 (excess condemnation), 1240.510 (condemnation for compatible use), or 1240.610 (condemnation for more necessary public use), but the acquisition does not satisfy the requirements of those provisions. (g) The described property is sought to be acquired pursuant to Section 1240.610 (condemnation for more necessary public use), but the defendant has the right under Section 1240.630 to continue the public use to which the property is appropriated as a joint use. (h) Any other ground provided by law.


1250.370. In addition to the grounds listed in Section 1250.360, grounds for objection to the right to take where the plaintiff has not adopted a resolution of necessity that conclusively establishes the matters referred to in Section 1240.030 include: (a) The plaintiff is a public entity and has not adopted a resolution of necessity that satisfies the requirements of Article 2 (commencing with Section 1245.210) of Chapter 4. (b) The public interest and necessity do not require the proposed project. (c) The proposed project is not planned or located in the manner that will be most compatible with the greatest public good and the least private injury. (d) The property described in the complaint is not necessary for the proposed project. (e) The plaintiff is a quasi-public entity within the meaning of Section 1245.320 and has not satisfied the requirements of Article 3 (commencing with Section 1245.310) of Chapter 4.


Article 6. Settlement Offers And Alternative Dispute Resolution

Ca Codes (ccp:1250.410-1250.430) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1250.410-1250.430



1250.410. (a) At least 20 days prior to the date of the trial on issues relating to compensation, the plaintiff shall file with the court and serve on the defendant its final offer of compensation in the proceeding and the defendant shall file and serve on the plaintiff its final demand for compensation in the proceeding. The offer and the demand shall include all compensation required pursuant to this title, including compensation for loss of goodwill, if any, and shall state whether interest and costs are included. These offers and demands shall be the only offers and demands considered by the court in determining the entitlement, if any, to litigation expenses. Service shall be in the manner prescribed by Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1010) of Title 14 of Part 2. (b) If the court, on motion of the defendant made within 30 days after entry of judgment, finds that the offer of the plaintiff was unreasonable and that the demand of the defendant was reasonable viewed in the light of the evidence admitted and the compensation awarded in the proceeding, the costs allowed pursuant to Section 1268.710 shall include the defendant's litigation expenses. (c) In determining the amount of litigation expenses allowed under this section, the court shall consider the offer required to be made by the plaintiff pursuant to Section 7267.2 of the Government Code, any deposit made by the plaintiff pursuant to Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 1255.010), and any other written offers and demands filed and served before or during the trial. (d) If timely made, the offers and demands as provided in subdivision (a) shall be considered by the court on the issue of determining an entitlement to litigation expenses. (e) As used in this section, "litigation expenses" means the party' s reasonable attorney's fees and costs, including reasonable expert witness and appraiser fees.

1250.420. The parties may by agreement refer a dispute that is the subject of an eminent domain proceeding for resolution by any of the following means: (a) Mediation by a neutral mediator. (b) Binding arbitration by a neutral arbitrator. The arbitration is subject to Chapter 12 (commencing with Section 1273.010). (c) Nonbinding arbitration by a neutral arbitrator. The arbitrator' s decision in a nonbinding arbitration is final unless within 30 days after service of the arbitrator's decision a party moves the court for a trial of the eminent domain proceeding. If the judgment in the eminent domain proceeding is not more favorable to the moving party, the court shall order that party to pay to the other parties the following nonrefundable costs and fees, unless the court finds in writing and on motion that the imposition of costs and fees would create such a substantial economic hardship as not to be in the interest of justice: (1) All costs specified in Section 1033.5, limited to those incurred from the time of election of the trial de novo. Nothing in this subdivision affects the right of a defendant to recover costs otherwise allowable pursuant to Section 1268.710, incurred before election of a trial de novo, except that a defendant may recover the costs of determining the apportionment of the award made pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1260.220 whenever incurred. (2) The reasonable costs of the services of expert witnesses who are not regular employees of any party, actually incurred and reasonably necessary in the preparation or trial of the case, limited to those incurred from the time of election of the trial de novo. (3) The compensation paid by the parties to the arbitrator.


1250.430. Notwithstanding any other statute or rule of court governing the date of trial of an eminent domain proceeding, on motion of a party the court may postpone the date of trial for a period that appears adequate to enable resolution of a dispute pursuant to alternative resolution procedures, if it is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the court that all of the following conditions are satisfied: (a) The parties are actively engaged in alternative resolution of the dispute pursuant to Section 1250.420. (b) The parties appear to be making progress toward resolution of the dispute without the need for a trial of the matter. (c) The parties agree that additional time for the purpose of alternative dispute resolution is desirable.


Chapter 6. Deposit And Withdrawal Of Probable Compensation; Possession Prior To Judgment

Article 1. Deposit Of Probable Compensation

Ca Codes (ccp:1255.010-1255.080) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1255.010-1255.080



1255.010. (a) At any time before entry of judgment, the plaintiff may deposit with the State Treasury the probable amount of compensation, based on an appraisal, that will be awarded in the proceeding. The appraisal upon which the deposit is based shall be one that satisfies the requirements of subdivision (b). The deposit may be made whether or not the plaintiff applies for an order for possession or intends to do so. (b) Before making a deposit under this section, the plaintiff shall have an expert qualified to express an opinion as to the value of the property (1) make an appraisal of the property and (2) prepare a written statement of, or summary of the basis for, the appraisal. The statement or summary shall contain detail sufficient to indicate clearly the basis for the appraisal, including, but not limited to, all of the following information: (A) The date of valuation, highest and best use, and applicable zoning of the property. (B) The principal transactions, reproduction or replacement cost analysis, or capitalization analysis, supporting the appraisal. (C) If the appraisal includes compensation for damages to the remainder, the compensation for the property and for damages to the remainder separately stated, and the calculations and a narrative explanation supporting the compensation, including any offsetting benefits. (c) On noticed motion, or upon ex parte application in an emergency, the court may permit the plaintiff to make a deposit without prior compliance with subdivision (b) if the plaintiff presents facts by affidavit showing that (1) good cause exists for permitting an immediate deposit to be made, (2) an adequate appraisal has not been completed and cannot reasonably be prepared before making the deposit, and (3) the amount of the deposit to be made is not less than the probable amount of compensation that the plaintiff, in good faith, estimates will be awarded in the proceeding. In its order, the court shall require that the plaintiff comply with subdivision (b) within a reasonable time, to be specified in the order, and also that any additional amount of compensation shown by the appraisal required by subdivision (b) be deposited within that time.

1255.020. (a) On making a deposit pursuant to Section 1255.010, the plaintiff shall serve a notice of deposit on all parties who have appeared in the proceeding and file with the court a proof of service together with the notice of deposit. The plaintiff shall so serve parties who appear thereafter on their appearance. The notice of deposit shall state that a deposit has been made and the date and the amount of the deposit. Service of the notice of deposit shall be made in the manner provided in Section 1255.450 for service of an order for possession. (b) The notice of deposit shall be accompanied by a written statement or summary of the basis for the appraisal referred to in Section 1255.010. (c) If the plaintiff has obtained an order under Section 1255.010 deferring completion of the written statement or summary, the plaintiff: (1) On making the deposit, shall comply with subdivision (a) and include with the notice a copy of all affidavits on which the order was based. (2) Upon completion of the written statement or summary, shall comply with subdivision (b).


1255.030. (a) At any time after a deposit has been made pursuant to this article, the court shall, upon motion of the plaintiff or of any party having an interest in the property for which the deposit was made, determine or redetermine whether the amount deposited is the probable amount of compensation that will be awarded in the proceeding. The motion shall be supported with detail sufficient to indicate clearly the basis for the motion, including, but not limited to, the following information to the extent relevant to the motion: (1) The date of valuation, highest and best use, and applicable zoning of the property. (2) The principal transactions, reproduction or replacement cost analysis, or capitalization analysis, supporting the motion. (3) The compensation for the property and for damages to the remainder separately stated, and the calculations and a narrative explanation supporting the compensation, including any offsetting benefits. (b) If the plaintiff has not taken possession of the property and the court determines that the probable amount of compensation exceeds the amount deposited, the court may order the plaintiff to increase the deposit or may deny the plaintiff possession of the property until the amount deposited has been increased to the amount specified in the order. (c) If the plaintiff has taken possession of the property and the court determines that the probable amount of compensation exceeds the amount deposited, the court shall order the amount deposited to be increased to the amount determined to be the probable amount of compensation. If the amount on deposit is not increased accordingly within 30 days from the date of the court's order, or any longer time as the court may have allowed at the time of making the order, the defendant may serve on the plaintiff a notice of election to treat that failure as an abandonment of the proceeding. If the plaintiff does not cure its failure within 10 days after receipt of such notice, the court shall, upon motion of the defendant, enter judgment dismissing the proceeding and awarding the defendant his or her litigation expenses and damages as provided in Sections 1268.610 and 1268.620. (d) After any amount deposited pursuant to this article has been withdrawn by a defendant, the court may not determine or redetermine the probable amount of compensation to be less than the total amount already withdrawn. Nothing in this subdivision precludes the court from making a determination or redetermination that probable compensation is greater than the amount withdrawn. (e) If the court determines that the amount deposited exceeds the probable amount of compensation, it may permit the plaintiff to withdraw the excess not already withdrawn by the defendant. (f) The plaintiff may at any time increase the amount deposited without making a motion under this section. In that case, notice of the increase shall be served as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 1255.020.


1255.040. (a) If the plaintiff has not made a deposit that satisfies the requirements of this article and the property includes a dwelling containing not more than two residential units and the dwelling or one of its units is occupied as his or her residence by a defendant, the defendant may serve notice on the plaintiff requiring a deposit of the probable amount of compensation that will be awarded in the proceeding. The notice shall specify the date by which the defendant desires the deposit to be made. The date shall not be earlier than 30 days after the date of service of the notice and may be any later date. (b) If the plaintiff deposits the probable amount of compensation, determined or redetermined as provided in this article, on or before the date specified by the defendant, the plaintiff may obtain an order for possession that authorizes the plaintiff to take possession of the property 30 days after the date for the deposit specified by the defendant or any later date as the plaintiff may request. (c) Notwithstanding Section 1268.310, if the deposit is not made on or before the date specified by the defendant or such later date as the court specifies on motion and good cause shown by the plaintiff, the compensation awarded to the defendant in the proceeding shall draw legal interest from that date. The defendant is entitled to the full amount of such interest without offset for rents or other income received by him or her or the value of his or her continued possession of the property. (d) If the proceeding is abandoned by the plaintiff, the interest under subdivision (c) may be recovered as costs in the proceeding in the manner provided for the recovery of litigation expenses under Section 1268.610. If, in the proceeding, the court or a jury verdict eventually determines the compensation that would have been awarded to the defendant, then the interest shall be computed on the amount of the award. If no determination is ever made, then the interest shall be computed on the probable amount of compensation as determined by the court. (e) The serving of a notice pursuant to this section constitutes a waiver by operation of law, conditioned upon subsequent deposit by the plaintiff of the probable amount of compensation, of all claims and defenses in favor of the defendant except his or her claim for greater compensation. (f) Notice of a deposit made under this section shall be served as provided by subdivision (a) of Section 1255.020. The defendant may withdraw the deposit as provided in Article 2 (commencing with Section 1255.210). (g) No notice may be served by a defendant under subdivision (a) after entry of judgment unless the judgment is reversed, vacated, or set aside and no other judgment has been entered at the time the notice is served.


1255.050. If the property to be taken is subject to a leasehold interest and the plaintiff has not made a deposit that satisfies the requirements of this article, the lessor may serve notice on the plaintiff requiring a deposit of the probable amount of compensation that will be awarded in the proceeding in the same manner and subject to the same procedures and conditions as a motion pursuant to Section 1255.040 except that, if the plaintiff fails to make the deposit, the interest awarded shall be offset by the lessor's net rental profits on the property.


1255.060. (a) The amount deposited or withdrawn pursuant to this chapter may not be given in evidence or referred to in the trial of the issue of compensation. (b) In the trial of the issue of compensation, an appraisal report, written statement and summary of an appraisal, or other statement made in connection with a deposit or withdrawal pursuant to this chapter may not be considered to be an admission of any party. (c) Upon objection of the party at whose request an appraisal report, written statement and summary of the appraisal, or other statement was made in connection with a deposit or withdrawal pursuant to this chapter, the person who made the report or statement and summary or other statement may not be called at the trial on the issue of compensation by any other party to give an opinion as to compensation. If the person who prepared the report, statement and summary, or other statement is called at trial to give an opinion as to compensation, the report, statement and summary, or other statement may be used for impeachment of the witness.


1255.070. In lieu of depositing the money with the State Treasury as provided in Section 1255.010, upon written request of the plaintiff, the court shall order the money be deposited in the county treasury. If money is deposited in the State Treasury pursuant to Section 1255.010, it shall be held, invested, deposited, and disbursed in the manner specified in Article 10 (commencing with Section 16429) of Chapter 2 of Part 2 of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code, and interest earned or other increment derived from its investment shall be apportioned and disbursed in the manner specified in that article. As between the parties to the proceeding, money deposited pursuant to this article shall remain at the risk of the plaintiff until paid or made payable to the defendant by order of the court.


1255.075. (a) Prior to entry of judgment, a defendant who has an interest in the property for which a deposit has been made under this chapter may, upon notice to the other parties to the proceeding, move the court to have all of such deposit invested for the benefit of the defendants. (b) At the hearing on the motion, the court shall consider the interests of the parties and the effect that investment would have upon them. The court may, in its discretion, if it finds that the interests of justice will be served, grant the motion subject to such terms and conditions as are appropriate under the circumstances of the case. (c) An investment under this section shall be specified by the court and shall be limited to United States government obligations or interest-bearing accounts in an institution whose accounts are insured by an agency of the federal government. (d) The investment of the deposit has the same consequences as if the deposit has been withdrawn under this chapter.


1255.080. By depositing the probable compensation pursuant to this article, the plaintiff does not waive the right to appeal from the judgment, the right to move to abandon, or the right to request a new trial.


Article 2. Withdrawal Of Deposit

Ca Codes (ccp:1255.210-1255.280) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1255.210-1255.280



1255.210. Prior to entry of judgment, any defendant may apply to the court for the withdrawal of all or any portion of the amount deposited. The application shall be verified, set forth the applicant' s interest in the property, and request withdrawal of a stated amount. The applicant shall serve a copy of the application on the plaintiff.


1255.220. Subject to the requirements of this article, the court shall order the amount requested in the application, or such portion of that amount as the applicant is entitled to receive, to be paid to the applicant.

1255.230. (a) No withdrawal may be ordered until 20 days after service on the plaintiff of a copy of the application or until the time for all objections has expired, whichever is later. (b) Within the 20-day period, the plaintiff may file objections to withdrawal on any one or more of the following grounds: (1) Other parties to the proceeding are known or believed to have interests in the property. (2) An undertaking should be filed by the applicant as provided in Section 1255.240 or 1255.250. (3) The amount of an undertaking filed by the applicant under this chapter or the sureties thereon are insufficient. (c) If an objection is filed on the ground that other parties are known or believed to have interests in the property, the plaintiff shall serve or attempt to serve on such other parties a notice that they may appear within 10 days after such service and object to the withdrawal. The notice shall advise such parties that their failure to object will result in waiver of any rights against the plaintiff to the extent of the amount withdrawn. The notice shall be served in the manner provided in Section 1255.450 for service of an order for possession. The plaintiff shall file, and serve on the applicant, a report setting forth (1) the names of the parties upon whom the notice was served and the dates of service and (2) the names and last known addresses of the other parties who are known or believed to have interests in the property but who were not so served. The applicant may serve parties whom the plaintiff has been unable to serve. Parties served in the manner provided in Section 1255.450 shall have no claim against the plaintiff for compensation to the extent of the amount withdrawn by all applicants. The plaintiff shall remain liable to parties having an interest of record who are not so served but, if such liability is enforced, the plaintiff shall be subrogated to the rights of such parties under Section 1255.280. (d) If any party objects to the withdrawal, or if the plaintiff so requests, the court shall determine, upon hearing, the amounts to be withdrawn, if any, and by whom.

1255.240. (a) If the court determines that an applicant is entitled to withdraw any portion of a deposit that another party claims or to which another person may be entitled, the court may require the applicant, before withdrawing such portion, to file an undertaking. The undertaking shall secure payment to such party or person of any amount withdrawn that exceeds the amount to which the applicant is entitled as finally determined in the proceeding, together with interest as provided in Section 1255.280. If withdrawal is permitted notwithstanding the lack of personal service of the application for withdrawal upon any party to the proceeding, the court may also require that the undertaking indemnify the plaintiff against any liability it may incur under Section 1255.230. The undertaking shall be in such amount as is fixed by the court, but if executed by an admitted surety insurer the amount shall not exceed the portion claimed by the adverse claimant or appearing to belong to another person. If executed by two or more sufficient sureties, the amount shall not exceed double such portion. (b) If the undertaking is required primarily because of an issue as to title between the applicant and another party or person, the applicant filing the undertaking is not entitled to recover the premium reasonably paid for the undertaking as a part of the recoverable costs in the eminent domain proceeding.


1255.250. (a) If the amount originally deposited is increased pursuant to Section 1255.030 and the total amount sought to be withdrawn exceeds the amount of the original deposit, the applicant, or each applicant if there are two or more, shall file an undertaking. The undertaking shall be in favor of the plaintiff and shall secure repayment of any amount withdrawn that exceeds the amount to which the applicant is entitled as finally determined in the eminent domain proceeding, together with interest as provided in Section 1255.280. If the undertaking is executed by an admitted surety insurer, the undertaking shall be in the amount by which the total amount to be withdrawn exceeds the amount originally deposited. If the undertaking is executed by two or more sufficient sureties, the undertaking shall be in double such amount, but the maximum amount that may be recovered from such sureties is the amount by which the total amount to be withdrawn exceeds the amount originally deposited. (b) If there are two or more applicants, the applicants, in lieu of filing separate undertakings, may jointly file a single undertaking in the amount required by subdivision (a).


1255.260. If any portion of the money deposited pursuant to this chapter is withdrawn, the receipt of any such money shall constitute a waiver by operation of law of all claims and defenses in favor of the persons receiving such payment except a claim for greater compensation.


1255.280. (a) Any amount withdrawn by a party pursuant to this article in excess of the amount to which he is entitled as finally determined in the eminent domain proceeding shall be paid to the parties entitled thereto. The court shall enter judgment accordingly. (b) The judgment so entered shall not include interest except in the following cases: (1) Any amount that is to be paid to a defendant shall include legal interest from the date of its withdrawal by another defendant. (2) If the amount originally deposited by a plaintiff was increased pursuant to Section 1255.030 on motion of a party obligated to pay under this section, any amount that is attributable to such increase and that is to be repaid to the plaintiff shall include legal interest from the date of its withdrawal. (c) If the judgment so entered is not paid within 30 days after its entry, the court may, on motion, enter judgment against the sureties, if any, for the amount of such judgment. (d) The court may, in its discretion and with such security, if any, as it deems appropriate, grant a party obligated to pay under this section a stay of execution for any amount to be paid to a plaintiff. Such stay of execution shall not exceed one year following entry of judgment under this section.


Article 3. Possession Prior To Judgment

Ca Codes (ccp:1255.410-1255.480) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1255.410-1255.480



1255.410. (a) At the time of filing the complaint or at any time after filing the complaint and prior to entry of judgment, the plaintiff may move the court for an order for possession under this article, demonstrating that the plaintiff is entitled to take the property by eminent domain and has deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) an amount that satisfies the requirements of that article. The motion shall describe the property of which the plaintiff is seeking to take possession, which description may be by reference to the complaint, and shall state the date after which the plaintiff is seeking to take possession of the property. The motion shall include a statement substantially in the following form: "You have the right to oppose this motion for an order of possession of your property. If you oppose this motion you must serve the plaintiff and file with the court a written opposition to the motion within 30 days from the date you were served with this motion." If the written opposition asserts a hardship, it shall be supported by a declaration signed under penalty of perjury stating facts supporting the hardship. (b) The plaintiff shall serve a copy of the motion on the record owner of the property and on the occupants, if any. The plaintiff shall set the court hearing on the motion not less than 60 days after service of the notice of motion on the record owner of unoccupied property. If the property is lawfully occupied by a person dwelling thereon or by a farm or business operation, service of the notice of motion shall be made not less than 90 days prior to the hearing on the motion. (c) Not later than 30 days after service of the plaintiff's motion seeking to take possession of the property, any defendant or occupant of the property may oppose the motion in writing by serving the plaintiff and filing with the court the opposition. If the written opposition asserts a hardship, it shall be supported by a declaration signed under penalty of perjury stating facts supporting the hardship. The plaintiff shall serve and file any reply to the opposition not less than 15 days before the hearing. (d) (1) If the motion is not opposed within 30 days of service on each defendant and occupant of the property, the court shall make an order for possession of the property if the court finds each of the following: (A) The plaintiff is entitled to take the property by eminent domain. (B) The plaintiff has deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) an amount that satisfies the requirements of that article. (2) If the motion is opposed by a defendant or occupant within 30 days of service, the court may make an order for possession of the property upon consideration of the relevant facts and any opposition, and upon completion of a hearing on the motion, if the court finds each of the following: (A) The plaintiff is entitled to take the property by eminent domain. (B) The plaintiff has deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) an amount that satisfies the requirements of that article. (C) There is an overriding need for the plaintiff to possess the property prior to the issuance of final judgment in the case, and the plaintiff will suffer a substantial hardship if the application for possession is denied or limited. (D) The hardship that the plaintiff will suffer if possession is denied or limited outweighs any hardship on the defendant or occupant that would be caused by the granting of the order of possession. (e) (1) Notwithstanding the time limits for notice prescribed by this section and Section 1255.450, a court may issue an order of possession upon an ex parte application by a water, wastewater, gas, electric, or telephone utility, as the court deems appropriate under the circumstances of the case, if the court finds each of the following: (A) An emergency exists and as a consequence the utility has an urgent need for possession of the property. For purposes of this section, an emergency is defined to include, but is not limited to, a utility's urgent need to protect the public's health and safety or the reliability of utility service. (B) An emergency order of possession will not displace or unreasonably affect any person in actual and lawful possession of the property to be taken or the larger parcel of which it is a part. (2) Not later than 30 days after service of the order authorizing the plaintiff to take possession of the property, any defendant or occupant of the property may move for relief from an emergency order of possession that has been issued under this subdivision. The court may modify, stay, or vacate the order upon consideration of the relevant facts and any objections raised, and upon completion of a hearing if requested.


1255.440. If an order has been made under Section 1255.410 authorizing the plaintiff to take possession of property and the court subsequently determines that the conditions specified in Section 1255.410 for issuance of the order are not satisfied, the court shall vacate the order.


1255.450. (a) As used in this section, "record owner" means the owner of the legal or equitable title to the fee or any lesser interest in property as shown by recorded deeds or other recorded instruments. (b) The plaintiff shall serve a copy of the order for possession issued under Section 1255.410 on the record owner of the property and on the occupants, if any. If the property is lawfully occupied by a person dwelling thereon or by a farm or business operation, service shall be made not less than 30 days prior to the time possession is to be taken pursuant to the order. In all other cases, service shall be made not less than 10 days prior to the time possession is to be taken pursuant to the order. Service may be made with or following service of summons. (c) At least 30 days prior to the time possession is taken pursuant to an order for possession made pursuant to Section 1255.040, 1255.050, or 1255.460, the plaintiff shall serve a copy of the order on the record owner of the property and on the occupants, if any. (d) Service of the order shall be made by personal service except that: (1) If the person on whom service is to be made has previously appeared in the proceeding or been served with summons in the proceeding, service of the order may be made by mail upon that person and his or her attorney of record, if any. (2) If the person on whom service is to be made resides out of the state, or has departed from the state or cannot with due diligence be found within the state, service of the order may be made by registered or certified mail addressed to that person at his or her last known address. (e) When the record owner cannot be located, the court may, for good cause shown on ex parte application, authorize the plaintiff to take possession of unoccupied property without serving a copy of the order for possession upon a record owner. (f) A single service upon or mailing to one of several persons having a common business or residence address is sufficient.


1255.460. An order for possession issued pursuant to Section 1255.410 shall: (a) Recite that it has been made under this section. (b) Describe the property to be acquired, which description may be by reference to the complaint. (c) State the date after which plaintiff is authorized to take possession of the property.


1255.470. By taking possession pursuant to this chapter, the plaintiff does not waive the right to appeal from the judgment, the right to move to abandon, or the right to request a new trial.


1255.480. Nothing in this article limits the right of a public entity to exercise its police power in emergency situations.


Chapter 7. Discovery; Exchange Of Valuation Data

Article 1. Discovery

Ca Codes (ccp:1258.010-1258.030) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1258.010-1258.030



1258.010. The provisions of this chapter supplement but do not replace, restrict, or prevent the use of discovery procedures or limit the matters that are discoverable in eminent domain proceedings.


1258.020. (a) Notwithstanding any other statute or any court rule relating to discovery, proceedings pursuant to subdivision (b) may be had without requirement of court order and may proceed until not later than 20 days prior to the day set for trial of the issue of compensation. (b) A party to an exchange of lists of expert witnesses and statements of valuation data pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 1258.210) or pursuant to court rule as provided in Section 1258.300 may after the time of the exchange obtain discovery from the other party to the exchange and from any person listed by him as an expert witness. (c) The court, upon noticed motion by the person subjected to discovery pursuant to subdivision (b), may make any order that justice requires to protect such person from annoyance, embarrassment, or oppression.


1258.030. Nothing in this chapter makes admissible any evidence that is not otherwise admissible or permits a witness to base an opinion on any matter that is not a proper basis for such an opinion.


Article 2. Exchange Of Valuation Data

Ca Codes (ccp:1258.210-1258.300) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1258.210-1258.300



1258.210. (a) Not later than the 10th day after the trial date is selected, any party may file and serve on any other party a demand to exchange lists of expert witnesses and statements of valuation data. Thereafter, the court may, upon noticed motion and a showing of good cause, permit any party to serve such a demand upon any other party. (b) The demand shall: (1) Describe the property to which it relates, which description may be by reference to the complaint. (2) Include a statement in substantially the following form: "You are required to serve and deposit with the clerk of court a list of expert witnesses and statements of valuation data in compliance with Article 2 (commencing with Section 1258.210) of Chapter 7 of Title 7 of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure not later than the date of exchange to be set in accordance with that article. Except as otherwise provided in that article, your failure to do so will constitute a waiver of your right to call unlisted expert witnesses during your case in chief and of your right to introduce on direct examination during your case in chief any matter that is required to be, but is not, set forth in your statements of valuation data."


1258.220. (a) For the purposes of this article, the "date of exchange" is the date agreed to for the exchange of their lists of expert witnesses and statements of valuation data by the party who served a demand and the party on whom the demand was served or, failing agreement, a date 90 days prior to commencement of the trial on the issue of compensation or the date set by the court on noticed motion of either party establishing good cause therefor. (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), unless otherwise agreed to by the parties, the date of exchange shall not be earlier than nine months after the date of commencement of the proceeding.


1258.230. (a) Not later than the date of exchange: (1) Each party who served a demand and each party upon whom a demand was served shall deposit with the clerk of the court a list of expert witnesses and statements of valuation data. (2) A party who served a demand shall serve his list and statements upon each party on whom he served his demand. (3) Each party on whom a demand was served shall serve his list and statements upon the party who served the demand. (b) The clerk of the court shall make an entry in the register of actions for each list of expert witnesses and statement of valuation data deposited with him pursuant to this article. The lists and statements shall not be filed in the proceeding, but the clerk shall make them available to the court at the commencement of the trial for the limited purpose of enabling the court to apply the provisions of this article. Unless the court otherwise orders, the clerk shall, at the conclusion of the trial, return all lists and statements to the attorneys for the parties who deposited them. Lists or statements ordered by the court to be retained may thereafter be destroyed or otherwise disposed of in accordance with the provisions of law governing the destruction or disposition of exhibits introduced in the trial.


1258.240. The list of expert witnesses shall include the name, business or residence address, and business, occupation, or profession of each person intended to be called as an expert witness by the party and a statement of the subject matter to which his testimony relates.


1258.250. A statement of valuation data shall be exchanged for each person the party intends to call as a witness to testify to his opinion as to any of the following matters: (a) The value of the property being taken. (b) The amount of the damage, if any, to the remainder of the larger parcel from which such property is taken. (c) The amount of the benefit, if any, to the remainder of the larger parcel from which such property is taken. (d) The amount of any other compensation required to be paid by Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 1263.010) or Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 1265.010).


1258.260. (a) The statement of valuation data shall give the name and business or residence address of the witness and shall include a statement whether the witness will testify to an opinion as to any of the matters listed in Section 1258.250 and, as to each matter upon which the witness will give an opinion, what that opinion is and the following items to the extent that the opinion is based on them: (1) The interest being valued. (2) The date of valuation used by the witness. (3) The highest and best use of the property. (4) The applicable zoning and the opinion of the witness as to the probability of any change in zoning. (5) The sales, contracts to sell and purchase, and leases supporting the opinion. (6) The cost of reproduction or replacement of the existing improvements on the property, the depreciation or obsolescence the improvements have suffered, and the method of calculation used to determine depreciation. (7) The gross income from the property, the deductions from gross income, and the resulting net income; the reasonable net rental value attributable to the land and existing improvements, and the estimated gross rental income and deductions upon which the reasonable net rental value is computed; the rate of capitalization used; and the value indicated by the capitalization. (8) If the property is a portion of a larger parcel, a description of the larger parcel and its value. (9) If the opinion concerns loss of goodwill, the method used to determine the loss, and a summary of the data supporting the opinion. (b) With respect to each sale, contract, or lease listed under paragraph (5) of subdivision (a), the statement of valuation data shall give: (1) The names and business or residence addresses, if known, of the parties to the transaction. (2) The location of the property subject to the transaction. (3) The date of the transaction. (4) If recorded, the date of recording and the volume and page or other identification of the record of the transaction. (5) The price and other terms and circumstances of the transaction. In lieu of stating the terms contained in any contract, lease, or other document, the statement may, if the document is available for inspection by the adverse party, state the place where and the times when it is available for inspection. (6) The total area and shape of the property subject to the transaction. (c) If any opinion referred to in Section 1258.250 is based in whole or in substantial part upon the opinion of another person, the statement of valuation data shall include the name and business or residence address of that other person, his business, occupation, or profession, and a statement as to the subject matter to which his or her opinion relates. (d) Except when an appraisal report is used as a statement of valuation data as permitted by subdivision (e), the statement of valuation data shall include a statement, signed by the witness, that the witness has read the statement of valuation data and that it fairly and correctly states his or her opinions and knowledge as to the matters therein stated. (e) An appraisal report that has been prepared by the witness which includes the information required to be included in a statement of valuation data may be used as a statement of valuation data under this article.


1258.270. (a) A party who is required to exchange lists of expert witnesses and statements of valuation data shall diligently give notice to the parties upon whom his list and statements were served if, after service of his list and statements, he: (1) Determines to call an expert witness not included in his list of expert witnesses to testify on direct examination during his case in chief; (2) Determines to have a witness called by him testify on direct examination during his case in chief to any opinion or data required to be listed in the statement of valuation data for that witness but which was not so listed; or (3) Discovers any data required to be listed in a statement of valuation data but which was not so listed. (b) The notice required by subdivision (a) shall include the information specified in Sections 1258.240 and 1258.260 and shall be in writing; but such notice is not required to be in writing if it is given after the commencement of the trial.


1258.280. Except as provided in Section 1258.290, upon objection of a party who has served his list of expert witnesses and statements of valuation data in compliance with Section 1258.230: (a) No party required to serve a list of expert witnesses on the objecting party may call an expert witness to testify on direct examination during his case in chief unless the information required by Section 1258.240 for such witness is included in the list served. (b) No party required to serve statements of valuation data on the objecting party may call a witness to testify on direct examination during his case in chief to his opinion on any matter listed in Section 1258.250 unless a statement of valuation data for such witness was served. (c) No witness called by a party required to serve statements of valuation data on the objecting party may testify on direct examination during the case in chief of the party who called him to any opinion or data required to be listed in the statement of valuation data for such witness unless such opinion or data is listed in the statement served except that testimony that is merely an explanation or elaboration of data so listed is not inadmissible under this subdivision.


1258.290. (a) The court may, upon such terms as may be just (including but not limited to continuing the trial for a reasonable period of time and awarding costs and litigation expenses), permit a party to call a witness, or permit a witness called by a party to testify to an opinion or data on direct examination, during the party' s case in chief where such witness, opinion, or data is required to be, but is not, included in such party's list of expert witnesses or statements of valuation data if the court finds that such party has made a good faith effort to comply with Sections 1258.210 to 1258.260, inclusive, that he has complied with Section 1258.270, and that by the date of exchange he: (1) Would not in the exercise of reasonable diligence have determined to call such witness or discovered or listed such opinion or data; or (2) Failed to determine to call such witness or to discover or list such opinion or data through mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect. (b) In making a determination under this section, the court shall take into account the extent to which the opposing party has relied upon the list of expert witnesses and statements of valuation data and will be prejudiced if the witness is called or the testimony concerning such opinion or data is given.


1258.300. The superior court in any county may provide by court rule a procedure for the exchange of valuation data which shall be used in lieu of the procedure provided by this article if the Judicial Council finds that such procedure serves the same purpose and is an adequate substitute for the procedure provided by this article.


Chapter 8. Procedures For Determining Right To Take And Compensation

Article 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (ccp:1260.010-1260.040) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1260.010-1260.040



1260.010. Proceedings under this title take precedence over all other civil actions in the matter of setting the same for hearing or trial in order that such proceedings shall be quickly heard and determined.

1260.020. (a) If proceedings to acquire the same property are consolidated, the court shall first determine whether the public uses for which the property is sought are compatible within the meaning of Article 6 (commencing with Section 1240.510) of Chapter 3. If the court determines that the uses are compatible, it shall permit the proceeding to continue with the plaintiffs acting jointly. The court shall apportion the obligation to pay any award in the proceeding in proportion to the use, damage, and benefits attributable to each plaintiff. (b) If the court determines pursuant to subdivision (a) that the uses are not all compatible, it shall further determine which of the uses is the more necessary public use within the meaning of Article 7 (commencing with Section 1240.610) of Chapter 3. The court shall permit the plaintiff alleging the more necessary public use, along with any other plaintiffs alleging compatible public uses under subdivision (a), to continue the proceeding. The court shall dismiss the proceeding as to the other plaintiffs.


1260.030. (a) If there is a dispute between plaintiff and defendant whether particular property is an improvement pertaining to the realty, either party may, not later than 30 days prior to the date specified in an order for possession of the property, move the court for a determination whether the property is an improvement pertaining to the realty. (b) A motion under this section shall be heard not sooner than 10 days and not later than 20 days after service of notice of the motion. At the hearing, the court may consider any relevant evidence, including a view of the premises and property, in making its determinations.

1260.040. (a) If there is a dispute between plaintiff and defendant over an evidentiary or other legal issue affecting the determination of compensation, either party may move the court for a ruling on the issue. The motion shall be made not later than 60 days before commencement of trial on the issue of compensation. The motion shall be heard by the judge assigned for trial of the case. (b) Notwithstanding any other statute or rule of court governing the date of final offers and demands of the parties and the date of trial of an eminent domain proceeding, the court may postpone those dates for a period sufficient to enable the parties to engage in further proceedings before trial in response to its ruling on the motion. (c) This section supplements, and does not replace any other pretrial or trial procedure otherwise available to resolve an evidentiary or other legal issue affecting the determination of compensation.


Article 2. Contesting Right To Take

Ca Codes (ccp:1260.110-1260.120) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1260.110-1260.120



1260.110. (a) Where objections to the right to take are raised, unless the court orders otherwise, they shall be heard and determined prior to the determination of the issue of compensation. (b) The court may, on motion of any party, after notice and hearing, specially set such objections for trial.


1260.120. (a) The court shall hear and determine all objections to the right to take. (b) If the court determines that the plaintiff has the right to acquire by eminent domain the property described in the complaint, the court shall so order. (c) If the court determines that the plaintiff does not have the right to acquire by eminent domain any property described in the complaint, it shall order either of the following: (1) Immediate dismissal of the proceeding as to that property. (2) Conditional dismissal of the proceeding as to that property unless such corrective and remedial action as the court may prescribe has been taken within the period prescribed by the court in the order. An order made under this paragraph may impose such limitations and conditions as the court determines to be just under the circumstances of the particular case including the requirement that the plaintiff pay to the defendant all or part of the reasonable litigation expenses necessarily incurred by the defendant because of the plaintiff's failure or omission which constituted the basis of the objection to the right to take.


Article 3. Procedures Relating To Determination Of Compensation

Ca Codes (ccp:1260.210-1260.250) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1260.210-1260.250



1260.210. (a) The defendant shall present his evidence on the issue of compensation first and shall commence and conclude the argument. (b) Except as otherwise provided by statute, neither the plaintiff nor the defendant has the burden of proof on the issue of compensation.


1260.220. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), where there are divided interests in property acquired by eminent domain, the value of each interest and the injury, if any, to the remainder of such interest shall be separately assessed and compensation awarded therefor. (b) The plaintiff may require that the amount of compensation be first determined as between plaintiff and all defendants claiming an interest in the property. Thereafter, in the same proceeding, the trier of fact shall determine the respective rights of the defendants in and to the amount of compensation awarded and shall apportion the award accordingly. Nothing in this subdivision limits the right of a defendant to present during the first stage of the proceeding evidence of the value of, or injury to, the property or the defendant' s interest in the property; and the right of a defendant to present evidence during the second stage of the proceeding is not affected by the failure to exercise the right to present evidence during the first stage of the proceeding.


1260.230. As far as practicable, the trier of fact shall assess separately each of the following: (a) Compensation for the property taken as required by Article 4 (commencing with Section 1263.310) of Chapter 9. (b) Where the property acquired is part of a larger parcel: (1) The amount of the damage, if any, to the remainder as required by Article 5 (commencing with Section 1263.410) of Chapter 9. (2) The amount of the benefit, if any, to the remainder as required by Article 5 (commencing with Section 1263.410) of Chapter 9. (c) Compensation for loss of goodwill, if any, as required by Article 6 (commencing with Section 1263.510) of Chapter 9.


1260.240. Where any persons unknown or any deceased persons or the heirs and devisees of any deceased persons have been properly joined as defendants but have not appeared either personally or by a personal representative, the court shall determine the extent of the interests of such defendants in the property taken or in the remainder if the property taken is part of a larger parcel and the compensation to be awarded for such interests. The court may determine the extent and value of the interests of all such defendants in the aggregate without apportionment between the respective defendants. In any event, in the case of deceased persons, the court shall determine only the extent and value of the interest of the decedent and shall not determine the extent and value of the separate interests of the heirs and devisees in such decedent's interest.

1260.250. (a) In a county where both the auditor and the tax collector are elected officials, the court shall by order give the auditor or tax collector the legal description of the property sought to be taken and direct the auditor or tax collector to certify to the court the information required by subdivision (c), and the auditor or tax collector shall promptly certify the required information to the court. In all other counties, the court shall by order give the tax collector the legal description of the property sought to be taken and direct the tax collector to certify to the court the information required by subdivision (c), and the tax collector shall promptly certify the required information to the court. (b) The court order shall be made on or before the earliest of the following dates: (1) The date the court makes an order for possession. (2) The date set for trial. (3) The date of entry of judgment. (c) The court order shall require certification of the following information: (1) The current assessed value of the property together with its assessed identification number. (2) All unpaid taxes on the property, and any penalties and costs that have accrued thereon while on the secured roll, levied for prior tax years that constitute a lien on the property. (3) All unpaid taxes on the property, and any penalties and costs that have accrued thereon while on the secured roll, levied for the current tax year that constitute a lien on the property prorated to, but not including, the date of apportionment determined pursuant to Section 5082 of the Revenue and Taxation Code or the date of trial, whichever is earlier. If the amount of the current taxes is not ascertainable at the time of proration, the amount shall be estimated and computed based on the assessed value for the current assessment year and the tax rate levied on the property for the immediately prior tax year. (4) The actual or estimated amount of taxes on the property that are or will become a lien on the property in the next succeeding tax year prorated to, but not including, the date of apportionment determined pursuant to Section 5082 of the Revenue and Taxation Code or the date of trial, whichever is earlier. Any estimated amount of taxes shall be computed based on the assessed value of the property for the current assessment year and the tax rate levied on the property for the current tax year. (5) The amount of the taxes, penalties, and costs allocable to one day of the current tax year, and where applicable, the amount allocable to one day of the next succeeding tax year, hereinafter referred to as the "daily prorate." (6) The total of paragraphs (2), (3), and (4). (d) If the property sought to be taken does not have a separate valuation on the assessment roll, the information required by this section shall be for the larger parcel of which the property is a part. (e) The court, as part of the judgment, shall separately state the amount certified pursuant to this section and order that the amount be paid to the tax collector from the award. If the amount so certified is prorated to the date of trial, the order shall include, in addition to the amount so certified, an amount equal to the applicable daily prorate multiplied by the number of days commencing on the date of trial and ending on and including the day before the date of apportionment determined pursuant to Section 5082 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. (f) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if the board of supervisors provides the procedure set forth in Section 5087 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, the court shall make no award of taxes in the judgment.


Chapter 9. Compensation

Article 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (ccp:1263.010-1263.025) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1263.010-1263.025



1263.010. (a) The owner of property acquired by eminent domain is entitled to compensation as provided in this chapter. (b) Nothing in this chapter affects any rights the owner of property acquired by eminent domain may have under any other statute. In any case where two or more statutes provide compensation for the same loss, the person entitled to compensation may be paid only once for that loss.


1263.015. At the request of an owner of property acquired by eminent domain, the public entity may enter into an agreement with the owner specifying the manner of payment of compensation to which the owner is entitled as the result of the acquisition. The agreement may provide that the compensation shall be paid by the public entity to the owner over a period not to exceed 10 years from the date the owner's right to compensation accrues. The agreement may also provide for the payment of interest by the public entity; however, the rate of interest agreed upon may not exceed the maximum rate authorized by Section 16731 or 53531 of the Government Code, as applicable, in connection with the issuance of bonds.

1263.020. Except as otherwise provided by law, the right to compensation shall be deemed to have accrued at the date of filing the complaint.

1263.025. (a) A public entity shall offer to pay the reasonable costs, not to exceed five thousand dollars ($5,000), of an independent appraisal ordered by the owner of a property that the public entity offers to purchase under a threat of eminent domain, at the time the public entity makes the offer to purchase the property. The independent appraisal shall be conducted by an appraiser licensed by the Office of Real Estate Appraisers. (b) For purposes of this section, an offer to purchase a property "under a threat of eminent domain" is an offer to purchase a property pursuant to any of the following: (1) Eminent domain. (2) Following adoption of a resolution of necessity for the property pursuant to Section 1240.040. (3) Following a statement that the public entity may take the property by eminent domain.


Article 2. Date Of Valuation

Ca Codes (ccp:1263.110-1263.150) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1263.110-1263.150



1263.110. (a) Unless an earlier date of valuation is applicable under this article, if the plaintiff deposits the probable compensation in accordance with Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6 or the amount of the award in accordance with Article 2 (commencing with Section 1268.110) of Chapter 11, the date of valuation is the date on which the deposit is made. (b) Whether or not the plaintiff has taken possession of the property or obtained an order for possession, if the court determines pursuant to Section 1255.030 that the probable amount of compensation exceeds the amount previously deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6 and the amount on deposit is not increased accordingly within the time allowed under Section 1255.030, no deposit shall be deemed to have been made for the purpose of this section.

1263.120. If the issue of compensation is brought to trial within one year after commencement of the proceeding, the date of valuation is the date of commencement of the proceeding.


1263.130. Subject to Section 1263.110, if the issue of compensation is not brought to trial within one year after commencement of the proceeding, the date of valuation is the date of the commencement of the trial unless the delay is caused by the defendant, in which case the date of valuation is the date of commencement of the proceeding.


1263.140. Subject to Section 1263.110, if a new trial is ordered by the trial or appellate court and the new trial is not commenced within one year after the commencement of the proceeding, the date of valuation is the date of the commencement of such new trial unless, in the interest of justice, the court ordering the new trial orders a different date of valuation.


1263.150. Subject to Section 1263.110, if a mistrial is declared and the retrial is not commenced within one year after the commencement of the proceeding, the date of valuation is the date of the commencement of the retrial of the case unless, in the interest of justice, the court declaring the mistrial orders a different date of valuation.


Article 3. Compensation For Improvements

Ca Codes (ccp:1263.205-1263.270) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1263.205-1263.270



1263.205. (a) As used in this article, "improvements pertaining to the realty" include any machinery or equipment installed for use on property taken by eminent domain, or on the remainder if such property is part of a larger parcel, that cannot be removed without a substantial economic loss or without substantial damage to the property on which it is installed, regardless of the method of installation. (b) In determining whether particular property can be removed "without a substantial economic loss" within the meaning of this section, the value of the property in place considered as a part of the realty should be compared with its value if it were removed and sold.

1263.210. (a) Except as otherwise provided by statute, all improvements pertaining to the realty shall be taken into account in determining compensation. (b) Subdivision (a) applies notwithstanding the right or obligation of a tenant, as against the owner of any other interest in real property, to remove such improvement at the expiration of his term.

1263.230. (a) Improvements pertaining to the realty shall not be taken into account in determining compensation to the extent that they are removed or destroyed before the earliest of the following times: (1) The time the plaintiff takes title to the property. (2) The time the plaintiff takes possession of the property. (3) If the defendant moves from the property in compliance with an order for possession, the date specified in the order; except that, if the defendant so moves prior to such date and gives the plaintiff written notice thereof, the date 24 hours after such notice is received by the plaintiff. (b) Where improvements pertaining to the realty are removed or destroyed by the defendant at any time, such improvements shall not be taken into account in determining compensation. Where such removal or destruction damages the remaining property, such damage shall be taken into account in determining compensation to the extent it reduces the value of the remaining property.


1263.240. Improvements pertaining to the realty made subsequent to the date of service of summons shall not be taken into account in determining compensation unless one of the following is established: (a) The improvement is one required to be made by a public utility to its utility system. (b) The improvement is one made with the written consent of the plaintiff. (c) The improvement is one authorized to be made by a court order issued after a noticed hearing and upon a finding by the court that the hardship to the defendant of not permitting the improvement outweighs the hardship to the plaintiff of permitting the improvement. The court may, at the time it makes an order under this subdivision authorizing the improvement to be made, limit the extent to which the improvement shall be taken into account in determining compensation.

1263.250. (a) The acquisition of property by eminent domain shall not prevent the defendant from harvesting and marketing crops planted before or after the service of summons. If the plaintiff takes possession of the property at a time that prevents the defendant from harvesting and marketing the crops, the fair market value of the crops in place at the date the plaintiff is authorized to take possession of the property shall be included in the compensation awarded for the property taken. (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the plaintiff may obtain a court order precluding the defendant from planting crops after service of summons, in which case the compensation awarded for the property taken shall include an amount sufficient to compensate for loss caused by the limitation on the defendant's right to use the property.


1263.260. Notwithstanding Section 1263.210, the owner of improvements pertaining to the realty may elect to remove any or all such improvements by serving on the plaintiff within 60 days after service of summons written notice of such election. If the plaintiff fails within 30 days thereafter to serve on the owner written notice of refusal to allow removal of such improvements, the owner may remove such improvements and shall be compensated for their reasonable removal and relocation cost not to exceed the market value of the improvements. Where such removal will cause damage to the structure in which the improvements are located, the defendant shall cause no more damage to the structure than is reasonably necessary in removing the improvements, and the structure shall be valued as if the removal had caused no damage to the structure.


1263.270. Where an improvement pertaining to the realty is located in part upon property taken and in part upon property not taken, the court may, on motion of any party and a determination that justice so requires, direct the plaintiff to acquire the entire improvement, including the part located on property not taken, together with an easement or other interest reasonably necessary for the demolition, removal, or relocation of the improvement.


Article 4. Measure Of Compensation For Property Taken 1263.310-1263.330

Ca Codes (ccp:1263.310-1263.330) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1263.310-1263.330



1263.310. Compensation shall be awarded for the property taken. The measure of this compensation is the fair market value of the property taken.

1263.320. (a) The fair market value of the property taken is the highest price on the date of valuation that would be agreed to by a seller, being willing to sell but under no particular or urgent necessity for so doing, nor obliged to sell, and a buyer, being ready, willing, and able to buy but under no particular necessity for so doing, each dealing with the other with full knowledge of all the uses and purposes for which the property is reasonably adaptable and available. (b) The fair market value of property taken for which there is no relevant, comparable market is its value on the date of valuation as determined by any method of valuation that is just and equitable.


1263.321. A just and equitable method of determining the value of nonprofit, special use property for which there is no relevant, comparable market is as set forth in Section 824 of the Evidence Code, but subject to the exceptions set forth in subdivision (c) of Section 824 of the Evidence Code.


1263.330. The fair market value of the property taken shall not include any increase or decrease in the value of the property that is attributable to any of the following: (a) The project for which the property is taken. (b) The eminent domain proceeding in which the property is taken. (c) Any preliminary actions of the plaintiff relating to the taking of the property.


Article 5. Compensation For Injury To Remainder

Ca Codes (ccp:1263.410-1263.450) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1263.410-1263.450



1263.410. (a) Where the property acquired is part of a larger parcel, in addition to the compensation awarded pursuant to Article 4 (commencing with Section 1263.310) for the part taken, compensation shall be awarded for the injury, if any, to the remainder. (b) Compensation for injury to the remainder is the amount of the damage to the remainder reduced by the amount of the benefit to the remainder. If the amount of the benefit to the remainder equals or exceeds the amount of the damage to the remainder, no compensation shall be awarded under this article. If the amount of the benefit to the remainder exceeds the amount of damage to the remainder, such excess shall be deducted from the compensation provided in Section 1263.510, if any, but shall not be deducted from the compensation required to be awarded for the property taken or from the other compensation required by this chapter.


1263.420. Damage to the remainder is the damage, if any, caused to the remainder by either or both of the following: (a) The severance of the remainder from the part taken. (b) The construction and use of the project for which the property is taken in the manner proposed by the plaintiff whether or not the damage is caused by a portion of the project located on the part taken.

1263.430. Benefit to the remainder is the benefit, if any, caused by the construction and use of the project for which the property is taken in the manner proposed by the plaintiff whether or not the benefit is caused by a portion of the project located on the part taken.


1263.440. (a) The amount of any damage to the remainder and any benefit to the remainder shall reflect any delay in the time when the damage or benefit caused by the construction and use of the project in the manner proposed by the plaintiff will actually be realized. (b) The value of the remainder on the date of valuation, excluding prior changes in value as prescribed in Section 1263.330, shall serve as the base from which the amount of any damage and the amount of any benefit to the remainder shall be determined.


1263.450. Compensation for injury to the remainder shall be based on the project as proposed. Any features of the project which mitigate the damage or provide benefit to the remainder, including but not limited to easements, crossings, underpasses, access roads, fencing, drainage facilities, and cattle guards, shall be taken into account in determining the compensation for injury to the remainder.



Article 6. Compensation For Loss Of Goodwill

Ca Codes (ccp:1263.510-1263.530) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1263.510-1263.530



1263.510. (a) The owner of a business conducted on the property taken, or on the remainder if the property is part of a larger parcel, shall be compensated for loss of goodwill if the owner proves all of the following: (1) The loss is caused by the taking of the property or the injury to the remainder. (2) The loss cannot reasonably be prevented by a relocation of the business or by taking steps and adopting procedures that a reasonably prudent person would take and adopt in preserving the goodwill. (3) Compensation for the loss will not be included in payments under Section 7262 of the Government Code. (4) Compensation for the loss will not be duplicated in the compensation otherwise awarded to the owner. (b) Within the meaning of this article, "goodwill" consists of the benefits that accrue to a business as a result of its location, reputation for dependability, skill or quality, and any other circumstances resulting in probable retention of old or acquisition of new patronage. (c) If the public entity and the owner enter into a leaseback agreement pursuant to Section 1263.615, the following shall apply: (1) No additional goodwill shall accrue during the lease. (2) The entering of a leaseback agreement shall not be a factor in determining goodwill. Any liability for goodwill shall be established and paid at the time of acquisition of the property by eminent domain or subsequent to notice that the property may be taken by eminent domain.


1263.520. The owner of a business who claims compensation under this article shall make available to the court, and the court shall, upon such terms and conditions as will preserve their confidentiality, make available to the plaintiff, the state tax returns of the business for audit for confidential use solely for the purpose of determining the amount of compensation under this article. Nothing in this section affects any right a party may otherwise have to discovery or to require the production of documents, papers, books, and accounts.


1263.530. Nothing in this article is intended to deal with compensation for inverse condemnation claims for temporary interference with or interruption of business.


Article 7. Miscellaneous Provisions

Ca Codes (ccp:1263.610-1263.620) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1263.610-1263.620



1263.610. A public entity and the owner of property to be acquired for public use may make an agreement that the public entity will: (a) Relocate for the owner any structure if such relocation is likely to reduce the amount of compensation otherwise payable to the owner by an amount equal to or greater than the cost of such relocation. (b) Carry out for the owner any work on property not taken, including work on any structure, if the performance of the work is likely to reduce the amount of compensation otherwise payable to the owner by an amount equal to or greater than the cost of the work.


1263.615. (a) A public entity shall offer a one-year leaseback agreement to the owner of a property to be acquired by any method set forth in subdivision (b) for that property owner's continued use of the property upon acquisition, subject to the property owner's payment of fair market rents and compliance with other conditions set forth in subdivision (c), unless the public entity states in writing that the development, redevelopment, or use of the property for its stated public use is scheduled to begin within two years of its acquisition. This section shall not apply if the public entity states in writing that a leaseback of the property would create or allow the continuation of a public nuisance to the surrounding community. (b) The following property acquisitions are subject to the requirements of this section: (1) Any acquisition by a public entity pursuant to eminent domain. (2) Any acquisition by a public entity following adoption of a resolution of necessity pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 1245.210) of Chapter 4 for the property. (3) Any acquisition by a public entity prior to the adoption of a resolution of necessity pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 1245.210) of Chapter 4 for the property, but subsequent to a written notice that the public entity may take the property by eminent domain. (c) The following conditions shall apply to any leaseback offered pursuant to this section: (1) The lessee shall be responsible for any additional waste or nuisance on the property, and for any other liability arising from the continued use of the property. (2) The lessor may demand a security deposit to cover any potential liability arising from the leaseback. The security deposit shall be reasonable in light of the use of the leased property. (3) The lessor shall be indemnified from any legal liability and attorney's fees resulting from any lawsuit against the lessee or lessor, arising from the operation of the lessee's business or use of the property. (4) The lessor shall require the lessee to carry adequate insurance to cover potential liabilities arising from the lease and use of the property, and shall require that insurance to name the lessor as an additional insured. (5) Additional goodwill shall not accrue during any lease. (6) The lessee shall be subject to unlawful detainer proceedings as provided by law. (d) A public entity shall offer to renew a leaseback agreement for one-year terms, subject to any rent adjustment to reflect inflation and upon compliance with other conditions set forth in subdivision (c), unless the public entity states in writing that the development, redevelopment, or use of the property for its stated public use is scheduled to begin within two years of the termination date of the lease. At least 60 days prior to the lease termination date, the public entity lessor shall either offer a one-year renewal of the lease or send a statement declaring that the lease will not be renewed because the development, redevelopment, or use of the property is scheduled to begin within two years of the lease termination date. The lessee shall either accept or reject a lease renewal offer at least 30 days prior to the lease termination date. The lessee's failure to accept a renewal offer in a timely manner shall constitute a rejection of the renewal offer. A lessor's failure to offer a renewal or give the notice as required shall extend the lease term for 60-day increments until an offer or notice is made, and if a notice of termination is given after the lease termination date, the lessee shall have no less than 60 days to vacate the property. A lessee's failure to accept within 30 days a renewal offer made subsequent to the lease termination date shall constitute a rejection of the offer. (e) A party who holds over after expiration of the lease shall be subject to unlawful detainer proceedings and shall also be subject to the lessor for holdover damages. (f) A leaseback entered into pursuant to this section shall not affect the amount of compensation otherwise payable to the property owner for the property to be acquired.


1263.620. (a) Where summons is served during construction of an improvement or installation of machinery or equipment on the property taken or on the remainder if such property is part of a larger parcel, and the owner of the property ceases the construction or installation due to such service, the owner shall be compensated for his expenses reasonably incurred for work necessary for either of the following purposes: (1) To protect against the risk of injury to persons or to other property created by the uncompleted improvement. (2) To protect the partially installed machinery or equipment from damage, deterioration, or vandalism. (b) The compensation provided in this section is recoverable only if the work was preceded by notice to the plaintiff except in the case of an emergency. The plaintiff may agree with the owner (1) that the plaintiff will perform work necessary for the purposes of this section or (2) as to the amount of compensation payable under this section.


Article 8. Remediation Of Hazardous Materials On Property To Be Acquired By School

Districts Ca Codes (ccp:1263.710-1263.770) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1263.710-1263.770



1263.710. (a) As used in this article, "remedial action" and "removal" shall have the meanings accorded to those terms in Sections 25322 and 25323, respectively, of the Health and Safety Code. (b) As used in this article, "required action" means any removal or other remedial action with regard to hazardous materials that is necessary to comply with any requirement of federal, state, or local law.


1263.711. As used in this article, "hazardous material" shall have the same meaning as that term is defined in Section 25260 of the Health and Safety Code, except that under no circumstances shall petroleum which is naturally occurring on a site be considered a hazardous material.


1263.720. (a) Upon petition of any party to the proceeding, the court in which the proceeding is brought shall specially set for hearing the issue of whether any hazardous material is present within the property to be taken. (b) If the court determines that any hazardous material is present within the property to be taken, the court shall do all of the following: (1) Identify those measures constituting the required action with regard to the hazardous material, the probable cost of the required action, and the party that shall be designated by the court to cause the required action to be performed. (2) Designate a trustee to monitor the completion of the required action and to hold funds, deducted from amounts that are otherwise to be paid to the defendant pursuant to this title, to defray the probable cost of the required action. (3) Transfer to the trustee funds necessary to defray the probable cost of the required action from amounts deposited with the court pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6 or pursuant to Section 1268.110. In the case of any payment to be made directly to the defendant pursuant to Section 1268.010, the plaintiff shall first pay to the trustee the amount necessary to defray the probable cost of the required action, as identified by the court, and shall pay the remainder of the judgment to the defendant. The total amount transferred or paid to the trustee pursuant to this paragraph shall not exceed an amount equal to 75 percent of the following, as applicable: (A) Prior to entry of judgment, the amount deposited as the probable amount of compensation pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6. (B) Subsequent to entry of judgment, the fair market value of the property taken, as determined pursuant to Article 4 (commencing with Section 1263.310). If the amount determined as fair market value pursuant to that article exceeds the amount deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6, that excess shall be available, subject to the 75 percent limit set forth in this paragraph, for transfer to the trustee for the purposes of this paragraph or for reimbursement of the plaintiff for payments made to the trustee pursuant to this paragraph. If the amount determined as fair market value pursuant to Article 4 (commencing with Section 1263.310) is less than the amount deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6, the plaintiff shall be entitled to a return of amounts thereby deposited, a judgment against the defendant, or both, as necessary to ensure that the total amount transferred or paid to the trustee pursuant to this paragraph not exceed an amount equal to 75 percent of the fair market value of the property taken, as determined pursuant to Article 4 (commencing with Section 1263.310). (4) Establish a procedure by which the trustee shall make one or more payments from the funds it receives pursuant to paragraph (3) to the party causing the required action to be performed, upon completion of all or specified portions of the required action. Any amount of those funds that remains following the completion of all of the required action shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this title that govern the disposition of the deposit amounts referred to in paragraph (3). (c) The actual and reasonable costs of the trustee incurred pursuant to this section shall be paid by the plaintiff.


1263.730. Where the required action is caused to be performed by the plaintiff, and the amount available to the trustee under this article is insufficient to meet the actual cost incurred by the plaintiff to complete the required action, the plaintiff may either apply to the court for a new hearing regarding identification of the probable cost, or complete the required action at its own expense and bring an action against the defendant to recover the additional costs.

1263.740. The presence of any hazardous material within a property shall not be considered in appraising the property, for purposes of Section 1263.720, pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6, or pursuant to Article 4 (commencing with Section 1263.310).


1263.750. (a) Notwithstanding any action taken pursuant to this article, the plaintiff shall have available all remedies in law that are available to a purchaser of real property with respect to any cost, loss, or liability for which the plaintiff is not reimbursed under this article. (b) If the plaintiff abandons the proceeding at any time, the plaintiff shall be entitled to compensation for the benefit, if any, conferred on the property by reason of the remedial action performed pursuant to this article. That benefit shall be applied as an offset to the amount of any entitlement to damages on the part of the defendant pursuant to Section 1268.620 or, if it exceeds the amount of those damages, shall constitute a lien upon the property, to the extent of that excess, when recorded with the county recorder in the county in which the real property is located. The lien shall contain the legal description of the real property, the assessor's parcel number, and the name of the owner of record as shown on the latest equalized assessment roll. The lien shall be enforceable upon the transfer or sale of the property, and the priority of the lien shall be as of the date of recording. In determining the amount of the benefit, if any, neither party shall have the burden of proof. For the purposes of this subdivision, "benefit" means the extent to which the remedial action has enhanced the fair market value of the property.


1263.760. An offer by the plaintiff to purchase the property subject to this article shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Section 7267.2 of the Government Code.


1263.770. This article shall only apply to the acquisition of property by school districts.


Chapter 10. Divided Interests

Article 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (ccp:1265.010) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1265.010



1265.010. Although this chapter provides rules governing compensation for particular interests in property, it does not otherwise limit or affect the right to compensation for any other interest in property.


Article 2. Leases

Ca Codes (ccp:1265.110-1265.160) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1265.110-1265.160



1265.110. Where all the property subject to a lease is acquired for public use, the lease terminates.


1265.120. Except as provided in Section 1265.130, where part of the property subject to a lease is acquired for public use, the lease terminates as to the part taken and remains in force as to the remainder, and the rent reserved in the lease that is allocable to the part taken is extinguished.


1265.130. Where part of the property subject to a lease is acquired for public use, the court may, upon petition of any party to the lease, terminate the lease if the court determines that an essential part of the property subject to the lease is taken or that the remainder of the property subject to the lease is no longer suitable for the purposes of the lease.


1265.140. The termination or partial termination of a lease pursuant to this article shall be at the earlier of the following times: (a) The time title to the property is taken by the person who will put it to the public use. (b) The time the plaintiff is authorized to take possession of the property as stated in an order for possession.


1265.150. Nothing in this article affects or impairs any right a lessee may have to compensation for the taking of his lease in whole or in part or for the taking of any other property in which he has an interest.

1265.160. Nothing in this article affects or impairs the rights and obligations of the parties to a lease to the extent that the lease provides for such rights and obligations in the event of the acquisition of all or a portion of the property for public use.


Article 3. Encumbrances

Ca Codes (ccp:1265.210-1265.250) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1265.210-1265.250



1265.210. As used in this article, "lien" means a mortgage, deed of trust, or other security interest in property whether arising from contract, statute, common law, or equity.


1265.220. Where property acquired by eminent domain is encumbered by a lien and the indebtedness secured thereby is not due at the time of the entry of judgment, the amount of such indebtedness may be, at the option of the plaintiff, deducted from the judgment and the lien shall be continued until such indebtedness is paid; but the amount for which, as between the plaintiff and the defendant, the plaintiff is liable under Article 5 (commencing with Section 1268.410) of Chapter 11 may not be deducted from the judgment.


1265.225. (a) Where there is a partial taking of property encumbered by a lien, the lienholder may share in the award only to the extent determined by the court to be necessary to prevent an impairment of the security, and the lien shall continue upon the part of the property not taken as security for the unpaid portion of the indebtedness. (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the lienholder and the property owner may at any time after commencement of the proceeding agree that some or all of the award shall be apportioned to the lienholder on the indebtedness.


1265.230. (a) This section applies only where there is a partial taking of property encumbered by a lien and the part taken or some portion of it is also encumbered by a junior lien that extends to only a portion of the property encumbered by the senior lien. This section provides only for allocation of the portion of the award, if any, that will be available for payment to the junior and senior lienholders and does not provide for determination of the amount of such portion. (b) As used in this section, "impairment of security" means the security of the lienholder remaining after the taking, if any, is of less value in proportion to the remaining indebtedness than the value of the security before the taking was in proportion to the indebtedness secured thereby. (c) The portion of the award that will be available for payment to the senior and junior lienholders shall be allocated first to the senior lien up to the full amount of the indebtedness secured thereby and the remainder, if any, to the junior lien. (d) If the allocation under subdivision (c) would result in an impairment of the junior lienholder's security, the allocation to the junior lien shall be adjusted so as to preserve the junior lienholder's security to the extent that the remaining amount allocated to the senior lien, if paid to the senior lienholder, would not result in an impairment of the senior lienholder's security. (e) The amounts allocated to the senior and junior liens by this section are the amounts of indebtedness owing to such senior and junior lienholders that are secured by their respective liens on the property taken, and any other indebtedness owing to the senior or junior lienholders shall not be considered as secured by the property taken. If the plaintiff makes the election provided in Section 1265.220, the indebtedness that is deducted from the judgment is the indebtedness so determined, and the lien shall continue until that amount of indebtedness is paid.

1265.240. Where the property acquired for public use is encumbered by a lien, the amount payable to the lienholder shall not include any penalty for prepayment.


1265.250. (a) As used in this section: (1) "Fixed lien special assessment" means a nonrecurring assessment levied on property in a fixed amount by a local public entity for the capital expenditure for a specific improvement, whether collectible in a lump sum or in installments. (2) "Special annual assessment" means a recurring assessment levied on property annually in an indeterminate amount by a local public entity, whether for the capital expenditure for a specific improvement or for other purposes. (b) If property acquired by eminent domain is encumbered by the lien of a fixed lien special assessment or of a bond representing the fixed lien special assessment: (1) The amount of the lien shall be paid to the lienholder from the award or withheld from the award for payment pursuant to Section 1265.220. (2) Where there is a partial taking of the property, the amount of the lien prescribed in Section 1265.225 shall be paid to the lienholder from the award, or at the option of the lienholder the applicable statutory procedure, if any, for segregation and apportionment of the lien may be invoked and the amount apportioned to the part taken shall be paid to the lienholder from the award. (c) If property acquired by eminent domain is encumbered by the lien of a special annual assessment: (1) The amount of the lien prorated to, but not including, the date of apportionment determined pursuant to Section 5082 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, shall be paid to the lienholder from the award. As between the plaintiff and defendant, the plaintiff is liable for the amount of the lien prorated from and including the date of apportionment determined pursuant to Section 5082 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. (2) Where there is a partial taking of the property, the amount of the lien, reduced by the amount for which the plaintiff is liable pursuant to this paragraph, shall be paid to the lienholder from the award. As between the plaintiff and defendant, the plaintiff is liable for the amount of the lien allocable to the part taken for the current assessment year, determined to the extent practicable in the same manner and by the same method as the amount of the assessment on the property for the current assessment year was determined, prorated from and including the date of apportionment determined pursuant to Section 5082 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.



Article 4. Future Interests

Ca Codes (ccp:1265.410-1265.420) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1265.410-1265.420



1265.410. (a) Where the acquisition of property for public use violates a use restriction coupled with a contingent future interest granting a right to possession of the property upon violation of the use restriction: (1) If violation of the use restriction was otherwise reasonably imminent, the owner of the contingent future interest is entitled to compensation for its value, if any. (2) If violation of the use restriction was not otherwise reasonably imminent but the benefit of the use restriction was appurtenant to other property, the owner of the contingent future interest is entitled to compensation to the extent that the failure to comply with the use restriction damages the dominant premises to which the restriction was appurtenant and of which he was the owner. (b) Where the acquisition of property for public use violates a use restriction coupled with a contingent future interest granting a right to possession of the property upon violation of the use restriction but the contingent future interest is not compensable under subdivision (a), if the use restriction is that the property be devoted to a particular charitable or public use, the compensation for the property shall be devoted to the same or similar use coupled with the same contingent future interest.


1265.420. Where property acquired for public use is subject to a life tenancy, upon petition of the life tenant or any other person having an interest in the property, the court may order any of the following: (a) An apportionment and distribution of the award based on the value of the interest of life tenant and remainderman. (b) The compensation to be used to purchase comparable property to be held subject to the life tenancy. (c) The compensation to be held in trust and invested and the income (and, to the extent the instrument that created the life tenancy permits, principal) to be distributed to the life tenant for the remainder of the tenancy. (d) Such other arrangement as will be equitable under the circumstances.


Chapter 11. Postjudgment Procedure

Article 1. Payment Of Judgment; Final Order Of Condemnation

Ca Codes (ccp:1268.010-1268.030) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1268.010-1268.030



1268.010. (a) Not later than 30 days after final judgment, or 30 days after the conclusion of any other court proceedings, including any federal court proceedings, commenced by the defendant challenging the judgment or any of the condemnation proceedings, whichever date is later, the plaintiff shall pay the full amount required by the judgment. (b) Payment shall be made by either or both of the following methods: (1) Payment of money directly to the defendant. Any amount which the defendant has previously withdrawn pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 1255.210) of Chapter 6 shall be credited as a payment to him on the judgment. (2) Deposit of money with the court pursuant to Section 1268.110. Upon entry of judgment, a deposit made pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6 is deemed to be a deposit made pursuant to Section 1268.110 if the full amount required by the judgment is deposited or paid.

1268.020. (a) If the plaintiff fails to pay the full amount required by the judgment within the time specified in Section 1268.010, the defendant may: (1) If the plaintiff is a public entity, enforce the judgment as provided in Division 3.6 (commencing with Section 810) of Title 1 of the Government Code. (2) If the plaintiff is not a public entity, enforce the judgment as in a civil case. (b) Upon noticed motion of the defendant, the court shall enter judgment dismissing the eminent domain proceeding if all of the following are established: (1) The plaintiff failed to pay the full amount required by the judgment within the time specified in Section 1268.010. (2) The defendant has filed in court and served upon the plaintiff, by registered or certified mail, a written notice of the plaintiff's failure to pay the full amount required by the judgment within the time specified in Section 1268.010. (3) The plaintiff has failed for 20 days after service of the notice under paragraph (2) to pay the full amount required by the judgment in the manner provided in subdivision (b) of Section 1268.010. (c) The defendant may elect to exercise the remedy provided by subdivision (b) without attempting to use the remedy provided by subdivision (a). (d) As used in this section, "public entity" does not include the Regents of the University of California.


1268.030. (a) Upon application of any party, the court shall make a final order of condemnation if the full amount of the judgment has been paid as required by Section 1268.010 or satisfied pursuant to Section 1268.020. (b) The final order of condemnation shall describe the property taken and identify the judgment authorizing the taking. (c) The party upon whose application the order was made shall serve notice of the making of the order on all other parties affected thereby. Any party affected by the order may thereafter record a certified copy of the order in the office of the recorder of the county in which the property is located and shall serve notice of recordation upon all other parties affected thereby. Title to the property vests in the plaintiff upon the date of recordation.



Article 2. Deposit And Withdrawal Of Award

Ca Codes (ccp:1268.110-1268.170) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1268.110-1268.170



1268.110. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), the plaintiff may, at any time after entry of judgment, deposit with the court for the persons entitled thereto the full amount of the award, together with interest then due thereon, less any amounts previously paid directly to the defendants or deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6. (b) A deposit may be made under this section notwithstanding an appeal, a motion for a new trial, or a motion to vacate or set aside the judgment but may not be made after the judgment has been reversed, vacated, or set aside. (c) Any amount deposited pursuant to this article on a judgment that is later reversed, vacated, or set aside shall be deemed to be an amount deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6.


1268.120. If the deposit is made under Section 1268.110 prior to apportionment of the award, the plaintiff shall serve a notice that the deposit has been made on all of the parties who have appeared in the proceeding. If the deposit is made after apportionment of the award, the plaintiff shall serve a notice that the deposit has been made on all of the parties to the proceeding determined by the order apportioning the award to have an interest in the money deposited. The notice of deposit shall state that a deposit has been made and the date and the amount of the deposit. Service of the notice shall be made in the manner provided in Section 1268.220 for the service of an order for possession. Service of an order for possession under Section 1268.220 is sufficient compliance with this section.


1268.130. At any time after the plaintiff has made a deposit upon the award pursuant to Section 1268.110, the court may, upon motion of any defendant, order the plaintiff to deposit such additional amount as the court determines to be necessary to secure payment of any further compensation, costs, or interest that may be recovered in the proceeding. After the making of such an order, the court may, on motion of any party, order an increase or a decrease in such additional amount. A defendant may withdraw the amount deposited under this section or a portion thereof only if it is determined that he is entitled to recover such amount in the proceeding.


1268.140. (a) After entry of judgment, any defendant who has an interest in the property for which a deposit has been made may apply for and obtain a court order that he be paid from the deposit the amount to which he is entitled upon his filing either of the following: (1) A satisfaction of the judgment. (2) A receipt for the money which shall constitute a waiver by operation of law of all claims and defenses except a claim for greater compensation. (b) If the award has not been apportioned at the time the application is made, the applicant shall give notice of the application to all the other defendants who have appeared in the proceeding and who have an interest in the property. If the award has been apportioned at the time the application is made, the applicant shall give such notice to the other defendants as the court may require. (c) Upon objection to the withdrawal made by any party to the proceeding, the court, in its discretion, may require the applicant to file an undertaking in the same manner and upon the conditions prescribed in Section 1255.240 for withdrawal of a deposit prior to entry of judgment. (d) If the judgment is reversed, vacated, or set aside, a defendant may withdraw a deposit only pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 1255.210) of Chapter 6.


1268.150. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), when money is deposited as provided in this article, the court shall order the money to be deposited in the State Treasury or, upon written request of the plaintiff filed with the deposit, in the county treasury. If the money is deposited in the State Treasury pursuant to this subdivision, it shall be held, invested, deposited, and disbursed in the manner specified in Article 10 (commencing with Section 16429) of Chapter 2 of Part 2 of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code, and interest earned or other increment derived from its investment shall be apportioned and disbursed in the manner specified in that article. As between the parties to the proceeding, money deposited pursuant to this subdivision shall remain at the risk of the plaintiff until paid or made payable to the defendant by order of the court. (b) If after entry of judgment but prior to apportionment of the award the defendants are unable to agree as to the withdrawal of all or a portion of any amount deposited, the court shall upon motion of any defendant order that the amount deposited be invested in United States government obligations or interest-bearing accounts in an institution whose accounts are insured by an agency of the federal government for the benefit of the defendants who shall be entitled to the interest earned on the investments in proportion to the amount of the award they receive when the award is apportioned.


1268.160. (a) Any amount withdrawn by a party pursuant to this article in excess of the amount to which he is entitled as finally determined in the eminent domain proceeding shall be paid to the parties entitled thereto. The court shall enter judgment accordingly. (b) The judgment so entered shall not include interest except that any amount that is to be paid to a defendant shall include legal interest from the date of its withdrawal by another defendant. (c) If the judgment so entered is not paid within 30 days after its entry, the court may, on motion, enter judgment against the sureties, if any, for the amount of such judgment. (d) The court may, in its discretion and with such security as it deems appropriate, grant a party obligated to pay under this section a stay of execution for any amount to be paid to a plaintiff. Such stay of execution shall not exceed one year following entry of judgment under this section.

1268.170. By making a deposit pursuant to this article, the plaintiff does not waive the right to appeal from the judgment, the right to move to abandon, or the right to request a new trial.


Article 3. Possession After Judgment

Ca Codes (ccp:1268.210-1268.240) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1268.210-1268.240



1268.210. (a) If the plaintiff is not in possession of the property to be taken, the plaintiff may, at any time after entry of judgment, apply ex parte to the court for an order for possession, and the court shall authorize the plaintiff to take possession of the property pending conclusion of the litigation if: (1) The judgment determines that the plaintiff is entitled to take the property; and (2) The plaintiff has paid to or deposited for the defendants, pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6 or Article 2 (commencing with Section 1268.110), an amount not less than the amount of the award, together with the interest then due thereon. (b) The court's order shall state the date after which the plaintiff is authorized to take possession of the property. Where deposit is made, the order shall state such fact and the date and the amount of the deposit. (c) Where the judgment is reversed, vacated, or set aside, the plaintiff may obtain possession of the property only pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 1255.410) of Chapter 6.


1268.220. (a) The plaintiff shall serve a copy of the order for possession upon each defendant and his attorney, either personally or by mail: (1) At least 30 days prior to the date possession is to be taken of property lawfully occupied by a person dwelling thereon or by a farm or business operation. (2) At least 10 days prior to the date possession is to be taken in any case not covered by paragraph (1). (b) A single service upon or mailing to one of several persons having a common business or residence address is sufficient.


1268.230. By taking possession pursuant to this article, the plaintiff does not waive the right to appeal from the judgment, the right to move to abandon, or the right to request a new trial.


1268.240. Nothing in this article limits the right of a public entity to exercise its police power in emergency situations.


Article 4. Interest

Ca Codes (ccp:1268.310-1268.360) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1268.310-1268.360



1268.310. The compensation awarded in the proceeding shall draw interest, computed as prescribed by Section 1268.350, from the earliest of the following dates: (a) The date of entry of judgment. (b) The date the plaintiff takes possession of the property. (c) The date after which the plaintiff is authorized to take possession of the property as stated in an order for possession.


1268.311. In any inverse condemnation proceeding in which interest is awarded, the interest shall be computed as prescribed by Section 1268.350.

1268.320. The compensation awarded in the proceeding shall cease to draw interest at the earliest of the following dates: (a) As to any amount deposited pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 1255.010) of Chapter 6 (deposit of probable compensation prior to judgment), the date such amount is withdrawn by the person entitled thereto. (b) As to the amount deposited in accordance with Article 2 (commencing with Section 1268.110) (deposit of amount of award), the date of such deposit. (c) As to any amount paid to the person entitled thereto, the date of such payment.


1268.330. If, after the date that interest begins to accrue, the defendant: (a) Continues in actual possession of the property, the value of that possession shall be offset against the interest. For the purpose of this section, the value of possession of the property shall be presumed to be the rate of interest calculated as prescribed by Section 1268.350 on the compensation awarded. This presumption is one affecting the burden of proof. (b) Receives rents or other income from the property attributable to the period after interest begins to accrue, the net amount of these rents and other income shall be offset against the interest.


1268.340. Interest, including interest accrued due to possession of property by the plaintiff prior to judgment, and any offset against interest as provided in Section 1268.330, shall be assessed by the court rather than by jury.

1268.350. (a) As used in this section, "apportionment rate" means the apportionment rate calculated by the Controller as the rate of earnings by the Surplus Money Investment Fund for each calendar quarter. (b) The rate of interest payable under this article for each calendar quarter, or fraction thereof, for which interest is due, shall be the apportionment rate for the immediately preceding calendar quarter. (c) Each district office of the Department of Transportation shall quote the apportionment rate to any person upon request.


1268.360. The interest payable for each calendar quarter shall draw interest, computed as prescribed by Section 1268.350, in each succeeding calendar quarter for which interest is due.


Article 5. Proration Of Property Taxes

Ca Codes (ccp:1268.410-1268.450) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1268.410-1268.450



1268.410. As between the plaintiff and defendant, the plaintiff is liable for any ad valorem taxes, penalties, and costs upon property acquired by eminent domain prorated from and including the date of apportionment determined pursuant to Section 5082 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.

1268.420. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b): (1) If the acquisition of property by eminent domain will make the property exempt property as defined in Section 5081 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, any ad valorem taxes, penalties, or costs on the property for which the plaintiff is liable pursuant to Section 1268.410 are not collectible. (2) If the acquisition of property by eminent domain will not make the property exempt property as defined in Section 5081 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, the plaintiff shall be deemed to be the assessee for the purposes of collection of any ad valorem taxes, penalties, and costs on the property for which the plaintiff is liable pursuant to Section 1268.410. (b) To the extent there is a dismissal or partial dismissal of the eminent domain proceeding, the amount of any unpaid ad valorem taxes, penalties, and costs on the property for which the plaintiff would be liable pursuant to Section 1268. 410 until the entry of judgment of dismissal shall be awarded to the defendant. The amount awarded shall be paid to the tax collector from the award or, if unpaid for any reason, are collectible from the defendant.


1268.430. (a) If the defendant has paid any amount for which, as between the plaintiff and defendant, the plaintiff is liable under this article, the plaintiff shall pay to the defendant a sum equal to such amount. (b) The amount the defendant is entitled to be paid under this section shall be claimed in the manner provided for claiming costs and at the following times: (1) If the plaintiff took possession of the property prior to judgment, at the time provided for claiming costs. (2) If the plaintiff did not take possession of the property prior to judgment, not later than 30 days after the plaintiff took title to the property.


1268.440. (a) If taxes have been paid on property that is exempt property as defined in Section 5081 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, the amount of the taxes that, if unpaid, would have been subject to cancellation under Article 5 (commencing with Section 5081) of Chapter 4 of Part 9 of Division 1 of the Revenue and Taxation Code shall be deemed to be erroneously collected and shall be refunded in the manner provided in Article 1 (commencing with Section 5096) of Chapter 5 of Part 9 of Division 1 of the Revenue and Taxation Code to the person who paid the taxes. (b) The public entity shall be deemed to be the person who paid the taxes if the public entity reimbursed the defendant for the taxes under a cost bill filed in the eminent domain proceeding pursuant to Section 1268.430. A claim for refund of taxes filed by a public entity pursuant to this section shall contain a copy of the cost bill under which taxes were reimbursed or a declaration under penalty of perjury by the public entity that the taxes were reimbursed under a cost bill. (c) Taxes paid on either the secured or unsecured roll may be refunded pursuant to this section.


1268.450. If property acquired by eminent domain does not have a separate valuation on the assessment roll, any party to the eminent domain proceeding may, at any time after the taxes on the property are subject to cancellation under Article 5 (commencing with Section 5081) of Chapter 4 of Part 9 of Division 1 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, apply to the tax collector for a separate valuation of the property in accordance with Article 3 (commencing with Section 2821) of Chapter 3 of Part 5 of Division 1 of the Revenue and Taxation Code notwithstanding any provision in that article to the contrary.


Article 6. Abandonment

Ca Codes (ccp:1268.510) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1268.510



1268.510. (a) At any time after the filing of the complaint and before the expiration of 30 days after final judgment, the plaintiff may wholly or partially abandon the proceeding by serving on the defendant and filing in court a written notice of such abandonment. (b) The court may, upon motion made within 30 days after the filing of such notice, set the abandonment aside if it determines that the position of the moving party has been substantially changed to his detriment in justifiable reliance upon the proceeding and such party cannot be restored to substantially the same position as if the proceeding had not been commenced. (c) Upon denial of a motion to set aside such abandonment or, if no such motion is filed, upon the expiration of the time for filing such a motion, the court shall, on motion of any party, enter judgment wholly or partially dismissing the proceeding.


Article 7. Litigation Expenses And Damages Upon Dismissal Or Defeat Of Right To Take

Ca Codes (ccp:1268.610-1268.620) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1268.610-1268.620



1268.610. (a) Subject to subdivisions (b) and (c), the court shall award the defendant his or her litigation expenses whenever: (1) The proceeding is wholly or partly dismissed for any reason. (2) Final judgment in the proceeding is that the plaintiff cannot acquire property it sought to acquire in the proceeding. (b) Where there is a partial dismissal or a final judgment that the plaintiff cannot acquire a portion of the property originally sought to be acquired, or a dismissal of one or more plaintiffs pursuant to Section 1260.020, the court shall award the defendant only those litigation expenses, or portion thereof, that would not have been incurred had the property sought to be acquired following the dismissal or judgment been the property originally sought to be acquired. (c) If the plaintiff files a notice of abandonment as to a particular defendant, or a request for dismissal of a particular defendant, and the court determines that the defendant did not own or have any interest in the property that the plaintiff sought to acquire in the proceeding, the court shall award that defendant only those litigation expenses incurred up to the time of filing the notice of abandonment or request for dismissal. (d) Litigation expenses under this section shall be claimed in and by a cost bill to be prepared, served, filed, and taxed as in a civil action. If the proceeding is dismissed upon motion of the plaintiff, the cost bill shall be filed within 30 days after notice of entry of judgment.


1268.620. If, after the defendant moves from property in compliance with an order or agreement for possession or in reasonable contemplation of its taking by the plaintiff, the proceeding is dismissed with regard to that property for any reason or there is a final judgment that the plaintiff cannot acquire that property, the court shall: (a) Order the plaintiff to deliver possession of the property to the persons entitled to it; and (b) Make such provision as shall be just for the payment of all damages proximately caused by the proceeding and its dismissal as to that property.


Article 8. Costs

Ca Codes (ccp:1268.710-1268.720) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1268.710-1268.720



1268.710. The defendants shall be allowed their costs, including the costs of determining the apportionment of the award made pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1260.220, except that the costs of determining any issue as to title between two or more defendants shall be borne by the defendants in such proportion as the court may direct.


1268.720. Unless the court otherwise orders, whether or not he is the prevailing party, the defendant in the proceeding shall be allowed his costs on appeal. This section does not apply to an appeal involving issues between defendants.


Chapter 12. Arbitration Of Compensation In Acquisitions Of Property For Public Use

Ca Codes (ccp:1273.010-1273.050) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1273.010-1273.050



1273.010. (a) Any person authorized to acquire property for public use may enter into an agreement to arbitrate any controversy as to the compensation to be made in connection with the acquisition of the property. (b) Where property is already appropriated to a public use, the person authorized to compromise or settle the claim arising from a taking or damaging of such property for another public use may enter into an agreement to arbitrate any controversy as to the compensation to be made in connection with such taking or damaging. (c) For the purposes of this section, in the case of a public entity, "person" refers to the particular department, officer, commission, board, or governing body authorized to acquire property on behalf of the public entity or to compromise or settle a claim arising from the taking or damaging of the entity's property.


1273.020. (a) Notwithstanding Sections 1283.2 and 1284.2, the party acquiring the property shall pay all of the expenses and fees of the neutral arbitrator and the statutory fees and mileage of all witnesses subpoenaed in the arbitration, together with other expenses of the arbitration incurred or approved by the neutral arbitrator, not including attorney's fees or expert witness fees or other expenses incurred by other parties for their own benefit. (b) An agreement authorized by this chapter may require that the party acquiring the property pay reasonable attorney's fees or expert witness fees, or both, to any other party to the arbitration. If the agreement requires the payment of such fees, the amount of the fees is a matter to be determined in the arbitration proceeding unless the agreement prescribes otherwise. (c) The party acquiring the property may pay the expenses and fees referred to in subdivisions (a) and (b) from funds available for the acquisition of the property or other funds available for the purpose.


1273.030. (a) Except as specifically provided in this chapter, agreements authorized by this chapter are subject to Title 9 (commencing with Section 1280) of this part. (b) An agreement authorized by this chapter may be made whether or not an eminent domain proceeding has been commenced to acquire the property. If a proceeding has been commenced or is commenced, any petition or response relating to the arbitration shall be filed and determined in the proceeding. (c) Notwithstanding Section 1281.4, an agreement authorized by this chapter does not waive or restrict the power of any person to commence and prosecute an eminent domain proceeding, including the taking of possession prior to judgment, except that, upon motion of a party to the proceeding, the court shall stay the determination of compensation until any petition for an order to arbitrate is determined and, if arbitration is ordered, until arbitration is had in accordance with the order. (d) The effect and enforceability of an agreement authorized by this chapter is not defeated or impaired by contention or proof by any party to the agreement that the party acquiring the property pursuant to the agreement lacks the power or capacity to take the property by eminent domain. (e) Notwithstanding the rules as to venue provided by Sections 1292 and 1292.2, any petition relating to arbitration authorized by this chapter shall be filed in the superior court in the county in which the property, or any portion of the property, is located.


1273.040. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), an agreement authorized by this chapter may specify the terms and conditions under which the party acquiring the property may abandon the acquisition, the arbitration proceeding, and any eminent domain proceeding that may have been, or may be, filed. Unless the agreement provides that the acquisition may not be abandoned, the party acquiring the property may abandon the acquisition, the arbitration proceeding, and any eminent domain proceeding at any time not later than the time for filing and serving a petition or response to vacate an arbitration award under Sections 1288, 1288.2, and 1290.6. (b) If the proceeding to acquire the property is abandoned after the arbitration agreement is executed, the party from whom the property was to be acquired is entitled to recover (1) all expenses reasonably and necessarily incurred (i) in preparing for the arbitration proceeding and for any judicial proceedings in connection with the acquisition of the property, (ii) during the arbitration proceeding and during any judicial proceedings in connection with the acquisition, and (iii) in any subsequent judicial proceedings in connection with the acquisition and (2) reasonable attorney's fees, appraisal fees, and fees for the services of other experts where such fees were reasonably and necessarily incurred to protect his interests in connection with the acquisition of the property. Unless the agreement otherwise provides, the amount of such expenses and fees shall be determined by arbitration in accordance with the agreement.

1273.050. (a) An agreement authorized by this chapter may be acknowledged and recorded, and rerecorded, in the same manner and with the same effect as a conveyance of real property except that two years after the date the agreement is recorded, or rerecorded, the record ceases to be notice to any person for any purpose. (b) In lieu of recording the agreement, there may be recorded a memorandum thereof, executed by the parties to the agreement, containing at least the following information: the names of the parties to the agreement, a description of the property, and a statement that an arbitration agreement affecting such property has been entered into pursuant to this chapter. Such memorandum when acknowledged and recorded, or rerecorded, in the same manner as a conveyance of real property has the same effect as if the agreement itself were recorded or rerecorded.


Title 8. Change Of Names

Ca Codes (ccp:1275-1279.6) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1275-1279.6



1275. Applications for change of names must be determined by the Superior Courts.


1276. (a) All applications for change of names shall be made to the superior court of the county where the person whose name is proposed to be changed resides, except as specified in subdivision (e), either (1) by petition signed by the person or, if the person is under 18 years of age, either by one of the person's parents, or by any guardian of the person, or if both parents are dead and there is no guardian of the person, then by some near relative or friend of the person or (2) as provided in Section 7638 of the Family Code. The petition or pleading shall specify the place of birth and residence of the person, his or her present name, the name proposed, and the reason for the change of name. (b) In a proceeding for a change of name commenced by the filing of a petition, if the person whose name is to be changed is under 18 years of age, the petition shall, if neither parent of the person has signed the petition, name, as far as known to the person proposing the name change, the parents of the person and their place of residence, if living, or if neither parent is living, near relatives of the person, and their place of residence. (c) In a proceeding for a change of name commenced by the filing of a petition, if the person whose name is proposed to be changed is under 18 years of age and the petition is signed by only one parent, the petition shall specify the address, if known, of the other parent if living. If the petition is signed by a guardian, the petition shall specify the name and address, if known, of the parent or parents, if living, or the grandparents, if the addresses of both parents are unknown or if both parents are deceased, of the person whose name is proposed to be changed. (d) In a proceeding for a change of name commenced by the filing of a petition, if the person whose name is proposed to be changed is 12 years of age or older, has been relinquished to an adoption agency by his or her parent or parents, and has not been legally adopted, the petition shall be signed by the person and the adoption agency to which the person was relinquished. The near relatives of the person and their place of residence shall not be included in the petition unless they are known to the person whose name is proposed to be changed. (e) All petitions for the change of the name of a minor submitted by a guardian appointed by the juvenile court or the probate court shall be made in the appointing court. (f) If the petition is signed by a guardian, the petition shall specify relevant information regarding the guardianship, the likelihood that the child will remain under the guardian's care until the child reaches the age of majority, and information suggesting that the child will not likely be returned to the custody of his or her parents.


1277. (a) If a proceeding for a change of name is commenced by the filing of a petition, except as provided in subdivisions (b), (c), and (e), the court shall thereupon make an order reciting the filing of the petition, the name of the person by whom it is filed, and the name proposed. The order shall direct all persons interested in the matter to appear before the court at a time and place specified, which shall be not less than six nor more than 12 weeks from the time of making the order, unless the court orders a different time, to show cause why the application for change of name should not be granted. The order shall direct all persons interested in the matter to make known any objection that they may have to the granting of the petition for change of name by filing a written objection, which includes the reasons for the objection, with the court at least two court days before the matter is scheduled to be heard and by appearing in court at the hearing to show cause why the petition for change of name should not be granted. The order shall state that, if no written objection is timely filed, the court may grant the petition without a hearing. A copy of the order to show cause shall be published pursuant to Section 6064 of the Government Code in a newspaper of general circulation to be designated in the order published in the county. If no newspaper of general circulation is published in the county, a copy of the order to show cause shall be posted by the clerk of the court in three of the most public places in the county in which the court is located, for a like period. Proof shall be made to the satisfaction of the court of this publication or posting, at the time of the hearing of the application. Four weekly publications shall be sufficient publication of the order to show cause. If the order is published in a daily newspaper, publication once a week for four successive weeks shall be sufficient. If a petition has been filed for a minor by a parent and the other parent, if living, does not join in consenting thereto, the petitioner shall cause, not less than 30 days prior to the hearing, to be served notice of the time and place of the hearing or a copy of the order to show cause on the other parent pursuant to Section 413.10, 414.10, 415.10, or 415.40. If notice of the hearing cannot reasonably be accomplished pursuant to Section 415.10 or 415.40, the court may order that notice be given in a manner that the court determines is reasonably calculated to give actual notice to the nonconsenting parent. In that case, if the court determines that notice by publication is reasonably calculated to give actual notice to the nonconsenting parent, the court may determine that publication of the order to show cause pursuant to this subdivision is sufficient notice to the nonconsenting parent. (b) (1) If the petition for a change of name alleges a reason or circumstance described in paragraph (2), and the petitioner is a participant in the address confidentiality program created pursuant to Chapter 3.1 (commencing with Section 6205) of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code, the action for a change of name is exempt from the requirement for publication of the order to show cause under subdivision (a), and the petition and the order of the court shall, in lieu of reciting the proposed name, indicate that the proposed name is confidential and will be on file with the Secretary of State pursuant to the provisions of the address confidentiality program. (2) The procedure described in paragraph (1) applies to petitions alleging any of the following reasons or circumstances: (A) To avoid domestic violence, as defined in Section 6211 of the Family Code. (B) To avoid stalking, as defined in Section 646.9 of the Penal Code. (C) The petitioner is, or is filing on behalf of, a victim of sexual assault, as defined in Section 1036.2 of the Evidence Code. (3) For any petition under this subdivision, the current legal name of the petitioner shall be kept confidential by the court and shall not be published or posted in the court's calendars, indexes, or register of actions, as required by Article 7 (commencing with Section 69840) of Chapter 5 of Title 8 of the Government Code, or by any means or in any public forum, including a hardcopy or an electronic copy, or any other type of public media or display. (4) (A) A petitioner may request that the court file the petition and any other papers associated with the proceeding under seal. The court may consider the request at the same time as the petition for name change, and may grant the request in any case in which the court finds that all of the following factors apply: (i) There exists an overriding interest that overcomes the right of public access to the record. (ii) The overriding interest supports sealing the record. (iii) A substantial probability exists that the overriding interest will be prejudiced if the record is not sealed. (iv) The proposed order to seal the records is narrowly tailored. (v) No less restrictive means exist to achieve the overriding interest. (B) On or before January 1, 2010, the Judicial Council shall develop rules of court and forms consistent with the requirements of this paragraph. (c) A proceeding for a change of name for a witness participating in the state Witness Protection Program established by Title 7.5 (commencing with Section 14020) of Part 4 of the Penal Code who has been approved for the change of name by the program is exempt from the requirement for publication of the order to show cause under subdivision (a). (d) If application for change of name is brought as part of an action under the Uniform Parentage Act (Part 3 (commencing with Section 7600) of Division 12 of the Family Code), whether as part of a petition or cross-complaint or as a separate order to show cause in a pending action thereunder, service of the application shall be made upon all other parties to the action in a like manner as prescribed for the service of a summons, as is set forth in Article 3 (commencing with Section 415.10) of Chapter 4 of Title 5 of Part 2. Upon the setting of a hearing on the issue, notice of the hearing shall be given to all parties in the action in a like manner and within the time limits prescribed generally for the type of hearing (whether trial or order to show cause) at which the issue of the change of name is to be decided. (e) If a guardian files a petition to change the name of his or her minor ward pursuant to Section 1276: (1) The guardian shall provide notice of the hearing to any living parent of the minor by personal service at least 30 days prior to the hearing. (2) If either or both parents are deceased or cannot be located, the guardian shall cause, not less than 30 days prior to the hearing, to be served a notice of the time and place of the hearing or a copy of the order to show cause on the child's grandparents, if living, pursuant to Section 413.10, 414.10, 415.10, or 415.40.


1278. (a) Except as provided in subdivisions (c) and (d), the petition or application shall be heard at the time designated by the court, only if objections are filed by any person who can, in those objections, show to the court good reason against the change of name. At the hearing, the court may examine on oath any of the petitioners, remonstrants, or other persons, touching the petition or application, and may make an order changing the name, or dismissing the petition or application, as to the court may seem right and proper. If no objection is filed at least two court days before the date set for hearing, the court may, without hearing, enter the order that the change of name is granted. (b) If the provisions of subdivision (b) of Section 1277 apply, the court shall not disclose the proposed name unless the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the allegations of domestic violence or stalking in the petition are false. (c) If the application for a change of name is brought as part of an action under the Uniform Parentage Act (Part 3 (commencing with Section 7600) of Division 12 of the Family Code), the hearing on the issue of the change of name shall be conducted pursuant to statutes and rules of court governing those proceedings, whether the hearing is conducted upon an order to show cause or upon trial. (d) If the petition for a change of name is filed by a guardian on behalf of a minor ward, the court shall first find that the ward is likely to remain in the guardian's care until the age of majority and that the ward is not likely to be returned to the custody of his or her parents. Upon making those findings, the court shall consider the petition and may grant the petition only if it finds that the proposed name change is in the best interest of the child.


1278.5. In any proceeding pursuant to this title in which a petition has been filed to change the name of a minor, and both parents, if living, do not join in consent, the court may deny the petition in whole or in part if it finds that any portion of the proposed name change is not in the best interest of the child.


1279.5. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), (c), (d), or (e), nothing in this title shall be construed to abrogate the common law right of any person to change his or her name. (b) Notwithstanding any other law, no person imprisoned in the state prison and under the jurisdiction of the Director of Corrections shall be allowed to file a petition for change of name pursuant to Section 1276, except as permitted at the discretion of the Director of Corrections. (c) A court shall deny a petition for a name change pursuant to Section 1276 made by a person who is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections, unless that person's parole agent or probation officer grants prior written approval. Before granting that approval, the parole agent or probation officer shall determine that the name change will not pose a security risk to the community. (d) Notwithstanding any other law, a court shall deny a petition for a name change pursuant to Section 1276 made by a person who is required to register as a sex offender under Section 290 of the Penal Code, unless the court determines that it is in the best interest of justice to grant the petition and that doing so will not adversely affect the public safety. If a petition for a name change is granted for an individual required to register as a sex offender, the individual shall, within five working days, notify the chief of police of the city in which he or she is domiciled, or the sheriff of the county if he or she is domiciled in an unincorporated area, and additionally with the chief of police of a campus of a University of California or California State University if he or she is domiciled upon the campus or in any of its facilities. (e) For the purpose of this section, the court shall use the California Law Enforcement Telecommunications System (CLETS) and Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) to determine whether or not an applicant for a name change is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections or is required to register as a sex offender pursuant to Section 290 of the Penal Code. Each person applying for a name change shall declare under penalty of perjury that he or she is not under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections or is required to register as a sex offender pursuant to Section 290 of the Penal Code. If a court is not equipped with CLETS or CJIS, the clerk of the court shall contact an appropriate local law enforcement agency, which shall determine whether or not the petitioner is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections or is required to register as a sex offender pursuant to Section 290 of the Penal Code.


1279.6. No person engaged in a trade or business of any kind or in the provision of a service of any kind shall do any of the following: (a) Refuse to do business with a person, or refuse to provide the service to a person, regardless of the person's marital status, because he or she has chosen to use or regularly uses his or her birth name, former name, or name adopted upon solemnization of marriage or registration of domestic partnership. (b) Impose, as a condition of doing business with a person, or as a condition of providing the service to a person, a requirement that the person, regardless of his or her marital status, use a name other than his or her birth name, former name, or name adopted upon solemnization of marriage or registration of domestic partnership, if the person has chosen to use or regularly uses that name.


Title 9. Arbitration

Chapter 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (ccp:1280-1280.2) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1280-1280.2



1280. As used in this title: (a) "Agreement" includes but is not limited to agreements providing for valuations, appraisals and similar proceedings and agreements between employers and employees or between their respective representatives. (b) "Award" includes but is not limited to an award made pursuant to an agreement not in writing. (c) "Controversy" means any question arising between parties to an agreement whether such question is one of law or of fact or both. (d) "Neutral arbitrator" means an arbitrator who is (1) selected jointly by the parties or by the arbitrators selected by the parties or (2) appointed by the court when the parties or the arbitrators selected by the parties fail to select an arbitrator who was to be selected jointly by them. (e) "Party to the arbitration" means a party to the arbitration agreement: (1) Who seeks to arbitrate a controversy pursuant to the agreement; (2) Against whom such arbitration is sought pursuant to the agreement; or (3) Who is made a party to such arbitration by order of the neutral arbitrator upon such party's application, upon the application of any other party to the arbitration or upon the neutral arbitrator's own determination. (f) "Written agreement" shall be deemed to include a written agreement which has been extended or renewed by an oral or implied agreement.


1280.2. Whenever reference is made in this title to any portion of the title or of any other law of this State, the reference applies to all amendments and additions thereto now or hereafter made.


Chapter 2. Enforcement Of Arbitration Agreements

Ca Codes (ccp:1281-1281.96) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1281-1281.96



1281. A written agreement to submit to arbitration an existing controversy or a controversy thereafter arising is valid, enforceable and irrevocable, save upon such grounds as exist for the revocation of any contract.

1281.1. For the purposes of this article, any request to arbitrate made pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1299.4 shall be considered as made pursuant to a written agreement to submit a controversy to arbitration.

1281.12. If an arbitration agreement requires that arbitration of a controversy be demanded or initiated by a party to the arbitration agreement within a period of time, the commencement of a civil action by that party based upon that controversy, within that period of time, shall toll the applicable time limitations contained in the arbitration agreement with respect to that controversy, from the date the civil action is commenced until 30 days after a final determination by the court that the party is required to arbitrate the controversy, or 30 days after the final termination of the civil action that was commenced and initiated the tolling, whichever date occurs first.


1281.2. On petition of a party to an arbitration agreement alleging the existence of a written agreement to arbitrate a controversy and that a party thereto refuses to arbitrate such controversy, the court shall order the petitioner and the respondent to arbitrate the controversy if it determines that an agreement to arbitrate the controversy exists, unless it determines that: (a) The right to compel arbitration has been waived by the petitioner; or (b) Grounds exist for the revocation of the agreement. (c) A party to the arbitration agreement is also a party to a pending court action or special proceeding with a third party, arising out of the same transaction or series of related transactions and there is a possibility of conflicting rulings on a common issue of law or fact. For purposes of this section, a pending court action or special proceeding includes an action or proceeding initiated by the party refusing to arbitrate after the petition to compel arbitration has been filed, but on or before the date of the hearing on the petition. This subdivision shall not be applicable to an agreement to arbitrate disputes as to the professional negligence of a health care provider made pursuant to Section 1295. If the court determines that a written agreement to arbitrate a controversy exists, an order to arbitrate such controversy may not be refused on the ground that the petitioner's contentions lack substantive merit. If the court determines that there are other issues between the petitioner and the respondent which are not subject to arbitration and which are the subject of a pending action or special proceeding between the petitioner and the respondent and that a determination of such issues may make the arbitration unnecessary, the court may delay its order to arbitrate until the determination of such other issues or until such earlier time as the court specifies. If the court determines that a party to the arbitration is also a party to litigation in a pending court action or special proceeding with a third party as set forth under subdivision (c) herein, the court (1) may refuse to enforce the arbitration agreement and may order intervention or joinder of all parties in a single action or special proceeding; (2) may order intervention or joinder as to all or only certain issues; (3) may order arbitration among the parties who have agreed to arbitration and stay the pending court action or special proceeding pending the outcome of the arbitration proceeding; or (4) may stay arbitration pending the outcome of the court action or special proceeding.

1281.3. A party to an arbitration agreement may petition the court to consolidate separate arbitration proceedings, and the court may order consolidation of separate arbitration proceedings when: (1) Separate arbitration agreements or proceedings exist between the same parties; or one party is a party to a separate arbitration agreement or proceeding with a third party; and (2) The disputes arise from the same transactions or series of related transactions; and (3) There is common issue or issues of law or fact creating the possibility of conflicting rulings by more than one arbitrator or panel of arbitrators. If all of the applicable arbitration agreements name the same arbitrator, arbitration panel, or arbitration tribunal, the court, if it orders consolidation, shall order all matters to be heard before the arbitrator, panel, or tribunal agreed to by the parties. If the applicable arbitration agreements name separate arbitrators, panels, or tribunals, the court, if it orders consolidation, shall, in the absence of an agreed method of selection by all parties to the consolidated arbitration, appoint an arbitrator in accord with the procedures set forth in Section 1281.6. In the event that the arbitration agreements in consolidated proceedings contain inconsistent provisions, the court shall resolve such conflicts and determine the rights and duties of the various parties to achieve substantial justice under all the circumstances. The court may exercise its discretion under this section to deny consolidation of separate arbitration proceedings or to consolidate separate arbitration proceedings only as to certain issues, leaving other issues to be resolved in separate proceedings. This section shall not be applicable to an agreement to arbitrate disputes as to the professional negligence of a health care provider made pursuant to Section 1295.


1281.4. If a court of competent jurisdiction, whether in this State or not, has ordered arbitration of a controversy which is an issue involved in an action or proceeding pending before a court of this State, the court in which such action or proceeding is pending shall, upon motion of a party to such action or proceeding, stay the action or proceeding until an arbitration is had in accordance with the order to arbitrate or until such earlier time as the court specifies. If an application has been made to a court of competent jurisdiction, whether in this State or not, for an order to arbitrate a controversy which is an issue involved in an action or proceeding pending before a court of this State and such application is undetermined, the court in which such action or proceeding is pending shall, upon motion of a party to such action or proceeding, stay the action or proceeding until the application for an order to arbitrate is determined and, if arbitration of such controversy is ordered, until an arbitration is had in accordance with the order to arbitrate or until such earlier time as the court specifies. If the issue which is the controversy subject to arbitration is severable, the stay may be with respect to that issue only.


1281.5. (a) Any person who proceeds to record and enforce a claim of lien by commencement of an action pursuant to Title 15 (commencing with Section 3082) of Part 4 of Division 3 of the Civil Code, does not thereby waive any right of arbitration the person may have pursuant to a written agreement to arbitrate, if, in filing an action to enforce the claim of lien, the claimant does either of the following: (1) Includes an allegation in the complaint that the claimant does not intend to waive any right of arbitration, and intends to move the court, within 30 days after service of the summons and complaint, for an order to stay further proceedings in the action. (2) At the same time that the complaint is filed, the claimant files an application that the action be stayed pending the arbitration of any issue, question, or dispute that is claimed to be arbitrable under the agreement and that is relevant to the action to enforce the claim of lien. (b) Within 30 days after service of the summons and complaint, the claimant shall file and serve a motion and notice of motion pursuant to Section 1281.4 to stay the action pending the arbitration of any issue, question, or dispute that is claimed to be arbitrable under the agreement and that is relevant to the action to enforce the claim of lien. The failure of a claimant to comply with this subdivision is a waiver of the claimant's right to compel arbitration. (c) The failure of a defendant to file a petition pursuant to Section 1281.2 at or before the time the defendant answers the complaint filed pursuant to subdivision (a) is a waiver of the defendant's right to compel arbitration.


1281.5. (a) Any person who proceeds to record and enforce a claim of lien by commencement of an action pursuant to Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 8400) of Title 2 of Part 6 of Division 4 of the Civil Code, does not thereby waive any right of arbitration the person may have pursuant to a written agreement to arbitrate, if, in filing an action to enforce the claim of lien, the claimant does either of the following: (1) Includes an allegation in the complaint that the claimant does not intend to waive any right of arbitration, and intends to move the court, within 30 days after service of the summons and complaint, for an order to stay further proceedings in the action. (2) At the same time that the complaint is filed, the claimant files an application that the action be stayed pending the arbitration of any issue, question, or dispute that is claimed to be arbitrable under the agreement and that is relevant to the action to enforce the claim of lien. (b) Within 30 days after service of the summons and complaint, the claimant shall file and serve a motion and notice of motion pursuant to Section 1281.4 to stay the action pending the arbitration of any issue, question, or dispute that is claimed to be arbitrable under the agreement and that is relevant to the action to enforce the claim of lien. The failure of a claimant to comply with this subdivision is a waiver of the claimant's right to compel arbitration. (c) The failure of a defendant to file a petition pursuant to Section 1281.2 at or before the time the defendant answers the complaint filed pursuant to subdivision (a) is a waiver of the defendant's right to compel arbitration.

1281.6. If the arbitration agreement provides a method of appointing an arbitrator, that method shall be followed. If the arbitration agreement does not provide a method for appointing an arbitrator, the parties to the agreement who seek arbitration and against whom arbitration is sought may agree on a method of appointing an arbitrator and that method shall be followed. In the absence of an agreed method, or if the agreed method fails or for any reason cannot be followed, or when an arbitrator appointed fails to act and his or her successor has not been appointed, the court, on petition of a party to the arbitration agreement, shall appoint the arbitrator. When a petition is made to the court to appoint a neutral arbitrator, the court shall nominate five persons from lists of persons supplied jointly by the parties to the arbitration or obtained from a governmental agency concerned with arbitration or private disinterested association concerned with arbitration. The parties to the agreement who seek arbitration and against whom arbitration is sought may within five days of receipt of notice of the nominees from the court jointly select the arbitrator whether or not the arbitrator is among the nominees. If the parties fail to select an arbitrator within the five-day period, the court shall appoint the arbitrator from the nominees.

1281.7. A petition pursuant to Section 1281.2 may be filed in lieu of filing an answer to a complaint. The petitioning defendant shall have 15 days after any denial of the petition to plead to the complaint.

�1281.8.) (a) As used in this section, "provisional remedy" includes the following: (1) Attachments and temporary protective orders issued pursuant to Title 6.5 (commencing with Section 481.010) of Part 2. (2) Writs of possession issued pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 512.010) of Chapter 2 of Title 7 of Part 2. (3) Preliminary injunctions and temporary restraining orders issued pursuant to Section 527. (4) Receivers appointed pursuant to Section 564. (b) A party to an arbitration agreement may file in the court in the county in which an arbitration proceeding is pending, or if an arbitration proceeding has not commenced, in any proper court, an application for a provisional remedy in connection with an arbitrable controversy, but only upon the ground that the award to which the applicant may be entitled may be rendered ineffectual without provisional relief. The application shall be accompanied by a complaint or by copies of the demand for arbitration and any response thereto. If accompanied by a complaint, the application shall also be accompanied by a statement stating whether the party is or is not reserving the party's right to arbitration. (c) A claim by the party opposing issuance of a provisional remedy, that the controversy is not subject to arbitration, shall not be grounds for denial of any provisional remedy. (d) An application for a provisional remedy under subdivision (b) shall not operate to waive any right of arbitration which the applicant may have pursuant to a written agreement to arbitrate, if, at the same time as the application for a provisional remedy is presented, the applicant also presents to the court an application that all other proceedings in the action be stayed pending the arbitration of any issue, question, or dispute which is claimed to be arbitrable under the agreement and which is relevant to the action pursuant to which the provisional remedy is sought.


1281.85. (a) Beginning July 1, 2002, a person serving as a neutral arbitrator pursuant to an arbitration agreement shall comply with the ethics standards for arbitrators adopted by the Judicial Council pursuant to this section. The Judicial Council shall adopt ethical standards for all neutral arbitrators effective July 1, 2002. These standards shall be consistent with the standards established for arbitrators in the judicial arbitration program and may expand but may not limit the disclosure and disqualification requirements established by this chapter. The standards shall address the disclosure of interests, relationships, or affiliations that may constitute conflicts of interest, including prior service as an arbitrator or other dispute resolution neutral entity, disqualifications, acceptance of gifts, and establishment of future professional relationships. (b) Subdivision (a) does not apply to an arbitration conducted pursuant to the terms of a public or private sector collective bargaining agreement. (c) The ethics requirements and standards of this chapter are nonnegotiable and shall not be waived.


1281.9. (a) In any arbitration pursuant to an arbitration agreement, when a person is to serve as a neutral arbitrator, the proposed neutral arbitrator shall disclose all matters that could cause a person aware of the facts to reasonably entertain a doubt that the proposed neutral arbitrator would be able to be impartial, including all of the following: (1) The existence of any ground specified in Section 170.1 for disqualification of a judge. For purposes of paragraph (8) of subdivision (a) of Section 170.1, the proposed neutral arbitrator shall disclose whether or not he or she has a current arrangement concerning prospective employment or other compensated service as a dispute resolution neutral or is participating in, or, within the last two years, has participated in, discussions regarding such prospective employment or service with a party to the proceeding. (2) Any matters required to be disclosed by the ethics standards for neutral arbitrators adopted by the Judicial Council pursuant to this chapter. (3) The names of the parties to all prior or pending noncollective bargaining cases in which the proposed neutral arbitrator served or is serving as a party arbitrator for any party to the arbitration proceeding or for a lawyer for a party and the results of each case arbitrated to conclusion, including the date of the arbitration award, identification of the prevailing party, the names of the parties' attorneys and the amount of monetary damages awarded, if any. In order to preserve confidentiality, it shall be sufficient to give the name of any party who is not a party to the pending arbitration as "claimant" or "respondent" if the party is an individual and not a business or corporate entity. (4) The names of the parties to all prior or pending noncollective bargaining cases involving any party to the arbitration or lawyer for a party for which the proposed neutral arbitrator served or is serving as neutral arbitrator, and the results of each case arbitrated to conclusion, including the date of the arbitration award, identification of the prevailing party, the names of the parties' attorneys and the amount of monetary damages awarded, if any. In order to preserve confidentiality, it shall be sufficient to give the name of any party not a party to the pending arbitration as "claimant" or "respondent" if the party is an individual and not a business or corporate entity. (5) Any attorney-client relationship the proposed neutral arbitrator has or had with any party or lawyer for a party to the arbitration proceeding. (6) Any professional or significant personal relationship the proposed neutral arbitrator or his or her spouse or minor child living in the household has or has had with any party to the arbitration proceeding or lawyer for a party. (b) Subject only to the disclosure requirements of law, the proposed neutral arbitrator shall disclose all matters required to be disclosed pursuant to this section to all parties in writing within 10 calendar days of service of notice of the proposed nomination or appointment. (c) For purposes of this section, "lawyer for a party" includes any lawyer or law firm currently associated in the practice of law with the lawyer hired to represent a party. (d) For purposes of this section, "prior cases" means noncollective bargaining cases in which an arbitration award was rendered within five years prior to the date of the proposed nomination or appointment. (e) For purposes of this section, "any arbitration" does not include an arbitration conducted pursuant to the terms of a public or private sector collective bargaining agreement.


1281.91. (a) A proposed neutral arbitrator shall be disqualified if he or she fails to comply with Section 1281.9 and any party entitled to receive the disclosure serves a notice of disqualification within 15 calendar days after the proposed nominee or appointee fails to comply with Section 1281.9. (b) (1) If the proposed neutral arbitrator complies with Section 1281.9, the proposed neutral arbitrator shall be disqualified on the basis of the disclosure statement after any party entitled to receive the disclosure serves a notice of disqualification within 15 calendar days after service of the disclosure statement. (2) A party shall have the right to disqualify one court-appointed arbitrator without cause in any single arbitration, and may petition the court to disqualify a subsequent appointee only upon a showing of cause. (c) The right of a party to disqualify a proposed neutral arbitrator pursuant to this section shall be waived if the party fails to serve the notice pursuant to the times set forth in this section, unless the proposed nominee or appointee makes a material omission or material misrepresentation in his or her disclosure. Except as provided in subdivision (d), in no event may a notice of disqualification be given after a hearing of any contested issue of fact relating to the merits of the claim or after any ruling by the arbitrator regarding any contested matter. Nothing in this subdivision shall limit the right of a party to vacate an award pursuant to Section 1286.2, or to disqualify an arbitrator pursuant to any other law or statute. (d) If any ground specified in Section 170.1 exists, a neutral arbitrator shall disqualify himself or herself upon the demand of any party made before the conclusion of the arbitration proceeding. However, this subdivision does not apply to arbitration proceedings conducted under a collective bargaining agreement between employers and employees or their respective representatives.


1281.92. (a) No private arbitration company may administer a consumer arbitration, or provide any other services related to a consumer arbitration, if the company has, or within the preceding year has had, a financial interest, as defined in Section 170.5, in any party or attorney for a party. (b) No private arbitration company may administer a consumer arbitration, or provide any other services related to a consumer arbitration, if any party or attorney for a party has, or within the preceding year has had, any type of financial interest in the private arbitration company. (c) This section shall operate only prospectively so as not to prohibit the administration of consumer arbitrations on the basis of financial interests held prior to January 1, 2003. (d) This section applies to all consumer arbitration agreements subject to this article, and to all consumer arbitration proceedings conducted in California. (e) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2003.


1281.95. (a) In a binding arbitration of any claim for more than three thousand dollars ($3,000) pursuant to a contract for the construction or improvement of residential property consisting of one to four units, the arbitrator shall, within 10 days following his or her appointment, provide to each party a written declaration under penalty of perjury. This declaration shall disclose (1) whether the arbitrator or his or her employer or arbitration service had or has a personal or professional affiliation with either party, and (2) whether the arbitrator or his or her employer or arbitration service has been selected or designated as an arbitrator by either party in another transaction. (b) If the arbitrator discloses an affiliation with either party, discloses that the arbitrator has been selected or designated as an arbitrator by either party in another arbitration, or fails to comply with this section, he or she may be disqualified from the arbitration by either party. (c) A notice of disqualification shall be served within 15 days after the arbitrator makes the required disclosures or fails to comply. The right of a party to disqualify an arbitrator shall be waived if the party fails to serve the notice of disqualification pursuant to this subdivision unless the arbitration makes a material omission or material misrepresentation in his or her disclosure. Nothing in this section shall limit the right of a party to vacate an award pursuant to Section 1286.2, or to disqualify an arbitrator pursuant to any other law or statute.


1281.96. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b), any private arbitration company that administers or is otherwise involved in, a consumer arbitration, shall collect, publish at least quarterly, and make available to the public in a computer-searchable format, which shall be accessible at the Internet Web site of the private arbitration company, if any, and on paper upon request, all of the following information regarding each consumer arbitration within the preceding five years: (1) The name of the nonconsumer party, if the nonconsumer party is a corporation or other business entity. (2) The type of dispute involved, including goods, banking, insurance, health care, employment, and, if it involves employment, the amount of the employee's annual wage divided into the following ranges: less than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) to two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000), inclusive, and over two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000). (3) Whether the consumer or nonconsumer party was the prevailing party. (4) On how many occasions, if any, the nonconsumer party has previously been a party in an arbitration or mediation administered by the private arbitration company. (5) Whether the consumer party was represented by an attorney. (6) The date the private arbitration company received the demand for arbitration, the date the arbitrator was appointed, and the date of disposition by the arbitrator or private arbitration company. (7) The type of disposition of the dispute, if known, including withdrawal, abandonment, settlement, award after hearing, award without hearing, default, or dismissal without hearing. (8) The amount of the claim, the amount of the award, and any other relief granted, if any. (9) The name of the arbitrator, his or her total fee for the case, and the percentage of the arbitrator's fee allocated to each party. (b) (1) If the information required by subdivision (a) is provided by the private arbitration company in a computer-searchable format at the company's Internet Web site and may be downloaded without any fee, the company may charge the actual cost of copying to any person who requests the information on paper. If the information required by subdivision (a) is not accessible by the Internet, the company shall provide that information without charge to any person who requests the information on paper. (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a private arbitration company that receives funding pursuant to Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 465) of Division 1 of the Business and Professions Code, and that administers or conducts fewer than 50 consumer arbitrations per year may collect and publish the information required by subdivision (a) semiannually, provide the information only on paper, and charge the actual cost of copying. (c) This section shall apply to any consumer arbitration commenced on or after January 1, 2003. (d) No private arbitration company shall have any liability for collecting, publishing, or distributing the information required by this section.


Chapter 3. Conduct Of Arbitration Proceedings

Ca Codes (ccp:1282-1284.3) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1282-1284.3



1282. Unless the arbitration agreement otherwise provides, or unless the parties to the arbitration otherwise provide by an agreement which is not contrary to the arbitration agreement as made or as modified by all of the parties thereto: (a) The arbitration shall be by a single neutral arbitrator. (b) If there is more than one arbitrator, the powers and duties of the arbitrators, other than the powers and duties of a neutral arbitrator, may be exercised by a majority of them if reasonable notice of all proceedings has been given to all arbitrators. (c) If there is more than one neutral arbitrator: (1) The powers and duties of a neutral arbitrator may be exercised by a majority of the neutral arbitrators. (2) By unanimous agreement of the neutral arbitrators, the powers and duties may be delegated to one of their number but the power to make or correct the award may not be so delegated. (d) If there is no neutral arbitrator, the powers and duties of a neutral arbitrator may be exercised by a majority of the arbitrators.


1282.2. Unless the arbitration agreement otherwise provides, or unless the parties to the arbitration otherwise provide by an agreement which is not contrary to the arbitration agreement as made or as modified by all the parties thereto: (a) (1) The neutral arbitrator shall appoint a time and place for the hearing and cause notice thereof to be served personally or by registered or certified mail on the parties to the arbitration and on the other arbitrators not less than seven days before the hearing. Appearance at the hearing waives the right to notice. (2) With the exception of matters arising out of collective-bargaining agreements, those described in Section 1283.05, actions involving personal injury or death, or as provided in the parties' agreement to arbitrate, in the event the aggregate amount in controversy exceeds fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) and the arbitrator is informed thereof by any party in writing by personal service, registered or certified mail, prior to designating a time and place of hearing pursuant to paragraph (1), the neutral arbitrator by the means prescribed in paragraph (1) shall appoint a time and place for hearing not less than 60 days before the hearing, and the following provisions shall apply: (A) Either party shall within 15 days of receipt of the notice of hearing have the right to demand in writing, served personally or by registered or certified mail, that the other party provide a list of witnesses it intends to call designating which witnesses will be called as expert witnesses and a list of documents it intends to introduce at the hearing provided that the demanding party provides such lists at the time of its demand. A copy of such demand and the demanding party's lists shall be served on the arbitrator. (B) Such lists shall be served personally or by registered or certified mail on the requesting party 15 days thereafter. Copies thereof shall be served on the arbitrator. (C) Listed documents shall be made available for inspection and copying at reasonable times prior to the hearing. (D) Time limits provided herein may be waived by mutual agreement of the parties if approved by the arbitrator. (E) The failure to list a witness or a document shall not bar the testimony of an unlisted witness or the introduction of an undesignated document at the hearing, provided that good cause for omission from the requirements of subparagraph (A) is shown, as determined by the arbitrator. (F) The authority of the arbitrator to administer and enforce this paragraph shall be as provided in subdivisions (b) to (e), inclusive, of Section 1283.05. (b) The neutral arbitrator may adjourn the hearing from time to time as necessary. On request of a party to the arbitration for good cause, or upon his own determination, the neutral arbitrator may postpone the hearing to a time not later than the date fixed by the agreement for making the award, or to a later date if the parties to the arbitration consent thereto. (c) The neutral arbitrator shall preside at the hearing, shall rule on the admission and exclusion of evidence and on questions of hearing procedure and shall exercise all powers relating to the conduct of the hearing. (d) The parties to the arbitration are entitled to be heard, to present evidence and to cross-examine witnesses appearing at the hearing, but rules of evidence and rules of judicial procedure need not be observed. On request of any party to the arbitration, the testimony of witnesses shall be given under oath. (e) If a court has ordered a person to arbitrate a controversy, the arbitrators may hear and determine the controversy upon the evidence produced notwithstanding the failure of a party ordered to arbitrate, who has been duly notified, to appear. (f) If an arbitrator, who has been duly notified, for any reason fails to participate in the arbitration, the arbitration shall continue but only the remaining neutral arbitrator or neutral arbitrators may make the award. (g) If a neutral arbitrator intends to base an award upon information not obtained at the hearing, he shall disclose the information to all parties to the arbitration and give the parties an opportunity to meet it.


1282.4. (a) A party to the arbitration has the right to be represented by an attorney at any proceeding or hearing in arbitration under this title. A waiver of this right may be revoked; but if a party revokes that waiver, the other party is entitled to a reasonable continuance for the purpose of procuring an attorney. (b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, including Section 6125 of the Business and Professions Code, an attorney admitted to the bar of any other state may represent the parties in the course of, or in connection with, an arbitration proceeding in this state, provided that the attorney, if not admitted to the State Bar of California, satisfies all of the following: (1) He or she timely serves the certificate described in subdivision (c). (2) The attorney's appearance is approved in writing on that certificate by the arbitrator, the arbitrators, or the arbitral forum. (3) The certificate bearing approval of the attorney's appearance is filed with the State Bar of California and served on the parties as described in this section. (c) Within a reasonable period of time after the attorney described in subdivision (b) indicates an intention to appear in the arbitration, the attorney shall serve a certificate in a form prescribed by the State Bar of California on the arbitrator, arbitrators, or arbitral forum, the State Bar of California, and all other parties and counsel in the arbitration whose addresses are known to the attorney. The certificate shall state all of the following: (1) The case name and number, and the name of the arbitrator, arbitrators, or arbitral forum assigned to the proceeding in which the attorney seeks to appear. (2) The attorney's residence and office address. (3) The courts before which the attorney has been admitted to practice and the dates of admission. (4) That the attorney is currently a member in good standing of, and eligible to practice law before, the bar of those courts. (5) That the attorney is not currently on suspension or disbarred from the practice of law before the bar of any court. (6) That the attorney is not a resident of the State of California. (7) That the attorney is not regularly employed in the State of California. (8) That the attorney is not regularly engaged in substantial business, professional, or other activities in the State of California. (9) That the attorney agrees to be subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this state with respect to the law of this state governing the conduct of attorneys to the same extent as a member of the State Bar of California. (10) The title of the court and the cause in which the attorney has filed an application to appear as counsel pro hac vice in this state or filed a certificate pursuant to this section in the preceding two years, the date of each application or certificate, and whether or not it was granted. If the attorney has made repeated appearances, the certificate shall reflect the special circumstances that warrant the approval of the attorney's appearance in the arbitration. (11) The name, address, and telephone number of the active member of the State Bar of California who is the attorney of record. (d) The arbitrator, arbitrators, or arbitral forum may approve the attorney's appearance if the attorney has complied with subdivision (c). Failure to timely file and serve the certificate described in subdivision (c) shall be grounds for disapproval of the appearance and disqualification from serving as an attorney in the arbitration in which the certificate was filed. In the absence of special circumstances, repeated appearances shall be grounds for disapproval of the appearance and disqualification from serving as an attorney in the arbitration in which the certificate was filed. (e) Within a reasonable period of time after the arbitrator, arbitrators, or arbitral forum approves the certificate, the attorney shall file the certificate with the State Bar of California and serve the certificate as described in Section 1013a on all parties and counsel in the arbitration whose address is known to the attorney. (f) An attorney who fails to file or serve the certificate required by this section or files or serves a certificate containing false information or who otherwise fails to comply with the standards of professional conduct required of members of the State Bar of California shall be subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the State Bar with respect to that certificate or any of his or her acts occurring in the course of the arbitration. (g) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, including Section 6125 of the Business and Professions Code, an attorney who is a member in good standing of the bar of any state may represent the parties in connection with rendering legal services in this state in the course of and in connection with an arbitration pending in another state. (h) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, including Section 6125 of the Business and Professions Code, any party to an arbitration arising under collective bargaining agreements in industries and provisions subject to either state or federal law may be represented in the course of, and in connection with, those proceedings by any person, regardless of whether that person is licensed to practice law in this state. (i) Nothing in this section shall apply to Division 4 (commencing with Section 3201) of the Labor Code. (j) (1) In enacting the amendments to this section made by Assembly Bill 2086 of the 1997-98 Regular Session, it is the intent of the Legislature to respond to the holding in Birbrower v. Superior Court (1998) 17 Cal.4th 117, as modified at 17 Cal.4th 643a (hereafter Birbrower), to provide a procedure for nonresident attorneys who are not licensed in this state to appear in California arbitration proceedings. (2) In enacting subdivision (h), it is the intent of the Legislature to make clear that any party to an arbitration arising under a collective bargaining agreement governed by the laws of this state may be represented in the course of and in connection with those proceedings by any person regardless of whether that person is licensed to practice law in this state. (3) Except as otherwise specifically provided in this section, in enacting the amendments to this section made by Assembly Bill 2086 of the 1997-98 Regular Session, it is the Legislature's intent that nothing in this section is intended to expand or restrict the ability of a party prior to the decision in Birbrower to elect to be represented by any person in a nonjudicial arbitration proceeding, to the extent those rights or abilities existed prior to that decision. To the extent that Birbrower is interpreted to expand or restrict that right or ability pursuant to the laws of this state, it is hereby abrogated except as specifically provided in this section. (4) In enacting subdivision (i), it is the intent of the Legislature to make clear that nothing in this section shall affect those provisions of law governing the right of injured workers to elect to be represented by any person, regardless of whether that person is licensed to practice law in this state, as set forth in Division 4 (commencing with Section 3200) of the Labor Code. (k) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2013, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2013, deletes or extends that date.


1282.4. (a) A party to the arbitration has the right to be represented by an attorney at any proceeding or hearing in arbitration under this title. A waiver of this right may be revoked; but if a party revokes the waiver, the other party is entitled to a reasonable continuance for the purpose of procuring an attorney. (b) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2013.


1282.6. (a) A subpoena requiring the attendance of witnesses, and a subpoena duces tecum for the production of books, records, documents and other evidence, at an arbitration proceeding or a deposition under Section 1283, and if Section 1283.05 is applicable, for the purposes of discovery, shall be issued as provided in this section. In addition, the neutral arbitrator upon his own determination may issue subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses and subpoenas duces tecum for the production of books, records, documents and other evidence. (b) Subpoenas shall be issued, as of course, signed but otherwise in blank, to the party requesting them, by a neutral association, organization, governmental agency, or office if the arbitration agreement provides for administration of the arbitration proceedings by, or under the rules of, a neutral association, organization, governmental agency or office or by the neutral arbitrator. (c) The party serving the subpoena shall fill it in before service. Subpeonas shall be served and enforced in accordance with Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1985) of Title 3 of Part 4 of this code.


1282.8. The neutral arbitrator may administer oaths.


1283. On application of a party to the arbitration, the neutral arbitrator may order the deposition of a witness to be taken for use as evidence and not for discovery if the witness cannot be compelled to attend the hearing or if exceptional circumstances exist as to make it desirable, in the interest of justice and with due regard to the importance of presenting the testimony of witnesses orally at the hearing, to allow the deposition to be taken. The deposition shall be taken in the manner prescribed by law for the taking of depositions in civil actions. If the neutral arbitrator orders the taking of the deposition of a witness who resides outside the state, the party who applied for the taking of the deposition shall obtain a commission, letters rogatory, or a letter of request therefor from the superior court in accordance with Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 2026.010) of Title 4 of Part 4.


1283.05. To the extent provided in Section 1283.1 depositions may be taken and discovery obtained in arbitration proceedings as follows: (a) After the appointment of the arbitrator or arbitrators, the parties to the arbitration shall have the right to take depositions and to obtain discovery regarding the subject matter of the arbitration, and, to that end, to use and exercise all of the same rights, remedies, and procedures, and be subject to all of the same duties, liabilities, and obligations in the arbitration with respect to the subject matter thereof, as provided in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1985) of Title 3 of Part 4, and in Title 4 (commencing with Section 2016.010) of Part 4, as if the subject matter of the arbitration were pending before a superior court of this state in a civil action other than a limited civil case, subject to the limitations as to depositions set forth in subdivision (e) of this section. (b) The arbitrator or arbitrators themselves shall have power, in addition to the power of determining the merits of the arbitration, to enforce the rights, remedies, procedures, duties, liabilities, and obligations of discovery by the imposition of the same terms, conditions, consequences, liabilities, sanctions, and penalties as can be or may be imposed in like circumstances in a civil action by a superior court of this state under the provisions of this code, except the power to order the arrest or imprisonment of a person. (c) The arbitrator or arbitrators may consider, determine, and make such orders imposing such terms, conditions, consequences, liabilities, sanctions, and penalties, whenever necessary or appropriate at any time or stage in the course of the arbitration, and such orders shall be as conclusive, final, and enforceable as an arbitration award on the merits, if the making of any such order that is equivalent to an award or correction of an award is subject to the same conditions, if any, as are applicable to the making of an award or correction of an award. (d) For the purpose of enforcing the duty to make discovery, to produce evidence or information, including books and records, and to produce persons to testify at a deposition or at a hearing, and to impose terms, conditions, consequences, liabilities, sanctions, and penalties upon a party for violation of any such duty, such party shall be deemed to include every affiliate of such party as defined in this section. For such purpose: (1) The personnel of every such affiliate shall be deemed to be the officers, directors, managing agents, agents, and employees of such party to the same degree as each of them, respectively, bears such status to such affiliate; and (2) The files, books, and records of every such affiliate shall be deemed to be in the possession and control of, and capable of production by, such party. As used in this section, "affiliate" of the party to the arbitration means and includes any party or person for whose immediate benefit the action or proceeding is prosecuted or defended, or an officer, director, superintendent, member, agent, employee, or managing agent of such party or person. (e) Depositions for discovery shall not be taken unless leave to do so is first granted by the arbitrator or arbitrators.


1283.1. (a) All of the provisions of Section 1283.05 shall be conclusively deemed to be incorporated into, made a part of, and shall be applicable to, every agreement to arbitrate any dispute, controversy, or issue arising out of or resulting from any injury to, or death of, a person caused by the wrongful act or neglect of another. (b) Only if the parties by their agreement so provide, may the provisions of Section 1283.05 be incorporated into, made a part of, or made applicable to, any other arbitration agreement.


1283.2. Except for the parties to the arbitration and their agents, officers and employees, all witnesses appearing pursuant to subpoena are entitled to receive fees and mileage in the same amount and under the same circumstances as prescribed by law for witnesses in civil actions in the superior court. The fee and mileage of a witness subpoenaed upon the application of a party to the arbitration shall be paid by such party. The fee and mileage of a witness subpoenaed soley upon the determination of the neutral arbitrator shall be paid in the manner provided for the payment of the neutral arbitrator's expenses.

1283.4. The award shall be in writing and signed by the arbitrators concurring therein. It shall include a determination of all the questions submitted to the arbitrators the decision of which is necessary in order to determine the controversy.


1283.6. The neutral arbitrator shall serve a signed copy of the award on each party to the arbitration personally or by registered or certified mail or as provided in the agreement.


1283.8. The award shall be made within the time fixed therefor by the agreement or, if not so fixed, within such time as the court orders on petition of a party to the arbitration. The parties to the arbitration may extend the time either before or after the expiration thereof. A party to the arbitration waives the objection that an award was not made within the time required unless he gives the arbitrators written notice of his objection prior to the service of a signed copy of the award on him.


1284. The arbitrators, upon written application of a party to the arbitration, may correct the award upon any of the grounds set forth in subdivisions (a) and (c) of Section 1286.6 not later than 30 days after service of a signed copy of the award on the applicant. Application for such correction shall be made not later than 10 days after service of a signed copy of the award on the applicant. Upon or before making such application, the applicant shall deliver or mail a copy of the application to all of the other parties to the arbitration. Any party to the arbitration may make written objection to such application. The objection shall be made not later than 10 days after the application is delivered or mailed to the objector. Upon or before making such objection, the objector shall deliver or mail a copy of the objection to the applicant and all the other parties to the arbitration. The arbitrators shall either deny the application or correct the award. The denial of the application or the correction of the award shall be in writing and signed by the arbitrators concurring therein, and the neutral arbitrator shall serve a signed copy of such denial or correction on each party to the arbitration personally or by registered or certified mail or as provided in the agreement. If no denial of the application or correction of the award is served within the 30-day period provided in this section, the application for correction shall be deemed denied on the last day thereof.


1284.2. Unless the arbitration agreement otherwise provides or the parties to the arbitration otherwise agree, each party to the arbitration shall pay his pro rata share of the expenses and fees of the neutral arbitrator, together with other expenses of the arbitration incurred or approved by the neutral arbitrator, not including counsel fees or witness fees or other expenses incurred by a party for his own benefit.


1284.3. (a) No neutral arbitrator or private arbitration company shall administer a consumer arbitration under any agreement or rule requiring that a consumer who is a party to the arbitration pay the fees and costs incurred by an opposing party if the consumer does not prevail in the arbitration, including, but not limited to, the fees and costs of the arbitrator, provider organization, attorney, or witnesses. (b) (1) All fees and costs charged to or assessed upon a consumer party by a private arbitration company in a consumer arbitration, exclusive of arbitrator fees, shall be waived for an indigent consumer. For the purposes of this section, "indigent consumer" means a person having a gross monthly income that is less than 300 percent of the federal poverty guidelines. Nothing in this section shall affect the ability of a private arbitration company to shift fees that would otherwise be charged or assessed upon a consumer party to a nonconsumer party. (2) Prior to requesting or obtaining any fee, a private arbitration company shall provide written notice of the right to obtain a waiver of fees to a consumer or prospective consumer in a manner calculated to bring the matter to the attention of a reasonable consumer, including, but not limited to, prominently placing a notice in its first written communication to the consumer and in any invoice, bill, submission form, fee schedule, rules, or code of procedure. (3) Any consumer requesting a waiver of fees or costs may establish his or her eligibility by making a declaration under oath on a form provided to the consumer by the private arbitration company for signature stating his or her monthly income and the number of persons living in his or her household. No private arbitration company may require a consumer to provide any further statement or evidence of indigence. (4) Any information obtained by a private arbitration company about a consumer's identity, financial condition, income, wealth, or fee waiver request shall be kept confidential and may not be disclosed to any adverse party or any nonparty to the arbitration, except a private arbitration company may not keep confidential the number of waiver requests received or granted, or the total amount of fees waived. (c) This section applies to all consumer arbitration agreements subject to this article, and to all consumer arbitration proceedings conducted in California.


Chapter 4. Enforcement Of The Award

Article 1. Confirmation, Correction Or Vacation Of The Award 1285-1287.6

Ca Codes (ccp:1285-1287.6) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1285-1287.6



1285. Any party to an arbitration in which an award has been made may petition the court to confirm, correct or vacate the award. The petition shall name as respondents all parties to the arbitration and may name as respondents any other persons bound by the arbitration award.

1285.2. A response to a petition under this chapter may request the court to dismiss the petition or to confirm, correct or vacate the award.

1285.4. A petition under this chapter shall: (a) Set forth the substance of or have attached a copy of the agreement to arbitrate unless the petitioner denies the existence of such an agreement. (b) Set forth names of the arbitrators. (c) Set forth or have attached a copy of the award and the written opinion of the arbitrators, if any.


1285.6. Unless a copy thereof is set forth in or attached to the petition, a response to a petition under this chapter shall: (a) Set forth the substance of or have attached a copy of the agreement to arbitrate unless the respondent denies the existence of such an agreement. (b) Set forth the names of the arbitrators. (c) Set forth or have attached a copy of the award and the written opinion of the arbitrators, if any.


1285.8. A petition to correct or vacate an award, or a response requesting such relief, shall set forth the grounds on which the request for such relief is based.


1286. If a petition or response under this chapter is duly served and filed, the court shall confirm the award as made, whether rendered in this state or another state, unless in accordance with this chapter it corrects the award and confirms it as corrected, vacates the award or dismisses the proceedings.


1286.2. (a) Subject to Section 1286.4, the court shall vacate the award if the court determines any of the following: (1) The award was procured by corruption, fraud or other undue means. (2) There was corruption in any of the arbitrators. (3) The rights of the party were substantially prejudiced by misconduct of a neutral arbitrator. (4) The arbitrators exceeded their powers and the award cannot be corrected without affecting the merits of the decision upon the controversy submitted. (5) The rights of the party were substantially prejudiced by the refusal of the arbitrators to postpone the hearing upon sufficient cause being shown therefor or by the refusal of the arbitrators to hear evidence material to the controversy or by other conduct of the arbitrators contrary to the provisions of this title. (6) An arbitrator making the award either: (A) failed to disclose within the time required for disclosure a ground for disqualification of which the arbitrator was then aware; or (B) was subject to disqualification upon grounds specified in Section 1281.91 but failed upon receipt of timely demand to disqualify himself or herself as required by that provision. However, this subdivision does not apply to arbitration proceedings conducted under a collective bargaining agreement between employers and employees or between their respective representatives. (b) Petitions to vacate an arbitration award pursuant to Section 1285 are subject to the provisions of Section 128.7.


1286.4. The court may not vacate an award unless: (a) A petition or response requesting that the award be vacated has been duly served and filed; or (b) A petition or response requesting that the award be corrected has been duly served and filed and; (1) All petitioners and respondents are before the court; or (2) All petitioners and respondents have been given reasonable notice that the court will be requested at the hearing to vacate the award or that the court on its own motion has determined to vacate the award and all petitioners and respondents have been given an opportunity to show why the award should not be vacated.


1286.6. Subject to Section 1286.8, the court, unless it vacates the award pursuant to Section 1286.2, shall correct the award and confirm it as corrected if the court determines that: (a) There was an evident miscalculation of figures or an evident mistake in the description of any person, thing or property referred to in the award; (b) The arbitrators exceeded their powers but the award may be corrected without affecting the merits of the decision upon the controversy submitted; or (c) The award is imperfect in a matter of form, not affecting the merits of the controversy.


1286.8. The court may not correct an award unless: (a) A petition or response requesting that the award be corrected has been duly served and filed; or (b) A petition or response requesting that the award be vacated has been duly served and filed and: (1) All petitioners and respondents are before the court; or (2) All petitioners and respondents have been given reasonable notice that the court will be requested at the hearing to correct the award or that the court on its own motion has determined to correct the award and all petitioners and respondents have been given an opportunity to show why the award should not be corrected.


1287. If the award is vacated, the court may order a rehearing before new arbitrators. If the award is vacated on the grounds set forth in subdivision (d) or (e) of Section 1286.2, the court with the consent of the parties to the court proceeding may order a rehearing before the original arbitrators. If the arbitration agreement requires that the award be made within a specified period of time, the rehearing may nevertheless be held and the award made within an equal period of time beginning with the date of the order for rehearing but only if the court determines that the purpose of the time limit agreed upon by the parties to the arbitration agreement will not be frustrated by the application of this provision.


1287.2. The court shall dismiss the proceeding under this chapter as to any person named as a respondent if the court determines that such person was not bound by the arbitration award and was not a party to the arbitration.

1287.4. If an award is confirmed, judgment shall be entered in conformity therewith. The judgment so entered has the same force and effect as, and is subject to all the provisions of law relating to, a judgment in a civil action of the same jurisdictional classification; and it may be enforced like any other judgment of the court in which it is entered, in an action of the same jurisdictional classification.


1287.6. An award that has not been confirmed or vacated has the same force and effect as a contract in writing between the parties to the arbitration.


Article 2. Limitations Of Time

Ca Codes (ccp:1288-1288.8) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1288-1288.8



1288. A petition to confirm an award shall be served and filed not later than four years after the date of service of a signed copy of the award on the petitioner. A petition to vacate an award or to correct an award shall be served and filed not later than 100 days after the date of the service of a signed copy of the award on the petitioner.


1288.2. A response requesting that an award be vacated or that an award be corrected shall be served and filed not later than 100 days after the date of service of a signed copy of the award upon: (a) The respondent if he was a party to the arbitration; or (b) The respondent's representative if the respondent was not a party to the arbitration.


1288.4. No petition may be served and filed under this chapter until at least 10 days after service of the signed copy of the award upon the petitioner.

1288.6. If an application is made to the arbitrators for correction of the award, a petition may not be served and filed under this chapter until the determination of that application.


1288.8. If an application is made to the arbitrators for correction of the award, the date of the service of the award for the purposes of this article shall be deemed to be whichever of the following dates is the earlier: (a) The date of service upon the petitioner of a signed copy of the correction of the award or of the denial of the application. (b) The date that such application is deemed to be denied under Section 1284.


Chapter 5. General Provisions Relating Tojudicial Proceedings

Article 1. Petitions And Responses

Ca Codes (ccp:1290-1291.2) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1290-1291.2



1290. A proceeding under this title in the courts of this State is commenced by filing a petition. Any person named as a respondent in a petition may file a response thereto. The allegations of a petition are deemed to be admitted by a respondent duly served therewith unless a response is duly served and filed. The allegations of a response are deemed controverted or avoided.


1290.2. A petition under this title shall be heard in a summary way in the manner and upon the notice provided by law for the making and hearing of motions, except that not less than 10 days' notice of the date set for the hearing on the petition shall be given.


1290.4. (a) A copy of the petition and a written notice of the time and place of the hearing thereof and any other papers upon which the petition is based shall be served in the manner provided in the arbitration agreement for the service of such petition and notice. (b) If the arbitration agreement does not provide the manner in which such service shall be made and the person upon whom service is to be made has not previously appeared in the proceeding and has not previously been served in accordance with this subdivision: (1) Service within this State shall be made in the manner provided by law for the service of summons in an action. (2) Service outside this State shall be made by mailing the copy of the petition and notice and other papers by registered or certified mail. Personal service is the equivalent of such service by mail. Proof of service by mail shall be made by affidavit showing such mailing together with the return receipt of the United States Post Office bearing the signature of the person on whom service was made. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, if service is made in the manner provided in this paragraph, the petition may not be heard until at least 30 days after the date of such service. (c) If the arbitration agreement does not provide the manner in which such service shall be made and the person on whom service is to be made has previously appeared in the proceeding or has previously been served in accordance with subdivision (b) of this section, service shall be made in the manner provided in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1010) of Title 14 of Part 2 of this code.


1290.6. A response shall be served and filed within 10 days after service of the petition except that if the petition is served in the manner provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 1290.4, the response shall be served and filed within 30 days after service of the petition. The time provided in this section for serving and filing a response may be extended by an agreement in writing between the parties to the court proceeding or, for good cause, by order of the court.


1290.8. A response shall be served as provided in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1010) of Title 14 of Part 2 of this code.


1291. A statement of decision shall be made by the court, if requested pursuant to Section 632, whenever an order or judgment, except a special order after final judgment, is made that is appealable under this title.


1291.2. In all proceedings brought under the provisions of this title, all courts wherein such proceedings are pending shall give such proceedings preference over all other civil actions or proceedings, except older matters of the same character and matters to which special precedence may be given by law, in the matter of setting the same for hearing and in hearing the same to the end that all such proceedings shall be quickly heard and determined.


Article 2. Venue, Jurisdiction And Costs

Ca Codes (ccp:1292-1293.2) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1292-1293.2



1292. Except as otherwise provided in this article, any petition made prior to the commencement of arbitration shall be filed in a court having jurisdiction in: (a) The county where the agreement is to be performed or was made. (b) If the agreement does not specify a county where the agreement is to be performed and the agreement was not made in any county in this state, the county where any party to the court proceeding resides or has a place of business. (c) In any case not covered by subdivision (a) or (b) of this section, in any county in this state.


1292.2. Except as otherwise provided in this article, any petition made after the commencement or completion of arbitration shall be filed in a court having jurisdiction in the county where the arbitration is being or has been held, or, if not held exclusively in any one county of this state, or if held outside of this state, then the petition shall be filed as provided in Section 1292.


1292.4. If a controversy referable to arbitration under an alleged agreement is involved in an action or proceeding pending in a superior court, a petition for an order to arbitrate shall be filed in such action or proceeding.

1292.6. After a petition has been filed under this title, the court in which such petition was filed retains jurisdiction to determine any subsequent petition involving the same agreement to arbitrate and the same controversy, and any such subsequent petition shall be filed in the same proceeding.


1292.8. A motion for a stay of an action on the ground that an issue therein is subject to arbitration shall be made in the court where the action is pending.


1293. The making of an agreement in this State providing for arbitration to be had within this State shall be deemed a consent of the parties thereto to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State to enforce such agreement by the making of any orders provided for in this title and by entering of judgment on an award under the agreement.


1293.2. The court shall award costs upon any judicial proceeding under this title as provided in Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 1021) of Title 14 of Part 2 of this code.


Article 3. Appeals

Ca Codes (ccp:1294-1294.2) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1294-1294.2



1294. An aggrieved party may appeal from: (a) An order dismissing or denying a petition to compel arbitration. (b) An order dismissing a petition to confirm, correct or vacate an award. (c) An order vacating an award unless a rehearing in arbitration is ordered. (d) A judgment entered pursuant to this title. (e) A special order after final judgment.


1294.2. The appeal shall be taken in the same manner as an appeal from an order or judgment in a civil action. Upon an appeal from any order or judgment under this title, the court may review the decision and any intermediate ruling, proceeding, order or decision which involves the merits or necessarily affects the order or judgment appealed from, or which substantially affects the rights of a party. The court may also on such appeal review any order on motion for a new trial. The respondent on the appeal, or party in whose favor the judgment or order was given may, without appealing from such judgment, request the court to and it may review any of the foregoing matters for the purpose of determining whether or not the appellant was prejudiced by the error or errors upon which he relies for reversal or modification of the judgment or order from which the appeal is taken. The provisions of this section do not authorize the court to review any decision or order from which an appeal might have been taken.


Title 9.1. Arbitration Of Medical Malpractice

Ca Codes (ccp:1295) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1295



1295. (a) Any contract for medical services which contains a provision for arbitration of any dispute as to professional negligence of a health care provider shall have such provision as the first article of the contract and shall be expressed in the following language: "It is understood that any dispute as to medical malpractice, that is as to whether any medical services rendered under this contract were unnecessary or unauthorized or were improperly, negligently or incompetently rendered, will be determined by submission to arbitration as provided by California law, and not by a lawsuit or resort to court process except as California law provides for judicial review of arbitration proceedings. Both parties to this contract, by entering into it, are giving up their constitutional right to have any such dispute decided in a court of law before a jury, and instead are accepting the use of arbitration." (b) Immediately before the signature line provided for the individual contracting for the medical services must appear the following in at least 10-point bold red type: "NOTICE: BY SIGNING THIS CONTRACT YOU ARE AGREEING TO HAVE ANY ISSUE OF MEDICAL MALPRACTICE DECIDED BY NEUTRAL ARBITRATION AND YOU ARE GIVING UP YOUR RIGHT TO A JURY OR COURT TRIAL. SEE ARTICLE 1 OF THIS CONTRACT." (c) Once signed, such a contract governs all subsequent open-book account transactions for medical services for which the contract was signed until or unless rescinded by written notice within 30 days of signature. Written notice of such rescission may be given by a guardian or conservator of the patient if the patient is incapacitated or a minor. (d) Where the contract is one for medical services to a minor, it shall not be subject to disaffirmance if signed by the minor's parent or legal guardian. (e) Such a contract is not a contract of adhesion, nor unconscionable nor otherwise improper, where it complies with subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) of this section. (f) Subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) shall not apply to any health care service plan contract offered by an organization registered pursuant to Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 12530) of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, or licensed pursuant to Chapter 2.2 (commencing with Section 1340) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety Code, which contains an arbitration agreement if the plan complies with paragraph (10) of subdivision (a) of Section 1363 of the Health and Safety Code, or otherwise has a procedure for notifying prospective subscribers of the fact that the plan has an arbitration provision, and the plan contracts conform to subdivision (h) of Section 1373 of the Health and Safety Code. (g) For the purposes of this section: (1) "Health care provider" means any person licensed or certified pursuant to Division 2 (commencing with Section 500) of the Business and Professions Code, or licensed pursuant to the Osteopathic Initiative Act, or the Chiropractic Initiative Act, or licensed pursuant to Chapter 2.5 (commencing with Section 1440) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety Code; and any clinic, health dispensary, or health facility, licensed pursuant to Division 2 (commencing with Section 1200) of the Health and Safety Code. "Health care provider" includes the legal representatives of a health care provider; (2) "Professional negligence" means a negligent act or omission to act by a health care provider in the rendering of professional services, which act or omission is the proximate cause of a personal injury or wrongful death, provided that such services are within the scope of services for which the provider is licensed and which are not within any restriction imposed by the licensing agency or licensed hospital.


Title 9.2. Public Construction Contract Arbitration

Ca Codes (ccp:1296) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1296



1296. The parties to a construction contract with a public agency may expressly agree in writing that in any arbitration to resolve a dispute relating to the contract, the arbitrator's award shall be supported by law and substantial evidence. If the agreement so provides, a court shall, subject to Section 1286.4, vacate the award if after review of the award it determines either that the award is not supported by substantial evidence or that it is based on an error of law.


Title 9.3. Arbitration And Conciliation Of International Commercial Disputes

Chapter 1. Application And Interpretation

Article 1. Scope Of Application

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.11-1297.17) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.11-1297.17



1297.11. This title applies to international commercial arbitration and conciliation, subject to any agreement which is in force between the United States and any other state or states.


1297.12. This title, except Article 2 (commencing with Section 1297.81) of Chapter 2 and Article 3 (commencing with Section 1297.91) of Chapter 2, applies only if the place of arbitration or conciliation is in the State of California.

1297.13. An arbitration or conciliation agreement is international if any of the following applies: (a) The parties to an arbitration or conciliation agreement have, at the time of the conclusion of that agreement, their places of business in different states. (b) One of the following places is situated outside the state in which the parties have their places of business: (i) The place of arbitration or conciliation if determined in, or pursuant to, the arbitration or conciliation agreement. (ii) Any place where a substantial part of the obligations of the commercial relationship is to be performed. (iii) The place with which the subject matter of the dispute is most closely connected. (c) The parties have expressly agreed that the subject matter of the arbitration or conciliation agreement relates to commercial interests in more than one state. (d) The subject matter of the arbitration or conciliation agreement is otherwise related to commercial interests in more than one state.

1297.14. For the purposes of Section 1297.13, if a party has more than one place of business, the place of business is that which has the closest relationship to the arbitration agreement, and if a party does not have a place of business, reference is to be made to his habitual residence.

1297.15. For the purposes of Section 1297.13, the states of the United States, including the District of Columbia, shall be considered one state.

1297.16. An arbitration or conciliation agreement is commercial if it arises out of a relationship of a commercial nature including, but not limited to, any of the following: (a) A transaction for the supply or exchange of goods or services. (b) A distribution agreement. (c) A commercial representation or agency. (d) An exploitation agreement or concession. (e) A joint venture or other, related form of industrial or business cooperation. (f) The carriage of goods or passengers by air, sea, rail, or road. (g) Construction. (h) Insurance. (i) Licensing. (j) Factoring. (k) Leasing. (l) Consulting. (m) Engineering. (n) Financing. (o) Banking. (p) The transfer of data or technology. (q) Intellectual or industrial property, including trademarks, patents, copyrights and software programs. (r) Professional services.

1297.17. This title shall not affect any other law in force in California by virtue of which certain disputes may not be submitted to arbitration or may be submitted to arbitration only in accordance with provisions other than those of this title. Notwithstanding the foregoing, this title supersedes Sections 1280 to 1284.2, inclusive, with respect to international commercial arbitration and conciliation.


Article 2. Interpretation

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.21-1297.24) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.21-1297.24



1297.21. For the purposes of this title: (a) "Arbitral award" means any decision of the arbitral tribunal on the substance of the dispute submitted to it and includes an interim, interlocutory, or partial arbitral award. (b) "Arbitral tribunal" means a sole arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators. (c) "Arbitration" means any arbitration whether or not administered by a permanent arbitral institution. (d) "Conciliation" means any conciliation whether or not administered by a permanent conciliation institution. (e) "Chief Justice" means the Chief Justice of California or his or her designee. (f) "Court" means a body or an organ of the judicial system of a state. (g) "Party" means a party to an arbitration or conciliation agreement. (h) "Superior court" means the superior court in the county in this state selected pursuant to Section 1297.61. (i) "Supreme Court" means the Supreme Court of California.


1297.22. Where a provision of this title, except Article 1 (commencing with Section 1297.281) of Chapter 6, leaves the parties free to determine a certain issue, such freedom includes the right of the parties to authorize a third party, including an institution, to make that determination.


1297.23. Where a provision of this title refers to the fact that the parties have agreed or that they may agree, or in any other way refers to an agreement of the parties, such agreement shall be deemed to include any arbitration or conciliation rules referred to in that agreement.

1297.24. Where this title, other than Article 8 (commencing with Section 1297. 251) of Chapter 5, Article 5 (commencing with Section 1297.321) of Chapter 6, or subdivision (a) of Section 1297.322, refers to a claim, it also applies to a counterclaim, and where it refers to a defense, it also applies to a defense to that counterclaim.


Article 3. Receipt Of Written Communications

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.31-1297.33) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.31-1297.33



1297.31. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, any written communication is deemed to have been received if it is delivered to the addressee personally or if it is delivered at his place of business, habitual residence, or mailing address, and the communication is deemed to have been received on the day it is so delivered.


1297.32. If none of the places referred to in Section 1297.31 can be found after making a reasonable inquiry, a written communication is deemed to have been received if it is sent to the addressee's last known place of business, habitual residence, or mailing address by registered mail or by any other means which provides a record of the attempt to deliver it.


1297.33. This article does not apply to written communications in respect of court proceedings.


Article 4. Waiver Of Right To Object

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.41-1297.42) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.41-1297.42



1297.41. A party who knows that any provision of this title, or any requirement under the arbitration agreement, has not been complied with and yet proceeds with the arbitration without stating his or her objection to noncompliance without undue delay or, if a time limit is provided for stating that objection, within that period of time, shall be deemed to have waived his right to object.


1297.42. For purposes of Section 1297.41, "any provision of this title" means any provision of this title in respect of which the parties may otherwise agree.


Article 5. Extent Of Judicial Intervention

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.51) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.51



1297.51. In matters governed by this title, no court shall intervene except where so provided in this title, or applicable federal law.


Article 6. Functions

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.61) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.61



1297.61. The functions referred to in Sections 1297.114, 1297.115, 1297.116, 1297.134, 1297.135, 1297.136, 1297.165, 1297.166, and 1297.167 shall be performed by the superior court of the county in which the place of arbitration is located. The functions referred to in Section 1297.81 shall be performed by the superior court selected pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 1292) of Chapter 5 of Title 9.


Chapter 2. Arbitration Agreements And Judicial Measures In Aid Of Arbitration

Article 1. Definition And Form Of Arbitration Agreements 1297.71-1297.72

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.71-1297.72) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.71-1297.72



1297.71. An "arbitration agreement" is an agreement by the parties to submit to arbitration all or certain disputes which have arisen or which may arise between them in respect of a defined legal relationship, whether contractual or not. An arbitration agreement may be in the form of an arbitration clause in a contract or in the form of a separate agreement.


1297.72. An arbitration agreement shall be in writing. An agreement is in writing if it is contained in a document signed by the parties or in an exchange of letters, telex, telegrams, or other means of telecommunication which provide a record of this agreement, or in an exchange of statements of claim and defense in which the existence of an agreement is alleged by one party and not denied by another. The reference in a contract to a document containing an arbitration clause constitutes an arbitration agreement provided that the contract is in writing and the reference is such as to make that clause part of the contract.


Article 2. Stay Of Proceedings

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.81-1297.82) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.81-1297.82



1297.81. When a party to an international commercial arbitration agreement as defined in this title commences judicial proceedings seeking relief with respect to a matter covered by the agreement to arbitrate, any other party to the agreement may apply to the superior court for an order to stay the proceedings and to compel arbitration.


1297.82. A timely request for a stay of judicial proceedings made under Section 1297.81 shall be granted.


Article 3. Interim Measures

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.91-1297.95) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.91-1297.95



1297.91. It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for a party to request from a superior court, before or during arbitral proceedings, an interim measure of protection, or for the court to grant such a measure.

1297.92. Any party to an arbitration governed by this title may request from the superior court enforcement of an award of an arbitral tribunal to take any interim measure of protection of an arbitral tribunal pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 1297.171) of Chapter 4. Enforcement shall be granted pursuant to the law applicable to the granting of the type of interim relief requested.

1297.93. Measures which the court may grant in connection with a pending arbitration include, but are not limited to: (a) An order of attachment issued to assure that the award to which applicant may be entitled is not rendered ineffectual by the dissipation of party assets. (b) A preliminary injunction granted in order to protect trade secrets or to conserve goods which are the subject matter of the arbitral dispute.


1297.94. In considering a request for interim relief, the court shall give preclusive effect to any and all findings of fact of the arbitral tribunal including the probable validity of the claim which is the subject of the award for interim relief and which the arbitral tribunal has previously granted in the proceeding in question, provided that such interim award is consistent with public policy.


1297.95. Where the arbitral tribunal has not ruled on an objection to its jurisdiction, the court shall not grant preclusive effect to the tribunal's findings until the court has made an independent finding as to the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal. If the court rules that the arbitral tribunal did not have jurisdiction, the application for interim measures of relief shall be denied. Such a ruling by the court that the arbitral tribunal lacks jurisdiction is not binding on the arbitral tribunal or subsequent judicial proceeding.


Chapter 3. Composition Of Arbitral Tribunals

Article 1. Number Of Arbitrators

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.101) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.101



1297.101. The parties may agree on the number of arbitrators. Otherwise, there shall be one arbitrator.


Article 2. Appointment Of Arbitrators

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.111-1297.119) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.111-1297.119



1297.111. A person of any nationality may be an arbitrator.


1297.112. Subject to Sections 1297.115 and 1297.116, the parties may agree on a procedure for appointing the arbitral tribunal.


1297.113. Failing such agreement referred to in Section 1297.112, in an arbitration with three arbitrators and two parties, each party shall appoint one arbitrator, and the two appointed arbitrators shall appoint the third arbitrator.

1297.114. If the appointment procedure in Section 1297.113 applies and either a party fails to appoint an arbitrator within 30 days after receipt of a request to do so from the other party, or the two appointed arbitrators fail to agree on the third arbitrator within 30 days after their appointment, the appointment shall be made, upon request of a party, by the superior court.


1297.115. Failing any agreement referred to in Section 1297.112, in an arbitration with a sole arbitrator, if the parties fail to agree on the arbitrator, the appointment shall be made, upon request of a party, by the superior court.

1297.116. The superior court, upon the request of a party, may take the necessary measures, unless the agreement on the appointment procedure provides other means for securing the appointment, where, under an appointment procedure agreed upon by the parties, any of the following occurs: (a) A party fails to act as required under that procedure. (b) The parties, or two appointed arbitrators, fail to reach an agreement expected of them under that procedure. (c) A third party, including an institution, fails to perform any function entrusted to it under that procedure.


1297.117. A decision on a matter entrusted to the superior court pursuant to Sections 1297.114, 127.115, and 1297.116 is final and is not subject to appeal.

1297.118. The superior court, in appointing an arbitrator, shall have due regard to all of the following: (a) Any qualifications required of the arbitrator by the agreement of the parties. (b) Other considerations as are likely to secure the appointment of an independent and impartial arbitrator. (c) In the case of a sole or third arbitrator, the advisability of appointing an arbitrator of a nationality other than those of the parties.

1297.119. An arbitrator has the immunity of a judicial officer from civil liability when acting in the capacity of arbitrator under any statute or contract. The immunity afforded by this section shall supplement, and not supplant, any otherwise applicable common law or statutory immunity.


Article 3. Grounds For Challenge

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.121-1297.125) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.121-1297.125



1297.121. Except as otherwise provided in this title, all persons whose names have been submitted for consideration for appointment or designation as arbitrators or conciliators, or who have been appointed or designated as such, shall, within 15 days, make a disclosure to the parties of any information which might cause their impartiality to be questioned including, but not limited to, any of the following instances: (a) The person has a personal bias or prejudice concerning a party, or personal knowledge of disputed evidentiary facts concerning the proceeding. (b) The person served as a lawyer in the matter in controversy, or the person is or has been associated with another who has participated in the matter during such association, or he or she has been a material witness concerning it. (c) The person served as an arbitrator or conciliator in another proceeding involving one or more of the parties to the proceeding. (d) The person, individually or a fiduciary, or such person's spouse or minor child residing in such person's household, has a financial interest in the subject matter in controversy or in a party to the proceeding, or any other interest that could be substantially affected by the outcome of the proceeding. (e) The person, his or her spouse, or a person within the third degree of relationship to either of them, or the spouse of such a person meets any of the following conditions: (i) The person is or has been a party to the proceeding, or an officer, director, or trustee of a party. (ii) The person is acting or has acted as a lawyer in the proceeding. (iii) The person is known to have an interest that could be substantially affected by the outcome of the proceeding. (iv) The person is likely to be a material witness in the proceeding. (f) The person has a close personal or professional relationship with a person who meets any of the following conditions: (i) The person is or has been a party to the proceeding, or an officer, director, or trustee of a party. (ii) The person is acting or has acted as a lawyer or representative in the proceeding. (iii) The person is or expects to be nominated as an arbitrator or conciliator in the proceedings. (iv) The person is known to have an interest that could be substantially affected by the outcome of the proceeding. (v) The person is likely to be a material witness in the proceeding.


1297.122. The obligation to disclose information set forth in Section 1297.121 is mandatory and cannot be waived as to the parties with respect to persons serving either as the sole arbitrator or sole conciliator or as the chief or prevailing arbitrator or conciliator. The parties may otherwise agree to waive such disclosure.


1297.123. From the time of appointment and throughout the arbitral proceedings, an arbitrator, shall, without delay, disclose to the parties any circumstances referred to in Section 1297.121 which were not previously disclosed.

1297.124. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties or the rules governing the arbitration, an arbitrator may be challenged only if circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as to his or her independence or impartiality, or as to his or her possession of the qualifications upon which the parties have agreed.


1297.125. A party may challenge an arbitrator appointed by it, or in whose appointment it has participated, only for reasons of which it becomes aware after the appointment has been made.


Article 4. Challenge Procedure

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.131-1297.136) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.131-1297.136



1297.131. The parties may agree on a procedure for challenging an arbitrator and the decision reached pursuant to that procedure shall be final.

1297.132. Failing any agreement referred to in Section 1297.131, a party which intends to challenge an arbitrator shall, within 15 days after becoming aware of the constitution of the arbitral tribunal or after becoming aware of any circumstances referred to in Sections 1297.124 and 1297.125, whichever shall be later, send a written statement of the reasons for the challenge to the arbitral tribunal.


1297.133. Unless the arbitrator challenged under Section 1297.132 withdraws from his or her office or the other party agrees to the challenge, the arbitral tribunal shall decide on the challenge.


1297.134. If a challenge following the procedure under Section 1297.133 is not successful, the challenging party may request the superior court, within 30 days after having received notice of the decision rejecting the challenge, to decide on the challenge. If a challenge is based upon the grounds set forth in Section 1297.121, and the superior court determines that the facts support a finding that such ground or grounds fairly exist, then the challenge should be sustained.


1297.135. The decision of the superior court under Section 1297.134 is final and is not subject to appeal.


1297.136. While a request under Section 1297.134 is pending, the arbitral tribunal, including the challenged arbitrator, may continue with the arbitral proceedings and make an arbitral award.


Article 5. Failure Or Impossibility To Act

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.141-1297.144) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.141-1297.144



1297.141. The mandate of an arbitrator terminates if he becomes de jure or de facto unable to perform his or her functions or for other reasons fails to act without undue delay, and he withdraws from his or her office or the parties agree to the termination of his or her mandate.

1297.142. If a controversy remains concerning any of the grounds referred to in Section 1297.141, a party may request the superior court to decide on the termination of the mandate.


1297.143. A decision of the superior court under Section 1297.142 is not subject to appeal.


1297.144. If, under this section or Section 1297.132, an arbitrator withdraws from office or a party agrees to the termination of the mandate of an arbitrator, this does not imply acceptance of the validity of any ground referred to in Section 1297.132.


Article 6. Termination Of Mandate And Substitution Of Arbitrators

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.151-1297.154) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.151-1297.154



1297.151. In addition to the circumstances referred to under Article 4 (commencing with Section 1297.131) and Article 5 (commencing with Section 1297.141) of this chapter, the mandate of an arbitrator terminates upon his or her withdrawal from office for any reason, or by or pursuant to agreement of the parties.


1297.152. Where the mandate of an arbitrator terminates, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed according to the rules that were applicable to the appointment of the arbitrator being replaced.


1297.153. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties: (a) Where the sole or presiding arbitrator is replaced, any hearings previously held shall be repeated. (b) Where an arbitrator other than the sole or presiding arbitrator is replaced, any hearings previously held may be repeated at the discretion of the arbitral tribunal.


1297.154. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, an order or ruling of the arbitral tribunal made prior to the replacement of an arbitrator under this section is not invalid because there has been a change in the composition of the tribunal.


Chapter 4. Jurisdiction Of Arbitral Tribunals

Article 1. Competence Of An Arbitral Tribunal To Rule On Its Jurisdiction

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.161-1297.167) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.161-1297.167



1297.161. The arbitral tribunal may rule on its own jurisdiction, including ruling on any objections with respect to the existence or validity of the arbitration agreement, and for that purpose, an arbitration clause which forms part of a contract shall be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract, and a decision by the arbitral tribunal that the contract is null and void shall not entail ipso jure the invalidity of the arbitration clause.


1297.162. A plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction shall be raised not later than the submission of the statement of defense. However, a party is not precluded from raising such a plea by the fact that he or she has appointed, or participated in the appointment of, an arbitrator.


1297.163. A plea that the arbitral tribunal is exceeding the scope of its authority shall be raised as soon as the matter alleged to be beyond the scope of its authority is raised during the arbitral proceedings.

1297.164. The arbitral tribunal may, in either of the cases referred to in Sections 1297.162 and 1297.163, admit a later plea if it considers the delay justified.


1297.165. The arbitral tribunal may rule on a plea referred to in Sections 1297.162 and 1297.163 either as a preliminary question or in an award on the merits.


1297.166. If the arbitral tribunal rules as a preliminary question that it has jurisdiction, any party shall request the superior court, within 30 days after having received notice of that ruling, to decide the matter or shall be deemed to have waived objection to such finding.


1297.167. While a request under Section 1297.166 is pending, the arbitral tribunal may continue with the arbitral proceedings and make an arbitral award.


Article 2. Interim Measures Ordered By Arbitral Tribunals

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.171-1297.172) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.171-1297.172



1297.171. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may, at the request of a party, order a party to take any interim measure of protection as the arbitral tribunal may consider necessary in respect of the subject matter of the dispute.


1297.172. The arbitral tribunal may require a party to provide appropriate security in connection with a measure ordered under Section 1297.171.


Chapter 5. Manner And Conduct Of Arbitration

Article 1. Equal Treatment Of Parties

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.181) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.181



1297.181. The parties shall be treated with equality and each party shall be given a full opportunity to present his or her case.


Article 2. Determination Of Rules Of Procedure

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.191-1297.193) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.191-1297.193



1297.191. Subject to this title, the parties may agree on the procedure to be followed by the arbitral tribunal in conducting the proceedings.

1297.192. Failing any agreement referred to in Section 1297.191, the arbitral tribunal may, subject to this title, conduct the arbitration in the manner it considers appropriate.


1297.193. The power of the arbitral tribunal under Section 1297.192 includes the power to determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality, and weight of any evidence.


Article 3. Place Of Arbitration

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.201-1297.203) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.201-1297.203



1297.201. The parties may agree on the place of arbitration.


1297.202. Failing any agreement referred to in Section 1297.201, the place of arbitration shall be determined by the arbitral tribunal having regard to the circumstances of the case, including the convenience of the parties.

1297.203. Notwithstanding Section 1297.201, the arbitral tribunal may, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, meet at any place it considers appropriate for consultation among its members, for hearing witnesses, experts, or the parties, or for inspection of documents, goods, or other property.


Article 4. Commencement Of Arbitral Proceedings

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.211) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.211



1297.211. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral proceedings in respect of a particular dispute commence on the date on which a request for that dispute to be referred to arbitration is received by the respondent.


Article 5. Language

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.221-1297.224) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.221-1297.224



1297.221. The parties may agree upon the language or languages to be used in the arbitral proceedings.


1297.222. Failing any agreement referred to in Section 1297.221, the arbitral tribunal shall determine the language or languages to be used in the arbitral proceedings.


1297.223. The agreement or determination, unless otherwise specified, shall apply to any written statement by a party, any hearing, and any arbitral award, decision, or other communication by the arbitral tribunal.

1297.224. The arbitral tribunal may order that any documentary evidence shall be accompanied by a translation into the language or languages agreed upon by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal.


Article 6. Statements Of Claim And Defense

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.231-1297.233) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.231-1297.233



1297.231. Within the period of time agreed upon by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal, the claimant shall state the facts supporting his or her claim, the points at issue, and the relief or remedy sought, and the respondent shall state his or her defense in respect of these particulars, unless the parties have otherwise agreed as to the required elements of those statements.


1297.232. The parties may submit with their statements all documents they consider to be relevant or may add a reference to the documents or other evidence they will submit.


1297.233. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, either party may amend or supplement his or her claim or defense during the course of the arbitral proceedings, unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate to allow the amendment or supplement having regard to the delay in making it.


Article 7. Hearings And Written Proceedings

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.241-1297.245) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.241-1297.245



1297.241. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall decide whether to hold oral hearings for the presentation of evidence or for oral argument, or whether the proceedings shall be conducted on the basis of documents and other materials.


1297.242. Unless the parties have agreed that no oral hearings shall be held, the arbitral tribunal shall hold oral hearings at an appropriate state of the proceedings, if so requested by a party.


1297.243. The parties shall be given sufficient advance notice of any hearing and of any meeting of the arbitral tribunal for the purpose of inspection of documents, goods, or other property.


1297.244. All statements, documents, or other information supplied to, or applications made to, the arbitral tribunal by one party shall be communicated to the other party, and any expert report or evidentiary document on which the arbitral tribunal may rely in making its decision shall be communicated to the parties.


1297.245. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, all oral hearings and meetings in arbitral proceedings shall be held in camera.


Article 8. Default Of A Party

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.251-1297.253) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.251-1297.253



1297.251. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, where, without showing sufficient cause, the claimant fails to communicate his or her statement of claim in accordance with Sections 1297.231 and 1297.232, the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings.


1297.252. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, where, without showing sufficient cause, the respondent fails to communicate his or her statement of defense in accordance with Sections 1297.231 and 1297.232, the arbitral tribunal shall continue the proceedings without treating that failure in itself as an admission of the claimant's allegations.


1297.253. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, where, without showing sufficient cause, a party fails to appear at an oral hearing or to produce documentary evidence, the arbitral tribunal may continue with the proceedings and make the arbitral award on the evidence before it.


Article 9. Expert Appointed By Arbitral Tribunal

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.261-1297.262) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.261-1297.262



1297.261. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may appoint one or more experts to report to it on specific issues to be determined by the arbitral tribunal, and require a party to give the expert any relevant information or to produce, or to provide access to, any relevant documents, goods, or other property for his or her inspection.


1297.262. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if a party so requests or if the arbitral tribunal considers it necessary, the expert shall, after delivery of his or her written or oral report, participate in an oral hearing where the parties have the opportunity to question the expert and to present expert witnesses on the points at issue.


Article 10. Court Assistance In Taking Evidence And Consolidating Arbitrations

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.271-1297.273) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.271-1297.273



1297.271. The arbitral tribunal, or a party with the approval of the arbitral tribunal, may request from the superior court assistance in taking evidence and the court may execute the request within its competence and according to its rules on taking evidence. In addition, a subpoena may issue as provided in Section 1282.6, in which case the witness compensation provisions of Section 1283.2 shall apply.


1297.272. Where the parties to two or more arbitration agreements have agreed, in their respective arbitration agreements or otherwise, to consolidate the arbitrations arising out of those arbitration agreements, the superior court may, on application by one party with the consent of all the other parties to those arbitration agreements, do one or more of the following: (a) Order the arbitrations to be consolidated on terms the court considers just and necessary. (b) Where all the parties cannot agree on an arbitral tribunal for the consolidated arbitration, appoint an arbitral tribunal in accordance with Section 1297.118. (c) Where all the parties cannot agree on any other matter necessary to conduct the consolidated arbitration, make any other order it considers necessary.

1297.273. Nothing in this article shall be construed to prevent the parties to two or more arbitrations from agreeing to consolidate those arbitrations and taking any steps that are necessary to effect that consolidation.


Chapter 6. Making Of Arbitral Award And Termination Of Proceedings

Article 1. Rules Applicable To Substance Of Dispute

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.281-1297.285) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.281-1297.285



1297.281. The arbitral tribunal shall decide the dispute in accordance with the rules of law designated by the parties as applicable to the substance of the dispute.


1297.282. Any designation by the parties of the law or legal system of a given state shall be construed, unless otherwise expressed, as directly referring to the substantive law of that state and not to its conflict of laws rules.

1297.283. Failing any designation of the law under Section 1297.282 by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall apply the rules of law it considers to be appropriate given all the circumstances surrounding the dispute.

1297.284. The arbitral tribunal shall decide ex aequo et bono or as amiable compositeur, if the parties have expressly authorized it to do so.

1297.285. In all cases, the arbitral tribunal shall decide in accordance with the terms of the contract and shall take into account the usages of the trade applicable to the transaction.


Article 2. Decisionmaking By Panel Of Arbitrators

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.291) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.291



1297.291. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, in arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, any decision of the arbitral tribunal shall be made by a majority of all of its members. Notwithstanding this section, if authorized by the parties or all the members of the arbitral tribunal, questions of procedure may be decided by a presiding arbitrator.


Article 3. Settlement

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.301-1297.304) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.301-1297.304



1297.301. It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for an arbitral tribunal to encourage settlement of the dispute and, with the agreement of the parties, the arbitral tribunal may use mediation, conciliation, or other procedures at any time during the arbitral proceedings to encourage settlement.


1297.302. If, during arbitral proceedings, the parties settle the dispute, the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings and, if requested by the parties and not objected to by the arbitral tribunal, record the settlement in the form of an arbitral award on agreed terms.


1297.303. An arbitral award on agreed terms shall be made in accordance with Article 4 (commencing with Section 1297.311) of this chapter and shall state that it is an arbitral award.


1297.304. An arbitral award on agreed terms has the same status and effect as any other arbitral award on the substance of the dispute.


Article 4. Form And Content Of Arbitral Award

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.311-1297.318) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.311-1297.318



1297.311. An arbitral award shall be made in writing and shall be signed by the members of the arbitral tribunal.


1297.312. For the purposes of Section 1297.311, in arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, the signatures of the majority of all the members of the arbitral tribunal shall be sufficient so long as the reason for any omitted signature is stated.


1297.313. The arbitral award shall state the reasons upon which it is based, unless the parties have agreed that no reasons are to be given, or the award is an arbitral award on agreed terms under Article 3 (commencing with Section 1297.301) of this chapter.


1297.314. The arbitral award shall state its date and the place of arbitration as determined in accordance with Article 3 (commencing with Section 1297.201) of Chapter 5 and the award shall be deemed to have been made at that place.

1297.315. After the arbitral award is made, a signed copy shall be delivered to each party.


1297.316. The arbitral tribunal may, at any time during the arbitral proceedings, make an interim arbitral award on any matter with respect to which it may make a final arbitral award. The interim award may be enforced in the same manner as a final arbitral award.


1297.317. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may award interest.


1297.318. (a) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the costs of an arbitration shall be at the discretion of the arbitral tribunal. (b) In making an order for costs, the arbitral tribunal may include as costs any of the following: (1) The fees and expenses of the arbitrators and expert witnesses. (2) Legal fees and expenses. (3) Any administration fees of the institution supervising the arbitration, if any. (4) Any other expenses incurred in connection with the arbitral proceedings. (c) In making an order for costs, the arbitral tribunal may specify any of the following: (1) The party entitled to costs. (2) The party who shall pay the costs. (3) The amount of costs or method of determining that amount. (4) The manner in which the costs shall be paid.


Article 5. Termination Of Proceedings

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.321-1297.323) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.321-1297.323



1297.321. The arbitral proceedings are terminated by the final arbitral award or by an order of the arbitral tribunal under Section 1297.322. The award shall be final upon the expiration of the applicable periods in Article 6 (commencing with Section 1297.331) of this chapter.


1297.322. The arbitral tribunal shall issue an order for the termination of the arbitral proceedings where any of the following occurs: (a) The claimant withdraws his or her claim, unless the respondent objects to the order and the arbitral tribunal recognizes a legitimate interest on the respondent's part in obtaining a final settlement of the dispute. (b) The parties agree on the termination of the proceedings. (c) The arbitral tribunal finds that the continuation of the proceedings has for any other reason become unnecessary or impossible.

1297.323. Subject to Article 6 (commencing with Section 1297.331) of this chapter, the mandate of the arbitral tribunal terminates with the termination of the arbitral proceedings.


Article 6. Correction And Interpretation Of Awards And Additional Awards

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.331-1297.337) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.331-1297.337



1297.331. Within 30 days after receipt of the arbitral award, unless another period of time has been agreed upon by the parties: (a) A party may request the arbitral tribunal to correct in the arbitral award any computation errors, any clerical or typographical errors, or any other errors of a similar nature. (b) A party may, if agreed by the parties, request the arbitral tribunal to give an interpretation of a specific point or part of the arbitral award.

1297.332. If the arbitral tribunal considers any request made under Section 1297.331 to be justified, it shall make the correction or give the interpretation within 30 days after receipt of the request and the interpretation shall form part of the arbitral award.


1297.333. The arbitral tribunal may correct any error of the type referred to in subdivision (a) of Section 1297.331, on its own initiative, within 30 days after the date of the arbitral award.


1297.334. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a party may request, within 30 days after receipt of the arbitral award, the arbitral tribunal to make an additional arbitral award as to the claims presented in the arbitral proceedings but omitted from the arbitral award.


1297.335. If the arbitral tribunal considers any request made under Section 1297.334 to be justified, it shall make the additional arbitral award within 60 days after receipt of the request.


1297.336. The arbitral tribunal may extend, if necessary, the period of time within which it shall make a correction, give an interpretation, or make an additional arbitral award under Section 1297.331 or 1297.334.

1297.337. Article 4 (commencing with Section 1297.311) of this chapter applies to a correction or interpretation of the arbitral award or to an additional arbitral award made under this section.


Chapter 7. Conciliation

Article 1. Appointment Of Conciliators

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.341-1297.343) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.341-1297.343



1297.341. It is the policy of the State of California to encourage parties to an international commercial agreement or transaction which qualifies for arbitration or conciliation pursuant to Section 1297.13, to resolve disputes arising from such agreements or transactions through conciliation. The parties may select or permit an arbitral tribunal or other third party to select one or more persons to serve as the conciliator or conciliators who shall assist the parties in an independent and impartial manner in their attempt to reach an amicable settlement of their dispute.


1297.342. The conciliator or conciliators shall be guided by principles of objectivity, fairness, and justice, giving consideration to, among other things, the rights and obligations of the parties, the usages of the trade concerned and the circumstances surrounding the dispute, including any previous practices between the parties.


1297.343. The conciliator or conciliators may conduct the conciliation proceedings in such a manner as they consider appropriate, taking into account the circumstances of the case, the wishes of the parties, and the desirability of a speedy settlement of the dispute. Except as otherwise provided in this title, other provisions of this code, the Evidence Code, or the California Rules of Court, shall not apply to conciliation proceedings brought under this title.


Article 2. Representation And Assistance

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.351) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.351



1297.351. The parties may appear in person or be represented or assisted by any person of their choice. A person assisting or representing a party need not be a member of the legal profession or licensed to practice law in California.


Article 3. Report Of Conciliators

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.361-1297.362) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.361-1297.362



1297.361. At any time during the proceedings, the conciliator or conciliators may prepare a draft conciliation settlement which may include the assessment and apportionment of costs between the parties, and send copies to the parties, specifying the time within which they must signify their approval.


1297.362. No party may be required to accept any settlement proposed by the conciliator or conciliators.


Article 4. Confidentiality

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.371) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.371



1297.371. When persons agree to participate in conciliation under this title: (a) Evidence of anything said or of any admission made in the course of the conciliation is not admissible in evidence, and disclosure of any such evidence shall not be compelled, in any civil action in which, pursuant to law, testimony may be compelled to be given. However, this subdivision does not limit the admissibility of evidence if all parties participating in conciliation consent to its disclosure. (b) In the event that any such evidence is offered in contravention of this section, the arbitration tribunal or the court shall make any order which it considers to be appropriate to deal with the matter, including, without limitation, orders restricting the introduction of evidence, or dismissing the case without prejudice. (c) Unless the document otherwise provides, no document prepared for the purpose of, or in the course of, or pursuant to, the conciliation, or any copy thereof, is admissible in evidence, and disclosure of any such document shall not be compelled, in any arbitration or civil action in which, pursuant to law, testimony may be compelled to be given.


Article 5. Stay Of Arbitration And Resort To Other Proceedings

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.381-1297.382) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.381-1297.382



1297.381. The agreement of the parties to submit a dispute to conciliation shall be deemed an agreement between or among those parties to stay all judicial or arbitral proceedings from the commencement of conciliation until the termination of conciliation proceedings.


1297.382. All applicable limitation periods including periods of prescription shall be tolled or extended upon the commencement of conciliation proceedings to conciliate a dispute under this title and all limitation periods shall remain tolled and periods of prescription extended as to all parties to the conciliation proceedings until the 10th day following the termination of conciliation proceedings. For purposes of this article, conciliation proceedings are deemed to have commenced as soon as (a) a party has requested conciliation of a particular dispute or disputes, and (b) the other party or parties agree to participate in the conciliation proceeding.


Article 6. Termination

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.391-1297.394) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.391-1297.394



1297.391. The conciliation proceedings may be terminated as to all parties by any of the following: (a) A written declaration of the conciliator or conciliators, after consultation with the parties, to the effect that further efforts at conciliation are no longer justified, on the date of the declaration. (b) A written declaration of the parties addressed to the conciliator or conciliators to the effect that the conciliation proceedings are terminated, on the date of the declaration. (c) The signing of a settlement agreement by all of the parties, on the date of the agreement.


1297.392. The conciliation proceedings may be terminated as to particular parties by either of the following: (a) A written declaration of a party to the other party and the conciliator or conciliators, if appointed, to the effect that the conciliation proceedings shall be terminated as to that particular party, on the date of the declaration. (b) The signing of a settlement agreement by some of the parties, on the date of the agreement.


1297.393. No person who has served as conciliator may be appointed as an arbitrator for, or take part in any arbitral or judicial proceedings in, the same dispute unless all parties manifest their consent to such participation or the rules adopted for conciliation or arbitration otherwise provide.


1297.394. By submitting to conciliation, no party shall be deemed to have waived any rights or remedies which that party would have had if conciliation had not been initiated, other than those set forth in any settlement agreement which results from the conciliation.


Article 7. Enforceability Of Decree

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.401) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.401



1297.401. If the conciliation succeeds in settling the dispute, and the result of the conciliation is reduced to writing and signed by the conciliator or conciliators and the parties or their representatives, the written agreement shall be treated as an arbitral award rendered by an arbitral tribunal duly constituted in and pursuant to the laws of this state, and shall have the same force and effect as a final award in arbitration.


Article 8. Costs

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.411-1297.412) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.411-1297.412



1297.411. Upon termination of the conciliation proceedings, the conciliator shall fix the costs of the conciliation and give written notice thereof to the parties. As used in this article, "costs" includes only the following: (a) A reasonable fee to be paid to the conciliator or conciliators. (b) The travel and other reasonable expenses of the conciliator or conciliators. (c) The travel and other reasonable expenses of witnesses requested by the conciliator or conciliators with the consent of the parties. (d) The cost of any expert advice requested by the conciliator or conciliators with the consent of the parties. (e) The cost of any court.


1297.412. These costs shall be borne equally by the parties unless the settlement agreement provides for a different apportionment. All other expenses incurred by a party shall be borne by that party.


Article 9. Effect On Jurisdiction

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.421) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.421



1297.421. Neither the request for conciliation, the consent to participate in the conciliation proceedings, the participation in such proceedings, nor the entering into a conciliation agreement or settlement shall be deemed as consent to the jurisdiction of any court in this state in the event conciliation fails.


Article 10. Immunity Of Conciliators And Parties

Ca Codes (ccp:1297.431-1297.432) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1297.431-1297.432



1297.431. Neither the conciliator or conciliators, the parties, nor their representatives shall be subject to service of process on any civil matter while they are present in this state for the purpose of arranging for or participating in conciliation pursuant to this title.


1297.432. No person who serves as a conciliator shall be held liable in an action for damages resulting from any act or omission in the performance of his or her role as a conciliator in any proceeding subject to this title.


Title 9.4. Real Estate Contract Arbitration

Ca Codes (ccp:1298-1298.8) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1298-1298.8



1298. (a) Whenever any contract to convey real property, or contemplated to convey real property in the future, including marketing contracts, deposit receipts, real property sales contracts as defined in Section 2985 of the Civil Code, leases together with options to purchase, or ground leases coupled with improvements, but not including powers of sale contained in deeds of trust or mortgages, contains a provision for binding arbitration of any dispute between the principals in the transaction, the contract shall have that provision clearly titled "ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES." If a provision for binding arbitration is included in a printed contract, it shall be set out in at least 8-point bold type or in contrasting red in at least 8-point type, and if the provision is included in a typed contract, it shall be set out in capital letters. (b) Whenever any contract or agreement between principals and agents in real property sales transactions, including listing agreements, as defined in Section 1086 of the Civil Code, contains a provision requiring binding arbitration of any dispute between the principals and agents in the transaction, the contract or agreement shall have that provision clearly titled "ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES." If a provision for binding arbitration is included in a printed contract, it shall be set out in at least 8-point bold type or in contrasting red in at least 8-point type, and if the provision is included in a typed contract, it shall be set out in capital letters. (c) Immediately before the line or space provided for the parties to indicate their assent or nonassent to the arbitration provision described in subdivision (a) or (b), and immediately following that arbitration provision, the following shall appear: "NOTICE: BY INITIALLING IN THE SPACE BELOW YOU ARE AGREEING TO HAVE ANY DISPUTE ARISING OUT OF THE MATTERS INCLUDED IN THE "ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES' PROVISION DECIDED BY NEUTRAL ARBITRATION AS PROVIDED BY CALIFORNIA LAW AND YOU ARE GIVING UP ANY RIGHTS YOU MIGHT POSSESS TO HAVE THE DISPUTE LITIGATED IN A COURT OR JURY TRIAL. BY INITIALLING IN THE SPACE BELOW YOU ARE GIVING UP YOUR JUDICIAL RIGHTS TO DISCOVERY AND APPEAL, UNLESS THOSE RIGHTS ARE SPECIFICALLY INCLUDED IN THE "ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES' PROVISION. IF YOU REFUSE TO SUBMIT TO ARBITRATION AFTER AGREEING TO THIS PROVISION, YOU MAY BE COMPELLED TO ARBITRATE UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE CALIFORNIA CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE. YOUR AGREEMENT TO THIS ARBITRATION PROVISION IS VOLUNTARY." "WE HAVE READ AND UNDERSTAND THE FOREGOING AND AGREE TO SUBMIT DISPUTES ARISING OUT OF THE MATTERS INCLUDED IN THE "ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES' PROVISION TO NEUTRAL ARBITRATION." If the above provision is included in a printed contract, it shall be set out either in at least 10-point bold type or in contrasting red print in at least 8-point bold type, and if the provision is included in a typed contract, it shall be set out in capital letters. (d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to diminish the authority of any court of competent jurisdiction with respect to real property transactions in areas involving court supervision or jurisdiction, including, but not limited to, probate, marital dissolution, foreclosure of liens, unlawful detainer, or eminent domain. (e) In the event an arbitration provision is contained in an escrow instruction, it shall not preclude the right of an escrowholder to institute an interpleader action.


1298.5. Any party to an action who proceeds to record a notice of pending action pursuant to Section 409 shall not thereby waive any right of arbitration which that person may have pursuant to a written agreement to arbitrate, nor any right to petition the court to compel arbitration pursuant to Section 1281.2, if, in filing an action to record that notice, the party at the same time presents to the court an application that the action be stayed pending the arbitration of any dispute which is claimed to be arbitrable and which is relevant to the action.


1298.7. In the event an arbitration provision is included in a contract or agreement covered by this title, it shall not preclude or limit any right of action for bodily injury or wrongful death, or any right of action to which Section 337.1 or 337.15 is applicable.


1298.8. This title shall become operative on July 1, 1989, and shall only apply to contracts or agreements entered into on or after that date.


Title 9.5. Arbitration Of Firefighter And Law Enforcement Officer Labor Disputes

Ca Codes (ccp:1299-1299.9) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1299-1299.9



1299. The Legislature hereby finds and declares that strikes taken by firefighters and law enforcement officers against public employers are a matter of statewide concern, are a predictable consequence of labor strife and poor morale that is often the outgrowth of substandard wages and benefits, and are not in the public interest. The Legislature further finds and declares that the dispute resolution procedures contained in this title provide the appropriate method for resolving public sector labor disputes that could otherwise lead to strikes by firefighters or law enforcement officers. It is the intent of the Legislature to protect the health and welfare of the public by providing impasse remedies necessary to afford public employers the opportunity to safely alleviate the effects of labor strife that would otherwise lead to strikes by firefighters and law enforcement officers. It is further the intent of the Legislature that, in order to effectuate its predominant purpose, this title be construed to apply broadly to all public employers, including, but not limited to, charter cities, counties, and cities and counties in this state. It is not the intent of the Legislature to alter the scope of issues subject to collective bargaining between public employers and employee organizations representing firefighters or law enforcement officers. The provisions of this title are intended by the Legislature to govern the resolution of impasses reached in collective bargaining between public employers and employee organizations representing firefighters and law enforcement officers over economic issues that remain in dispute over their respective interests. However, the provisions of this title are not intended by the Legislature to be used as a procedure to determine the rights of any firefighter or law enforcement officer in any grievance initiated as a result of a disciplinary action taken by any public employer. The Legislature further intends that this title shall not apply to any law enforcement policy that pertains to how law enforcement officers interact with members of the public or pertains to police-community relations, such as policies on the use of police powers, enforcement priorities and practices, or supervision, oversight, and accountability covering officer behavior toward members of the public, to any community-oriented policing policy or to any process employed by an employer to investigate firefighter or law enforcement officer behavior that could lead to discipline against any firefighter or law enforcement officer, nor to contravene any provision of a charter that governs an employer that is a city, county, or city and county, which provision prescribes a procedure for the imposition of any disciplinary action taken against a firefighter or law enforcement officer.


1299.2. This title shall apply to all employers of firefighters and law enforcement officers.


1299.3. As used in this title: (a) "Employee" means any firefighter or law enforcement officer represented by an employee organization, as defined in subdivision (b). (b) "Employee organization" means any organization recognized by the employer for the purpose of representing firefighters or law enforcement officers in matters relating to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment within the scope of arbitration. (c) "Employer" means any local agency employing employees, as defined in subdivision (a), or any entity, except the State of California, acting as an agent of any local agency, either directly or indirectly. (d) "Firefighter" means any person who is employed to perform firefighting, fire prevention, fire training, hazardous materials response, emergency medical services, fire or arson investigation, or any related duties, without respect to the rank, job title, or job assignment of that person. (e) "Law enforcement officer" means any person who is a peace officer, as defined in Section 830.1 of, subdivisions (b) and (d) of Section 830.31 of, subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) of Section 830.32 of, subdivisions (a), (b), and (d) of Section 830.33 of, subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 830.35 of, subdivision (a) of Section 830.5 of, and subdivision (a) of Section 830.55 of, the Penal Code, without respect to the rank, job title, or job assignment of that person. (f) "Local agency" means any governmental subdivision, district, public and quasi-public corporation, joint powers agency, public agency or public service corporation, town, city, county, city and county, or municipal corporation, whether incorporated or not or whether chartered or not. (g) "Scope of arbitration" means economic issues, including salaries, wages and overtime pay, health and pension benefits, vacation and other leave, reimbursements, incentives, differentials, and all other forms of remuneration. The scope of arbitration shall not include any issue that is protected by what is commonly referred to as the "management rights" clause contained in Section 3504 of the Government Code. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any employer that is not exempt under Section 1299.9 may supersede this subdivision by adoption of an ordinance that establishes a broader definition of "scope of arbitration."


1299.4. (a) If an impasse has been declared after the parties have exhausted their mutual efforts to reach agreement over matters within the scope of arbitration, and the parties are unable to agree to the appointment of a mediator, or if a mediator agreed to by the parties is unable to effect settlement of a dispute between the parties after his or her appointment, the employee organization may, by written notification to the employer, request that their differences be submitted to an arbitration panel. (b) Within three days after receipt of the written notification, each party shall designate a person to serve as its member of an arbitration panel. Within five days thereafter, or within additional periods to which they mutually agree, the two members of the arbitration panel appointed by the parties shall designate an impartial person with experience in labor and management dispute resolution to act as chairperson of the arbitration panel. (c) In the event that the parties are unable or unwilling to agree upon a third person to serve as chairperson, the two members of the arbitration panel shall jointly request from the American Arbitration Association a list of seven impartial and experienced persons who are familiar with matters of employer-employee relations. The two panel members may as an alternative, jointly request a list of seven names from the California State Mediation and Conciliation Service, or a list from either entity containing more or less than seven names, so long as the number requested is an odd number. If after five days of receipt of the list, the two panel members cannot agree on which of the listed persons shall serve as chairperson, they shall, within two days, alternately strike names from the list, with the first panel member to strike names being determined by lot. The last person whose name remains on the list shall be chairperson. (d) Employees as defined by this chapter shall not be permitted to engage in strikes that endanger public safety. (e) No employer shall interfere with, intimidate, restrain, coerce, or discriminate against an employee organization or employee because of an exercise of rights under this title. (f) No employer shall refuse to meet and confer or condition agreement upon a memorandum of understanding based upon an employee organization's exercise of rights under this title.


1299.5. (a) The arbitration panel shall, within 10 days after its establishment or any additional periods to which the parties agree, meet with the parties or their representatives, either jointly or separately, make inquiries and investigations, hold hearings, and take any other action including further mediation, that the arbitration panel deems appropriate. (b) For the purpose of its hearings, investigations, or inquiries, the arbitration panel may subpoena witnesses, administer oaths, take the testimony of any person, and issue subpoenas duces tecum to require the production and examination of any employer's or employee organization's records, books, or papers relating to any subject matter before the panel.


1299.6. (a) The arbitration panel shall direct that five days prior to the commencement of its hearings, each of the parties shall submit the last best offer of settlement as to each of the issues within the scope of arbitration, as defined in this title, made in bargaining as a proposal or counterproposal and not previously agreed to by the parties prior to any arbitration request made pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1299.4. The arbitration panel, within 30 days after the conclusion of the hearing, or any additional period to which the parties agree, shall separately decide on each of the disputed issues submitted by selecting, without modification, the last best offer that most nearly complies with the applicable factors described in subdivision (c). This subdivision shall be applicable except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b). (b) Notwithstanding the terms of subdivision (a), the parties by mutual agreement may elect to submit as a package the last best offer of settlement made in bargaining as a proposal or counterproposal on those issues within the scope of arbitration, as defined in this title, not previously agreed to by the parties prior to any arbitration request made pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1299.4. The arbitration panel, within 30 days after the conclusion of the hearing, or any additional period to which the parties agree, shall decide on the disputed issues submitted by selecting, without modification, the last best offer package that most nearly complies with the applicable factors described in subdivision (c). (c) The arbitration panel, unless otherwise agreed to by the parties, shall limit its findings to issues within the scope of arbitration and shall base its findings, opinions, and decisions upon those factors traditionally taken into consideration in the determination of those matters within the scope of arbitration, including but not limited to the following factors, as applicable: (1) The stipulations of the parties. (2) The interest and welfare of the public. (3) The financial condition of the employer and its ability to meet the costs of the award. (4) The availability and sources of funds to defray the cost of any changes in matters within the scope of arbitration. (5) Comparison of matters within the scope of arbitration of other employees performing similar services in corresponding fire or law enforcement employment. (6) The average consumer prices for goods and services, commonly known as the Consumer Price Index. (7) The peculiarity of requirements of employment, including, but not limited to, mental, physical, and educational qualifications; job training and skills; and hazards of employment. (8) Changes in any of the foregoing that are traditionally taken into consideration in the determination of matters within the scope of arbitration.


1299.7. (a) The arbitration panel shall mail or otherwise deliver a copy of the decision to the parties. However, the decision of the arbitration panel shall not be publicly disclosed, and shall not be binding, for a period of five days after service to the parties. During that five-day period, the parties may meet privately, attempt to resolve their differences and, by mutual agreement, amend or modify the decision of the arbitration panel. (b) At the conclusion of the five-day period, which may be extended by the parties, the arbitration panel's decision, as may be amended or modified by the parties pursuant to subdivision (a), shall be publicly disclosed and, unless the governing body acts in accordance with subdivision (c), shall be binding on all parties, and, if specified by the arbitration panel, be incorporated into and made a part of any existing memorandum of understanding as defined in Section 3505.1 of the Government Code. (c) The employer may by unanimous vote of all the members of the governing body reject the decision of the arbitration panel, except as specifically provided to the contrary in a city, county, or city and county charter with respect to the rejection of an arbitration award.


1299.8. Unless otherwise provided in this title, Title 9 (commencing with Section 1280) shall be applicable to any arbitration proceeding undertaken pursuant to this title.


1299.9. (a) The provisions of this title shall not apply to any employer that is a city, county, or city and county, governed by a charter that was amended prior to January 1, 2004, to incorporate a procedure requiring the submission of all unresolved disputes relating to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment within the scope of arbitration to an impartial and experienced neutral person or panel for final and binding determination, provided however that the charter amendment is not subsequently repealed or amended in a form that would no longer require the submission of all unresolved disputes relating to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment within the scope of arbitration to an impartial and experienced neutral person or panel, for final and binding determination. (b) Unless otherwise agreed to by the parties, the costs of the arbitration proceeding and the expenses of the arbitration panel, except those of the employer representative, shall be borne by the employee organization.


Title 10. Unclaimed Property

Chapter 1. General Provisions

Article 1. Definitions

Ca Codes (ccp:1300-1301) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1300-1301



1300. For the purposes of this title, the following definitions shall apply: (a) "Property," unless specifically qualified, includes all classes of property, real, personal and mixed. (b) "Unclaimed property," unless specifically qualified, means all property (1) which is unclaimed, abandoned, escheated, permanently escheated, or distributed to the state, or (2) which, under any provision of law, will become unclaimed, abandoned, escheated, permanently escheated, or distributed to the state, or (3) to the possession of which the state is or will become entitled, if not claimed by the person or persons entitled thereto within the time allowed by law, whether or not there has been a judicial determination that such property is unclaimed, abandoned, escheated, permanently escheated, or distributed to the state. (c) "Escheat," unless specifically qualified, means the vesting in the state of title to property the whereabouts of whose owner is unknown or whose owner is unknown or which a known owner has refused to accept, whether by judicial determination or by operation of law, subject to the right of claimants to appear and claim the escheated property or any portion thereof. When used in reference to the law of another state, "escheat" includes the transfer to the state of the right to the custody of such property. (d) "Permanent escheat" means the absolute vesting in the state of title to property the whereabouts of whose owner is unknown or whose owner is unknown or which a known owner has refused to accept, pursuant to judicial determination, pursuant to a proceeding of escheat as provided by Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1410) of this title, or pursuant to operation of law, and the barring of all claims to the property by the former owner thereof or his successors. (e) "Controller" means the State Controller. (f) "Treasurer" means the State Treasurer. (g) "Domicile," in the case of a corporation, refers to the place where the corporation is incorporated.


1301. For the purposes of this title, unless otherwise specified, (1) a reference to a section refers to a section of this code; (2) a reference to an article refers to an article of the chapter of this title in which such reference is made; and (3) a reference to a chapter refers to a chapter of this title.


Article 2. Purpose And Scope

Ca Codes (ccp:1305-1306) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1305-1306



1305. It is the purpose of this title to provide for the receipt, custody, investment, management, disposal, escheat and permanent escheat of various classes of unclaimed property, to the possession of which the State is, or may become, entitled under the provisions of this title or under other provision of law.


1306. The provisions of this title do not apply to money or other property held by the State or any officer thereof as trustee or bailee under the terms of an express contract to which the State or any officer thereof is a party.


Chapter 2. Receipt And Expenditure Of Funds

Article 1. Deposit Of Unclaimed Property

Ca Codes (ccp:1310-1321) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1310-1321



1310. Whenever, under the provisions of this title or under any other provision of law, unclaimed money or other unclaimed property is payable into the State Treasury, the person responsible for making such payment shall, if it is cash, transmit it to the Treasurer, and if it is personal property other than cash, transmit it to the Controller for deposit in the State Treasury.


1311. Any person transmitting money or other property to the Treasurer or Controller under the provisions of this title shall, at the time of such transmittal, furnish written notice thereof to the Controller, setting forth the amount of cash transmitted, the nature and description of the personal property other than cash transmitted, the name and last known address of the person entitled to such property or for whose benefit such property is transmitted, a reference to the specific statutory provision under which such property is transmitted, and if such property represents the proceeds of an estate of a decedent, or an unclaimed amount payable pursuant to an allowed and approved claim against such an estate, the name of the decedent, the county and court in which probate or escheat proceedings, if any, were held, the number of the action, if any; and, in the case of all classes of property so transmitted, such other identifying information available from the records of the person making such transmittal, as the Controller may require.


1312. Whenever money or other property is paid to the State or any officer or employee thereof under the provisions of this title, and such money or other property has been covered by a decree of distribution in a decedent's estate, or by an order or decree of a court ordering such payment or adjudging that title to such property has vested in the State, the person transmitting such money or other property to the Treasurer or Controller shall, at the time of such transmittal, furnish to the Controller a certified copy of each court order or decree, and of each court order correcting or amending the same, covering such money or other property.


1313. A fund is hereby created in the State Treasury, to be known as the Unclaimed Property Fund. All money, except permanently escheated money, paid to the state or any officer or employee thereof for deposit in the State Treasury under the provisions of this title shall, on order of the Controller, be deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund. All property other than money, including the proceeds from the sale or other disposition thereof, except permanently escheated property received by, or coming into the possession of, the state or any officer or employee thereof under the provisions of this title shall, on order of the Controller, be deposited in the State Treasury to be held in the Unclaimed Property Fund.


1314. The Controller shall maintain a separate account in the Unclaimed Property Fund covering the accountability for money deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund under each article of Chapter 6. All real and personal property distributed to the State or delivered into the possession of the State or any officer or employee thereof under the provisions of this title, shall be accounted for by the Controller in the name of the account in the Unclaimed Property Fund to which the proceeds thereof, if converted into cash, would be credited under the provisions of this title. All personal property deposited in the State Treasury under the provisions of this title shall be held by the Treasurer in the name of the same account in the Unclaimed Property Fund for which such property is accounted by the Controller, as herein provided.


1315. If unclaimed money or other property in an estate of a deceased person, or if any unclaimed amount payable pursuant to an allowed and approved claim against such an estate, is received by the State or any officer or employee thereof and deposited in the State Treasury under the provisions of this title, it shall be recorded on the books of the Controller to the credit, or in the name, of such estate, for the benefit of the person entitled thereto or his successors in interest.


1316. If unclaimed money or other property is received by the State or any officer or employee thereof and deposited in the State Treasury under the provisions of this title for the benefit of known heirs, devisees, legatees or creditors of an estate of a deceased person, or for the benefit of known claimants, payees, or other persons entitled thereto, it shall be recorded on the books of the Controller to the credit, or in the name, of such heirs, devisees, legatees, creditors, claimants, payees, or other persons entitled thereto.

1317. The amount of each canceled warrant credited to the Unclaimed Property Fund under the provisions of Section 17072 of the Government Code shall, on order of the Controller, be transferred to the General Fund.

1318. All interest received and other income derived from the investment of moneys in the Unclaimed Property Fund, as provided in Section 13470 of the Government Code, shall, on order of the Controller, be deposited in the General Fund.

1319. Except as otherwise provided in Section 1318, all rents, interest, dividends or other income or increment derived from real or personal property received and held by the State in the name of the Unclaimed Property Fund under the provisions of this title shall, on order of the Controller, be deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund, and shall be credited by the Controller to the account maintained by him, in the name of which such property is accounted, as provided in Chapter 2. Any moneys deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund under the provisions of this section shall be held for the benefit of the person or persons entitled to the property from which such moneys were derived, or their successors in interest; and shall be subject to claim in the same manner as such property may be claimed; but the period in which such moneys shall be available for claim by and payment to the person or persons entitled thereto shall not extend beyond the period in which the property from which such moneys were derived is available for claim and payment under the provisions of this title.

1320. Except as otherwise provided in Section 1318, all rents, interest, dividends or other income or increment derived from real or personal property that has permanently escheated to the state, shall, on order of the Controller, be deposited in the General Fund. All moneys deposited in the General Fund under the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have permanently escheated to the state as of the date of permanent escheat of the property from which such moneys were derived.


1321. Any person delivering money or other property to the Treasurer or Controller under the provisions of this title shall, upon such delivery, be relieved and held harmless by the State from all or any claim or claims which exist at that time with reference to such money or other property, or which may thereafter be made, or which may come into existence, on account of, or in respect to, such money or other property. No action shall be maintained against any person who is the holder of such money or other property, nor against any officer as agent thereof, for: (a) The recovery of such money or other property delivered to the Treasurer or Controller pursuant to this title, or for interest thereon subsequent to the date of the report thereof, if any, to the Controller; or (b) Damages alleged to have resulted from such delivery to the Treasurer or Controller. No owner of money or other property shall be entitled to receive interest thereon or with respect thereto from and after the date on which a report of such money or other property is made to the Controller pursuant to any provision of this title, whether or not he was entitled to such interest prior to such report. As used in this section, "person" and "holder" have the respective meanings set forth in Section 1461 of this code.


Article 2. Appropriation

Ca Codes (ccp:1325) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1325



1325. Notwithstanding Section 13340 of the Government Code, all money in the Unclaimed Property Fund is hereby continuously appropriated to the Controller, without regard to fiscal years, for expenditure for any of the following purposes: (a) For refund, to the person making such deposit, of amounts, including overpayments, deposited in error in such fund. (b) For payment of the cost of title searches and appraisals incurred by the Controller covering real or personal property held in the name of an account in such fund. (c) For payment of the cost incurred by the Controller covering indemnity bonds required in order to have duplicate certificates of ownership issued in order to replace lost certificates, covering personal property held in the name of an account in such fund. (d) For payment of amounts required to be paid by the state as trustee, bailee, or successor in interest to the preceding owner, pursuant to the provisions of trust deeds, mortgages, or other liens on real property held in the name of an account in such fund. (e) For payment of costs incurred by the Controller for the repair, maintenance and upkeep of real and personal property held in the name of an account in such fund. (f) For payment of costs of official advertising in connection with the sale of real or personal property held in the name of an account in such fund. (g) For payment to taxing agencies of the amounts deducted by the Controller from allowed and approved claims, in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (c) of Section 4986.5 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. (h) For transfer to the Inheritance Tax Fund, on order of the Controller, of the amount of any inheritance taxes determined to be due and payable to the state by any claimant, with respect to any real or personal property, including cash, claimed by that person under the provisions of this title. (i) For payment and delivery to claimants of money or other property held to the credit, or in the name, of an account in such fund, under the provisions of this title. (j) For transfer to the General Fund, on order of the Controller, of any money or other property in the Unclaimed Property Fund which becomes permanently escheated to the state under the provisions of this title. Any expenditure made by the Controller pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be charged against any balance credited to the particular account in the Unclaimed Property Fund, in the name of which is held the real or personal property for which the expenditure is made; and if sufficient balance is not available in such account, the expenditure may be made from any appropriation from the General Fund for the support of the Controller, or, in the case of official advertising, from any appropriation available therefor, to be reimbursed from the proceeds of any subsequent sale of the property for which such expenditure is made.


Chapter 3. Payment Of Claims

Article 1. General

Ca Codes (ccp:1335) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1335



1335. When payment or delivery of money or other property has been made to any claimant under the provisions of this chapter, no suit shall thereafter be maintained by any other claimant against the State or any officer thereof for or on account of such property.


Article 2. Refund Of Erroneous Receipts

Ca Codes (ccp:1345-1347) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1345-1347



1345. If any person has erroneously delivered any unclaimed moneys or other unclaimed property to the state or any officer or employee thereof, and the moneys or other property is deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund or is held by the Controller or Treasurer in the name of any account in that fund pursuant to this title, the moneys or other property delivered in error may be refunded or returned to that person on order of the Controller, with the approval of the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board.


1346. If any person has erroneously delivered any unclaimed moneys or other unclaimed property to the state or any officer or employee thereof, and the moneys or other property is deposited in, or transferred to, the General Fund, or is held by the Controller or Treasurer in the name of that fund, pursuant to this title, the moneys or other property delivered in error, if cash, shall on order of the Controller, be transferred from the General Fund to the Unclaimed Property Fund, and, if other than cash, the records of the Controller and Treasurer shall be adjusted to show that it is held in the name of the proper account in the Unclaimed Property Fund; and the moneys or other property may be refunded or returned to that person on order of the Controller, with the approval of the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board.


1347. Whenever money deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund is transferred to the General Fund under the provisions of this title, and whenever the records of the Controller and Treasurer covering property other than money held in the name of any account in the Unclaimed Property Fund are adjusted to record such property as held in the name of the General Fund, as permanently escheated property under the provisions of this title, if it is subsequently determined that such money or other property is not, in fact, permanently escheated, such money or other property, if cash, shall, on order of the Controller, be retransferred from the General Fund to the Unclaimed Property Fund; and, if the property is other than money, the records of the Controller and Treasurer shall be adjusted to show that it is held in the name and for the benefit of the proper account in the Unclaimed Property Fund.


Article 3. Claims

Ca Codes (ccp:1350-1355) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1350-1355



1350. Unless otherwise provided in this title, all money or other property deposited in the State Treasury under the provisions of this title may be claimed by the person entitled thereto at any time prior to the date on which such money or other property has become permanently escheated, as provided by this title.


1351. Unless otherwise provided in this title, all money or other property deposited in the State Treasury under the provisions of this title, if not claimed by the person entitled thereto within five years from the date of such deposit, shall become the property of the State by escheat; and upon request by the Controller, the Attorney General shall commence a proceeding under the provisions of Section 1410, or, in lieu of such proceeding, the Controller may take action as provided by Article 2 of Chapter 5, to have it adjudged, determined or established that the title to such money or other property has vested in the State.

1352. (a) Whenever unclaimed money or other property is deposited in the State Treasury under this title, and, except as otherwise provided by law, whenever there is in the possession of the state or its officers any money or other property which is held for third persons or the title to which has vested in the state subject to the rights of third persons, and the period during which it may be claimed by a person entitled thereto has not terminated, the period and person being prescribed by law, if the value of the money or other property to which the claimant is entitled is less than sixty thousand dollars ($60,000), any such person may present his or her claim for it to the Controller. The claim shall be made in the form prescribed by the Controller, which shall set forth the information required by Section 1355 or any other information that the Controller may deem necessary to establish right or title to the money or other property in the claimant. (b) Property assigned or distributed to a name distributee may be claimed by the distributee himself or herself or his or her legal guardian or conservator, as provided in subdivision (a) regardless of the amount. This subdivision does not apply to the heirs or estate of a distributee, or to property distributed to the state for lack of known heirs. (c) Any person aggrieved by a decision of the Controller may commence an action, naming the Controller as a defendant, to establish his or her claim in the superior court in any county or city and county in which the Attorney General has an office pursuant to Section 1541.


1353. Except as otherwise provided in Sections 401 or 1352, whenever money or other property is deposited in the State Treasury under the provisions of this title, and, except as otherwise provided by law, when there is in the possession of the State or its officers any money or other property which is to be held for third persons or the title to which has vested in the State subject to the rights of third persons, the Superior Court of the County of Sacramento shall have full and exclusive jurisdiction to determine the title to such money or other property and all claims thereto. If the period in which such money or other property may be claimed by a person entitled thereto has not terminated, such period and person being prescribed by law, any such person may file a petition in the Superior Court of the County of Sacramento, or as provided in Section 401, showing his claim or right to the money or other property or the proceeds thereof, or any portion thereof. The petition shall be verified, and, among other things, must, insofar as they are applicable or material to the matters at issue, state the facts required to be stated in a petition filed under Section 1355. If the money or other property at issue did not come into the possession of the State or its officers in connection with estates of deceased persons, the petition shall, in addition to the foregoing facts, state any material facts necessary to establish a prima facie right or title in the petitioner. Upon the filing of the petition, the same proceedings shall be had as are required in Section 1355. If, upon trial of the issues, the court is satisfied of the claimant's right or title to the money or other property claimed, it shall grant him a certificate to that effect under its seal. Upon presentation of such certificate, the Controller shall draw his warrant on the Treasurer for the amount of money covered thereby; and if the certificate covers any property other than money, a certified copy of the certificate filed with the officer of the State having possession of the property shall serve as sufficient authority to the officer for the delivery of such property to the claimant.


1354. Whenever any claim is made or petition filed by the representative of an estate or other person, under the provisions of this chapter, or under any other provision of law, to recover money or other property deposited in the State Treasury or held by the State or any officer thereof to the credit, or in the name, of any account in the Unclaimed Property Fund, no recovery will be allowed unless it affirmatively appears that there are heirs or legatees who will receive such money or other property or creditors of the deceased owner of the claim whose claims are valid and are not barred, and whose claims were in existence prior to the death of such deceased owner of the claim. Where only creditors exist, and there are no heirs or legatees, said claims shall be allowed only to the extent necessary to pay such claims and the reasonable costs of administration of the estate, including court costs, administrator's fees and attorney's fees. This section shall apply to all claims which are pending at the time that this section goes into effect as well as to claims arising hereafter.


1355. Within five years after date of entry of judgment in any proceeding had under the provisions of Chapter 5, or within five years after completion of notice by publication in an escheat action taken under the provisions of Section 1415, a person not a party or privy to such proceeding or action, if not otherwise barred, may file a petition in the Superior Court of the County of Sacramento, or as provided in Section 401, showing his claim or right to the money or other property, or the proceeds thereof. Said petition shall be verified; and, in a proceeding for the recovery by the petitioner as heir, devisee, or legatee, or the successor in interest of an heir, devisee or legatee, of money or other property received by the State from the estate of a decedent under the provisions of Article 1 of Chapter 6, such petition, among other things must state: The full name, and the place and date of birth of the decedent whose estate, or any part thereof, is claimed. The full name of such decedent's father and the maiden name of his mother, the places and dates of their respective births, the place and date of their marriage, the full names of all children the issue of such marriage, with the date of birth of each, and the place and date of death of all children of such marriage who have died unmarried and without issue. Whether or not such decedent was ever married, and if so, where, when and to whom. How, when and where such marriage, if any, was dissolved. Whether or not said decedent was ever remarried, and, if so, where, when and to whom. The full names, and the dates and places of birth of all lineal descendants, if any, of said decedent; the dates and places of death of any thereof who died prior to the filing of such petition; and the places of residence of all who are then surviving, with the degree of relationship of each of such survivors to said decedent. Whether any of the brothers or sisters of such decedent every married, and, if so, where, when and whom. The full names, and the places and dates of birth of all children who are the issue of the marriage of any such brother or sister of the decedent, and the date and place of death of all deceased nephews and nieces of said decedent. Whether or not said decedent, if of foreign birth, ever became a naturalized citizen of the United States, and, if so, when, where, and by what court citizenship was conferred. The post-office names of the cities, towns or other places, each in its appropriate connection, wherein are preserved the records of the births, marriages and deaths hereinbefore enumerated, and, if known, the title of the public official or other person having custody of such records. The nationality of each of the heirs of the decedent. The street address of each of the heirs of the decedent. If, for any reason, the petitioner is unable to set forth any of the matters or things hereinbefore required, he shall clearly state such reason in his petition. At least 20 days before the hearing of the petition, a copy of the petition and notice of hearing must be served on the Attorney General and on the Controller, and the Attorney General may answer the same at his discretion. If such claim includes a claim to real property or any interest therein, the petitioner shall record in the office of the county recorder of the county in which the real property is situated, a notice of the pendency of the petition containing the object of the action and a description of the property in the county affected thereby. From the time of filing such notice for record only, shall a purchaser or encumbrancer of the property be deemed to have constructive notice of the pendency of the action, and only of its pendency against parties designated by their real names. The court must thereupon try the issue as issues are tried in civil actions; and if it is determined that such person is entitled to the money or other property or the proceeds thereof, it must order the property, if it has not been sold, to be delivered to him, or if it has been sold and the proceeds thereof paid into the State Treasury, it must order the Controller to draw his warrant on the Treasurer for the payment of the same, but without interest or cost to the State. A copy of such order, under the seal of the court, shall be a sufficient voucher for drawing such warrant. All persons who fail to appear and file their petitions within the time limited are forever barred; saving, however, to infants and persons of unsound mind, the right to appear and file their petitions at any time within the time limited, or within one year after their respective disabilities cease.


Chapter 4. Management Of Unclaimed Property

Article 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (ccp:1360-1361) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1360-1361



1360. For the purposes of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply: (a) "Personal property" means personal property falling within the definition of "unclaimed property" under the provisions of this title; (b) "Real property" means real property falling within the definition of "unclaimed property" under the provisions of this title; (c) "Securities" includes stocks, bonds, notes, debentures, certificates of deposit, shares, and all other evidences of ownership or indebtedness, and all forms of chose in action and the interests in property represented thereby, falling within the definition of unclaimed property under the provisions of this title.


1361. The care and custody of all property delivered to the Treasurer or Controller pursuant to this title is assumed by the State for the benefit of those entitled thereto, and the State is responsible for the payment of all claims established thereto pursuant to law, less any lawful deductions.


Article 2. Powers Of The Controller

Ca Codes (ccp:1365) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1365



1365. In connection with all unclaimed property, the Controller has all of the powers necessary in order to safeguard and conserve the interests of all parties, including the State, having any vested or expectant interest in such unclaimed property. His powers include, but are not limited to, the authority to incur obligations the payment of which is authorized by the provisions of Section 1325.



Article 3. Sale Or Disposal Of Property

Ca Codes (ccp:1370-1382) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1370-1382



1370. The Controller, with the prior approval of the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board, may sell or lease personal property at any time, and in any manner, and may execute those leases on behalf and in the name of the State of California.


1371. The Controller, with the prior approval of the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board, may sell, cash, redeem, exchange, or otherwise dispose of any securities and all other classes of personal property, and may sell, cash, redeem, exchange, compromise, adjust, settle, or otherwise dispose of any accounts, debts, contractual rights, or other choses in action if, in his or her opinion, that action on his or her part is necessary or will tend to safeguard and conserve the interests of all parties, including the state, having any vested or expectant interest in the property.

1372. The Controller may sign, endorse, or otherwise authenticate, in the name and on behalf of the State, subscribing his name, as Controller, under such writing, any securities, bills of sale, documents, or other instruments required, under customary business practice, for the consummation of the transactions authorized by this chapter. For all purposes, such endorsement is conclusive and binding against the State and the heirs, devisees, legatees, or other claimants of the property covered by such endorsement.


1373. The Controller may lease or sell any real property for cash at public auction to the highest bidder. Before such sale or lease, notice thereof shall be published pursuant to Government Code Section 6063 in a newspaper published in the county in which the real property is situated, or in an adjoining county, if there is no newspaper published in such county. The notice is sufficient for all the purposes of such lease or sale if the real property is described sufficiently to identify it. The cost of publication shall be a charge against the proceeds of the lease or sale, or, if the lease or sale is not consummated, such cost shall be a legal charge against the appropriation for official advertising. If the value of the property to be sold does not appear to exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000) in the determination of the Controller, notice of sale thereof may be published pursuant to Government Code Section 6061.

1374. The Controller may reject any and all bids made at sales or public auctions held under the provisions of this chapter.


1375. With the approval of the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board, any real property may be sold or leased by the Controller at private sale without published notice.


1376. Upon receipt of the proceeds of any sale made pursuant to this chapter, the Controller shall execute, in the name and on behalf of the State of California, a deed covering the real property, and a bill of sale covering the personal property, sold. He may execute leases for real or personal property in the name and on behalf of the State of California.


1377. The Controller shall not enter into any transaction which shall create or impose upon the owners, heirs, devisees, legatees, or other claimants of the property involved, any obligation under an executory contract, the performance of which is not already an obligation of such owners, heirs, devisees, legatees, or other claimants prior to the consummation of the transactions authorized by this chapter.


1378. No suit shall be maintained by any person against the State or any officer thereof, for or on account of any transaction entered into by the Controller pursuant to this chapter.


1379. With the prior approval of the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board, the Controller may destroy or otherwise dispose of any personal property other than cash deposited in the State Treasury under this title, if that property is determined by him or her to be valueless or of such little value that the costs of conducting a sale would probably exceed the amount that would be realized from the sale, and neither the Treasurer nor Controller shall be held to respond in damages at the suit of any person claiming loss by reason of that destruction or disposition.


1380. All sales, exchanges, or other transactions entered into by the Controller pursuant to this chapter are exempt from the provisions of Section 11009 of the Government Code.


1381. All sales, leases or other transactions entered into by the Controller pursuant to this chapter shall be conclusive against everyone, except a purchaser or encumbrancer who in good faith and for a valuable consideration acquires a title or interest by an instrument in writing that is first duly recorded.


1382. Any provision of this article which authorizes the Controller to sell real property applies to any real property distributed or escheated to, or the title to which has vested in, the State of California by court order or decree of distribution, if such real property is held in the name of the Unclaimed Property Fund under the provision of this title, whether or not such real property has permanently escheated to the State. This section does not apply to the disposition of tax-deeded lands under Chapter 7, 8 or 9 of Part 6 of Division 1 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.


Article 4. Disposal Of Proceeds Of Sale Or Lease

Ca Codes (ccp:1390-1394) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1390-1394



1390. The Controller shall deliver to the Treasurer the proceeds of any sale or lease of property, other than permanently escheated property, made pursuant to this chapter; and, on order of the Controller, the amount thereof shall be deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund. Such amount shall be credited by the Controller to the account in said fund, in the name of which the property sold or leased was held. All moneys deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund under the provisions of this section shall be held for the benefit of those entitled to claim the property sold or leased; but the period in which such moneys shall be available for claim by and payment to the persons entitled thereto shall not extend beyond the period in which such property is available for claim and payment under the provisions of this title.


1391. The Controller shall deliver to the Treasurer the proceeds of any sale or lease of permanently escheated property made pursuant to this chapter; and, on order of the Controller, the amount thereof shall be deposited in the General Fund. All moneys deposited in the General Fund under the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have permanently escheated to the state as of the date of permanent escheat of the property from which such moneys were derived.


1392. The proceeds of any transaction by the Controller under the provisions of this chapter in connection with property received and held by the state under the provisions of Article 1 (commencing with Section 1440) of Chapter 6 of this title shall be credited by the Controller to the estate from which the property affected by the transaction was received; or, if such property has permanently escheated to the state, to the account in the General Fund to which the permanently escheated cash derived from estates of deceased persons is credited.

1393. The proceeds of any transaction by the Controller under the provisions of this chapter, in connection with property received and held by the state under the provisions of Article 1 (commencing with Section 1440) of Chapter 6 of this title, for the benefit of unlocated heirs, devisees or legatees of estates of deceased persons, shall be credited by the Controller to such heirs, devisees or legatees of the property affected by such transaction; or, if such property has permanently escheated to the state, to the account in the General Fund to which the permanently escheated cash derived from estates of deceased persons is credited.


1394. The proceeds of any transaction by the Controller under the provisions of this chapter in connection with property received and held by the state under the provisions of this title, for the benefit of the persons entitled thereto, shall be credited by the Controller to such persons; or, if the property affected by such transaction has permanently escheated to the state, to the account in the General Fund in the name of which such permanently escheated property was recorded.


Chapter 5. Escheat Proceedings

Article 1. Escheat Proceedings On Unclaimed Property

Ca Codes (ccp:1410) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1410



1410. The Attorney General shall, from time to time, commence actions on behalf of the state for the purpose of having it adjudged that title to unclaimed property to which the state has become entitled by escheat has vested in the state, and for the purpose of having it adjudged that property has been actually abandoned or that the owner thereof has died and there is no person entitled thereto and the same has escheated and vested in the state. Such actions shall be brought in the Superior Court for the County of Sacramento; except that if any real property covered by the petition is not situated in the County of Sacramento, an action respecting the real property shall be commenced in the superior court for the county in which such real property or any part thereof is situated. The Attorney General shall cause to be recorded in the office of the county recorder of the county in which the real property is situated, a notice of the pendency of the petition containing the names of the parties, and the object of the action and a description of the property in the county affected thereby. From the time of filing such notice for record only, shall a purchaser or encumbrancer of the property affected thereby be deemed to have constructive notice of the pendency of the action, and only of the pendency against parties designated by their real names. Such action shall be commenced by filing a petition. The provisions of Section 1420, relating to the facts to be set forth in the petition, joinder of parties and causes of action, and the provisions of Section 1423, relating to appearances and pleadings, shall be applicable to any proceeding had under this section. Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall make an order requiring all persons interested in the property or estate to appear on a day not more than 90 days nor less than 60 days from the date of the order and show cause, if any they have, why title to the property should not vest in the State of California. Service of process in such actions shall be made by delivery of a copy of the order, together with a copy of the petition, to each person who claims title to any property covered by the petition and who is known to the Attorney General or the Controller or who has theretofore filed in the office of the Controller a written request for such service of process, stating his name and address, including street number, or post-office box number, if any, and by publishing the order at least once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper published in the county in which the action is filed, the last publication to be at least 10 days prior to the date set for the hearing. Upon completion of the service of process, as provided in this section, the court shall have full and complete jurisdiction over the estate, the property, and the person of everyone having or claiming any interest in the property, and shall have full and complete jursidiction to hear and determine the issues therein, and to render an appropriate judgment. In addition to the foregoing publication of the order, a notice shall be given by publication, at least once a week for two successive weeks in a newspaper published in the county from which the property was forwarded to the State Treasury or is situated, of each estate and item of property from such county or situated in such county in excess of one thousand dollars ($1,000). Such notice shall state that a petition has been filed and an order made as hereinbefore provided and shall list each estate and item in excess of one thousand dollars ($1,000) and show the amount of the property, if money, or a description thereof, if other than money, and the name of the owner or claimant and his last known address. Any omission or defect in the giving of such additional notice shall not affect the jurisdiction of the court. If it appears from the facts found or admitted that the state is entitled to the property or any part thereof mentioned in the petition, judgment shall be rendered that title to such property or part thereof, as the case may be, has vested in the state by escheat. No costs of suit shall be allowed against any party in any action or proceeding had under this section.


Article 2. Escheat By Notice And Publication

Ca Codes (ccp:1415) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1415



1415. Whenever any money or other personal property of a value of one thousand dollars ($1,000) or less has heretofore been, or is hereafter, deposited in the State Treasury and the same is subject to being declared escheated to the state or being declared vested in the state as abandoned property, or otherwise, under any laws of this state, in lieu of the procedure provided for elsewhere in this chapter, the Controller may, from time to time, prepare a return listing such property and give notice thereof in the manner hereinafter provided. Such return shall list each item and show (1) the amount of the property, if money, or a description thereof if other than money; (2) the name of the owner or claimant and his last known address, if known; (3) the name and address of the person delivering the property to the State Treasury, if known but where the property is received from an estate, only the name of the decedent together with the name of the county and the number of the proceeding need be given; (4) the facts and circumstances by virtue of which it is claimed the property has escheated or vested in the state; and (5) such other information as the Controller may desire to include to assist in identifying each item. When such return has been completed, the Controller shall prepare, date, and attach thereto a notice that the property listed in the return has escheated or vested in the state. Copies of such return and notice shall then be displayed and be open to public inspection during business hours in at least three offices of the Controller, one in the City of Sacramento, one in the City and County of San Francisco, and one in the City of Los Angeles. The Controller shall then cause notice to be given by publication in one newspaper of general circulation published in the City of Sacramento, and also by publication in one newspaper of general circulation published in the City and County of San Francisco, and also by publication in one newspaper of general circulation published in the City of Los Angeles, at least once each calendar week for two consecutive weeks, that said return and notice that the property listed in the return has escheated or vested in the state has been prepared and is on display and open to public inspection during business hours, giving the addresses and room numbers of the locations where the same may be inspected. Such publication shall be made within 90 days after attaching the notice to the return. Notice by such publication shall be deemed completed 120 days after attaching the notice to the return. Within five years after such notice by publication is completed, any person entitled to such property may claim it in the manner provided in Chapter 3 of this title. All persons who fail to make such claim within the time limited are forever barred; saving, however, to infants and persons of unsound mind, the right to appear and claim such property at any time within the time limited, or within one year after their respective disabilities cease.



Article 3. Escheat Proceedings In Decedents' Estates

Ca Codes (ccp:1420-1424) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1420-1424



1420. (a) At any time after two years after the death of any decedent who leaves property to which the state is entitled by reason of it having escheated to the state, the Attorney General shall commence a proceeding on behalf of the state in the Superior Court for the County of Sacramento to have it adjudged that the state is so entitled. The action shall be commenced by filing a petition, which shall be treated as the information elsewhere referred to in this title. (b) The petition shall set forth a description of the property, the name of the person last in possession thereof, the name of the person, if any, claiming the property, or portion thereof, and the facts and circumstances by virtue of which it is claimed the property has escheated. (c) Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall make an order requiring all persons interested in the estate to appear and show cause, if any, within 60 days from the date of the order, why the estate should not vest in the state. The order must be published at least once a week for four consecutive weeks in a newspaper published in the County of Sacramento, the last publication to be at least 10 days prior to the date set for the hearing. Upon the completion of the publication of the order, the court shall have full and complete jurisdiction over the estate, the property, and the person of everyone having or claiming any interest in the property, and shall have full and complete jurisdiction to hear and determine the issues therein, and render the appropriate judgment thereon. (d) If proceedings for the administration of the estate have been instituted, a copy of the order must be filed with the papers in the estate. If proceedings for the administration of any estate of the decedent have been instituted and none of the persons entitled to succeed thereto have appeared and made claim to the property, or any portion thereof, before the decree of final distribution therein is made, or before the commencement of a proceeding by the Attorney General, or if the court shall find that the persons as have appeared are not entitled to the property of the estate, or any portion thereof, the court shall, upon final settlement of the proceedings for the administration of the estate, after the payment of all debts and expenses of administration, distribute all moneys and other property remaining to the State of California. In any proceeding brought by the Attorney General under this chapter, any two or more parties and any two or more causes of action may be joined in the same proceedings and in the same petition without being separately stated, and it shall be sufficient to allege in the petition that the decedent left no heirs to take the estate and the failure of heirs to appear and set up their claims in any proceeding, or in any proceedings for the administration of the estate, shall be sufficient proof upon which to base the judgment in any proceeding or decree of distribution. (e) If proceedings for the administration of any estate have not been commenced within six months from the death of any decedent the Attorney General may direct the public administrator to commence the same forthwith.


1421. Whenever the Attorney General is informed that any estate has escheated or is about to escheat to the state, or that the property involved in any action or special proceeding has escheated or is about to escheat to the state, the Attorney General may commence an action on behalf of the state to determine its rights to the property or may intervene on its behalf in any action or special proceeding affecting the estate and contest the rights of any claimant or claimants thereto. The Attorney General may also apply to the superior court or any judge thereof for an order directing the county treasurer to deposit in the State Treasury all money, and to deliver to the Controller for deposit in the State Treasury, all other personal property, in the possession of the county treasurer, which may become payable to the State Treasury pursuant to Section 7643 of the Probate Code.


1422. The court, upon the information being filed, and upon application of the Attorney General, either before or after answer, upon notice to the party claiming the estate, if known, may, upon sufficient cause therefor being shown, appoint a receiver to take charge of such estate, or any part thereof, or to receive the rents, income and profits of the same until the title of such estate is finally settled.


1423. All persons named in the information may appear and answer, and may traverse or deny the facts stated therein at any time before the time for answering expires, and any other person claiming an interest in such estate may appear and be made a defendant, by motion for that purpose in open court within the time allowed for answering, and if no such person appears and answers within the time, then judgment must be rendered that the State is the owner of the property in such information claimed. If any person appears and denies the title set up by the State, or traverses any material fact set forth in the information, the issue of fact must be tried as issues of fact are tried in civil actions. If, after the issues are tried, it appears from the facts found or admitted that the State has good title to the property in the information mentioned, or any part thereof, judgment must be rendered that the State is the owner and entitled to the possession thereof, and that it recover costs of suit against the defendants who have appeared and answered. In any judgment rendered, or that has heretofore been rendered by any court escheating property to the State, on motion of the Attorney General, the court must make an order that such property, unless it consists of money, be sold by the sheriff of the county where it is situate, at public sale, for cash, after giving notice of the time and place of sale, as may be prescribed by the court in such order; that the sheriff, within five days after such sale, make a report thereof to the court, and upon the hearing of such report, the court may examine the report and witnesses in relation thereto, and if the proceedings were unfair, or if the sum bid disproportionate to the value, or if it appears that a sum exceeding said bid, exclusive of the expense of a new sale, may be obtained, the court may vacate the sale, and direct another to be had, of which notice must be given, and the sale in all respects conducted as if no previous sale had taken place. If an offer greater in amount than that named in the report is made to the court in writing by a responsible person, the court may, in its discretion, accept such offer and confirm the sale to such person, or order a new sale. If it appears to the court that the sale was legally made and fairly conducted and that the sum bid is not disproportionate to the value of the property sold, and that a sum exceeding such bid, exclusive of the expense of a new sale, cannot be obtained, or if the increased bid above mentioned is made and accepted by the court, the court must make an order confirming the sale and directing the sheriff, in the name of the State, to execute to the purchaser or purchasers a conveyance of said property sold; and said conveyance vests in the purchaser or purchasers all the right and title of the State therein. The sheriff shall, out of the proceeds of such sale, pay the cost of said proceedings incurred on behalf of the State, including the expenses of making such sale, and also an attorney's fee, if additional counsel was employed in said proceedings, to be fixed by the court, not exceeding 10 percent on the amount of such sale; and the residue thereof shall be paid by said sheriff into the State Treasury.


1424. If, in any proceeding had under this title, the judgment or decree distributes or vests unclaimed property or any portion thereof to or in the State of California and the distributing or vesting clause contains words otherwise creating a trust in favor of certain unknown or unidentified persons as a class, such judgment or decree shall vest in the State of California both legal and equitable title to such property; saving, however, the right of claimants to appear and claim the property, as provided in this title.


Article 4. Permanent Escheat

Ca Codes (ccp:1430-1431) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1430-1431



1430. (a) Upon the expiration of five years after the date of entry of judgment in any proceeding pursuant to this chapter, or upon the expiration of five years after completion of notice by publication in an escheat action taken pursuant to Section 1415, the property covered by that proceeding or action shall permanently escheat to the state, except as provided in subdivision (b). (b) Infants and persons of unsound mind shall have the right to appear and claim such property as provided in this title if born before the expiration of the five-year period; but it shall be presumed that there are no infants nor persons of unsound mind who are or will be entitled to claim this property unless and until they appear and claim the property as provided in this title. This presumption shall be conclusive in favor of any purchaser in good faith and for a valuable consideration from the state and everyone subsequently claiming under him or her, saving however, to infants and persons of unsound mind the right of recourse to the proceeds of any sale or other disposition of any such property by the state and as herein provided. (c) Except as otherwise provided in this subdivision, a named beneficiary of property that escheats pursuant to this title or, if the beneficiary is deceased or a court renders a judgment that the beneficiary is dead, a blood relative of the named beneficiary may claim property described in subdivision (a) at any time within five years after the date of entry of judgment in any proceeding under this chapter. The named beneficiary or, if a court has rendered a judgment that the named beneficiary is dead, the blood relative of the named beneficiary shall be entitled to immediate payment upon this claim. If a court has not rendered a judgment that the named beneficiary is dead, payment of the claim of a blood relative of the named beneficiary shall be made on the day before the expiration of the five-year period described in this section. This subdivision shall not apply to authorize a claim by any person, including any issue or blood relative of that person, whose interest or inheritance was specifically restricted or barred by a provision in the donating or transferring instrument.

1431. When money in the Unclaimed Property Fund has become permanently escheated to the state, the amount thereof shall, on order of the Controller, be transferred to the General Fund. When property other than money held by the Controller or Treasurer in the name of any account in the Unclaimed Property Fund has become permanently escheated to the state, the records of the Controller and Treasurer shall be adjusted to show that such property is held in the name of the General Fund.


Chapter 6. Disposition Of Unclaimed Property

Article 1. Estates Of Deceased Persons

Ca Codes (ccp:1440-1449) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1440-1449



1440. Whenever, under the provisions of this title or under any other provision of law, any unclaimed money or other property in an estate of a deceased person, or any unclaimed amount payable pursuant to an allowed and approved claim against such an estate, is paid to the State or any officer or employee thereof for deposit in the State Treasury, it shall be deemed to have been so paid under the provisions of this article.


1441. Money or other property distributed to the state under Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 11900) of Part 10 of Division 7 of the Probate Code, if not claimed within five years from the date of the order for distribution, as provided in Chapter 3, is permanently escheated to the state without further proceeding; saving, however, to infants and persons of unsound mind, the right to appear and file their claims within the time limited pursuant to Section 1430, or within one year after their respective disabilities cease; provided, however, that any such property shall be conclusively presumed to be permanently escheated to the state as to all persons in favor of a purchaser in good faith and for a valuable consideration from the state and anyone subsequently claiming under that purchaser, saving however, to infants and persons of unsound mind the right of recourse to the proceeds of any sale or other disposition of that property by the state and as herein provided.


1442. Except as otherwise provided in Section 1441, any money or other property paid into the State Treasury under the provisions of this article may be claimed by the person entitled thereto, as provided in Chapter 3.

1443. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all money or other property paid or delivered to the state or any officer or employee thereof under the provisions of Section 7643 or 11428, Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 11900) of Part 10 of Division 7, or Section 6800, of the Probate Code, or under any other section of the Probate Code, or any amendment thereof adopted after the effective date of this section, shall be deemed to be paid or delivered for deposit in the State Treasury under the provisions of this article, and shall be transmitted, received, accounted for, and disposed of, as provided in this title.


1444. At the time of the next county settlement following the expiration of one year from the date of its deposit in the county treasury, all money or other property distributed in the administration of an estate of a deceased person and heretofore or hereafter deposited in the county treasury to the credit of known heirs, legatees, or devisees, and any money or other property remaining on deposit to the credit of an estate after final distribution to such known heirs, legatees or devisees, shall be paid to the Treasurer or Controller as provided in Chapter 2.


1444.5. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any money on deposit with the county treasurer of a county received from a public administrator of the county in trust and to the account of the estate of a deceased person or the creditor of a deceased person, in an amount of fifty dollars ($50) or less as to any one estate or creditor, and not covered by a decree of distribution, which was received or remained on hand after the final accounting in such deceased person's estate and the discharge of such public administrator as representative of the estate, and where the money has so remained on deposit in trust for a period of 15 years or more unclaimed by any heir, devisee or legatee of such deceased person, or by any creditor having an allowed and approved claim against the deceased person's estate remaining unpaid, shall be deemed permanently escheated to the State of California. The total of any such moneys so held in trust unclaimed for such period may be paid in a lump sum by the county treasurer, from such funds as he may have on hand for the purpose, to the State Treasurer, at the time of the next county settlement after the effective date of this section, or at any county settlement thereafter. Such lump sum payment may be made by designating it to have been made under this section, without the necessity of any further report or statement of the estates or claimants concerned, without the necessity of any order of court, and without being subject to the provisions of Section 1311 or 1312. Upon receipt by the State Treasurer, any permanently escheated money received by him under this section shall forthwith be deposited in the School Land Fund, subject only to the rights of minors and persons of unsound mind saved to them by Section 1430. This section shall also apply in all respects to any money on deposit with a county treasurer received from the coroner of the county in trust and to the account of a deceased person, and any such money shall be held, deemed permanently escheated, reported and paid over in like manner as hereinabove set forth.


1445. If money or other property is deposited in a county treasury, and if the deposits belong (1) to known decedents' estates on which letters testamentary or letters of administration have never been issued or (2) to known decedents' estates on which letters testamentary or letters of administration have been issued but no decree of distribution has been rendered, due to the absence of any parties interested in the estate or the failure of such parties diligently to protect their interests by taking reasonable steps for the purpose of securing a distribution of the estate, the county treasurer shall, within one year following the expiration of five years from the date of such deposit, file a petition in the superior court of the county in which the deposit is held, setting forth the fact that the money or other personal property has remained in the county treasury under such circumstances for such five-year period, and petitioning the court for an order directing him to pay such money or other property into the State Treasury. At the time of the next county settlement following the date of the making of the order by the court, unless earlier payment is required by the Controller, the county treasurer shall pay such money or other property to the Treasurer or Controller as provided in Chapter 2.

1446. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all unclaimed money or other property belonging to any person who dies while confined in any state institution subject to the jurisdiction of the Director of Corrections, which is paid or delivered to the State or any officer or employee thereof under the provisions of Section 5061 of the Penal Code, or under any amendment thereof adopted after the effective date of this section, shall be deemed to be paid or delivered for deposit in the State Treasury under the provisions of this article, and shall be transmitted, received, accounted for, and disposed of, as provided in this part.


1447. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all unclaimed money or other property belonging to any person who dies while confined in any state institution subject to the jurisdiction of the Department of Mental Hygiene, which is paid or delivered to the State or any officer or employee thereof under the provisions of Section 166 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, or under any amendment thereof adopted after the effective date of this section, shall be deemed to be paid or delivered for deposit in the State Treasury under the provisions of this article, and shall be transmitted, received, accounted for, and disposed of, as provided in this part.


1448. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all unclaimed money or other property belonging to any person who dies while confined in any state institution subject to the jurisdiction of the Youth Authority, which is paid or delivered to the State or any officer thereof under the provisions of Section 1015 of the Welfare and Institutions Code or under any amendment thereof adopted after the effective date of this section, shall be deemed to be paid or delivered for deposit in the State Treasury under the provisions of this article, and shall be transmitted, received, accounted for, and disposed of, as provided in this part.

1449. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all presumptively abandoned money or other property paid or delivered to the Treasurer or Controller under the provisions of Section 7644 of the Probate Code shall be deemed to be paid or delivered for deposit in the State Treasury under the provisions of this article, and shall be transmitted, received, accounted for, and disposed of as provided in this title.


Article 2. Abandoned Property

Ca Codes (ccp:1476) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1476



1476. The expiration of any period of time specified by law, during which an action or proceeding may be commenced or enforced to secure payment of a claim for money or recovery of property, shall not prevent any such money or other property from being deemed abandoned property, nor affect any duty to file a report required by this title or to deliver to the Treasurer or Controller any such abandoned property; and shall not serve as a defense in any action or proceeding brought under the provisions of this article to compel the filing of any report or the delivery of any abandoned property required by this article or to enforce or collect any penalty provided by this article.


Chapter 7. Unclaimed Property Law

Article 1. Short Title; Definitions; Application

Ca Codes (ccp:1500-1506) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1500-1506



1500. This chapter may be cited as the Unclaimed Property Law.


1501. As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires: (a) "Apparent owner" means the person who appears from the records of the holder to be entitled to property held by the holder. (b) "Banking organization" means any national or state bank, trust company, banking company, land bank, savings bank, safe-deposit company, private banker, or any similar organization. (c) "Business association" means any private corporation, joint stock company, business trust, partnership, or any association for business purposes of two or more individuals, whether or not for profit, including, but not by way of limitation, a banking organization, financial organization, life insurance corporation, and utility. (d) "Financial organization" means any federal or state savings and loan association, building and loan association, credit union, investment company, or any similar organization. (e) "Holder" means any person in possession of property subject to this chapter belonging to another, or who is trustee in case of a trust, or is indebted to another on an obligation subject to this chapter. (f) "Life insurance corporation" means any association or corporation transacting the business of insurance on the lives of persons or insurance appertaining thereto, including, but not by way of limitation, endowments, and annuities. (g) "Owner" means a depositor in case of a deposit, a beneficiary in case of a trust, or creditor, claimant, or payee in case of other choses in action, or any person having a legal or equitable interest in property subject to this chapter, or his or her legal representative. (h) "Person" means any individual, business association, government or governmental subdivision or agency, two or more persons having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity, whether that person is acting in his or her own right or in a representative or fiduciary capacity. (i) "Employee benefit plan distribution" means any money, life insurance, endowment or annuity policy or proceeds thereof, securities or other intangible property, or any tangible property, distributable to a participant, former participant, or the beneficiary or estate or heirs of a participant or former participant or beneficiary, from a trust or custodial fund established under a plan to provide health and welfare, pension, vacation, severance, retirement benefit, death benefit, stock purchase, profit sharing, employee savings, supplemental unemployment insurance benefits or similar benefits, or which is established under a plan by a business association functioning as or in conjunction with a labor union which receives for distribution residuals on behalf of employees working under collective-bargaining agreements. (j) "Residuals" means payments pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement of additional compensation for domestic and foreign uses of recorded materials.

1501.5. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, property received by the state under this chapter shall not permanently escheat to the state. (b) The Legislature finds and declares that this section is declaratory of the existing law and sets forth the intent of the Legislature regarding the Uniform Disposition of Unclaimed Property Act (Chapter 1809, Statutes of 1959) and all amendments thereto and revisions thereof. Any opinions, rulings, orders, judgments, or other statements to the contrary by any court are erroneous and inconsistent with the intent of the Legislature. (c) It is the intent of the Legislature that property owners be reunited with their property. In making changes to the unclaimed property program in conjunction with the Budget Act of 2007, the Legislature intends to adopt a more expansive notification program that will provide all of the following: (1) Notification by the state to all owners of unclaimed property prior to escheatment. (2) A more expansive postescheatment policy that takes action to identify those owners of unclaimed property. (3) A waiting period of not less than 18 months from delivery of property to the state prior to disposal of any unclaimed property deemed to have no commercial value.


1502. (a) This chapter does not apply to any of the following: (1) Any property in the official custody of a municipal utility district. (2) Any property in the official custody of a local agency if such property may be transferred to the general fund of such agency under the provisions of Sections 50050-50053 of the Government Code. (3) Any property in the official custody of a court if the property may be transferred to the Trial Court Operations Fund under Section 68084.1 of the Government Code. (b) None of the provisions of this chapter applies to any type of property received by the state under the provisions of Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 1300) to Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 1440), inclusive, of this title.


1503. (a) As used in this section: (1) "Old act" means this chapter as it existed prior to January 1, 1969. (2) "New act" means this chapter as it exists on and after January 1, 1969. (3) "Property not subject to the old act" means property that was not presumed abandoned under the old act and would never have been presumed abandoned under the old act had the old act continued in existence on and after January 1, 1969, without change. (b) The holder is not required to file a report concerning, or to pay or deliver to the Controller, any property not subject to the old act if an action by the owner against the holder to recover that property was barred by an applicable statute of limitations prior to January 1, 1969. (c) The holder is not required to file a report concerning, or to pay or deliver to the Controller, any property not subject to the old act, or any property that was not required to be reported under the old act, unless on January 1, 1969, the property has been held by the holder for less than the escheat period. "Escheat period" means the period referred to in Sections 1513 to 1521, inclusive, of the new act, whichever is applicable to the particular property.


1504. (a) As used in this section: (1) "Old act" means this chapter as it existed prior to January 1, 1969. (2) "New act" means this chapter as it exists on and after January 1, 1969. (3) "Property not subject to the old act" means property that was not presumed abandoned under the old act and would never have been presumed abandoned under the old act had the old act continued in existence on and after January 1, 1969, without change. (b) This chapter does not apply to any property that was escheated under the laws of another state prior to September 18, 1959. (c) This chapter does not require the holder to pay or deliver any property not subject to the old act to this state if the property was escheated under the laws of another state prior to January 1, 1969, and was delivered to the custody of that state prior to January 1, 1970, in compliance with the laws of that state. Nothing in this subdivision affects or limits the right of the State Controller to recover such property from the other state.


1505. This chapter does not affect any duty to file a report with the State Controller or to pay or deliver any property to him that arose prior to January 1, 1969, under the provisions of this chapter as it existed prior to January 1, 1969. Such duties may be enforced by the State Controller, and the penalties for failure to perform such duties may be imposed, under the provisions of this chapter as it existed prior to January 1, 1969. The provisions of this chapter as it existed prior to January 1, 1969, are continued in existence for the purposes of this section.


1506. The provisions of this chapter as it exists on and after January 1, 1969, insofar as they are substantially the same as the provisions of this chapter as it existed prior to January 1, 1969, relating to the same subject matter, shall be construed as restatements and continuations thereof and not as new enactments.



Article 2. Escheat Of Unclaimed Personal Property

Ca Codes (ccp:1510-1528) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1510-1528



1510. Unless otherwise provided by statute of this state, intangible personal property escheats to this state under this chapter if the conditions for escheat stated in Sections 1513 through 1521 exist, and if: (a) The last known address, as shown on the records of the holder, of the apparent owner is in this state. (b) No address of the apparent owner appears on the records of the holder and: (1) The last known address of the apparent owner is in this state; or (2) The holder is domiciled in this state and has not previously paid the property to the state of the last known address of the apparent owner; or (3) The holder is a government or governmental subdivision or agency of this state and has not previously paid the property to the state of the last known address of the apparent owner. (c) The last known address, as shown on the records of the holder, of the apparent owner is in a state that does not provide by law for the escheat of such property and the holder is (1) domiciled in this state or (2) a government or governmental subdivision or agency of this state. (d) The last known address, as shown on the records of the holder, of the apparent owner is in a foreign nation and the holder is (1) domiciled in this state or (2) a government or governmental subdivision or agency of this state.


1511. (a) Any sum payable on a money order, travelers check, or other similar written instrument (other than a third-party bank check) on which a business association is directly liable escheats to this state under this chapter if the conditions for escheat stated in Section 1513 exist and if: (1) The books and records of such business association show that such money order, travelers check, or similar written instrument was purchased in this state; (2) The business association has its principal place of business in this state and the books and records of the business association do not show the state in which such money order, travelers check, or similar written instrument was purchased; or (3) The business association has its principal place of business in this state, the books and records of the business association show the state in which such money order, travelers check, or similar written instrument was purchased, and the laws of the state of purchase do not provide for the escheat of the sum payable on such instrument. (b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, this section applies to sums payable on money orders, travelers checks, and similar written instruments deemed abandoned on or after February 1, 1965, except to the extent that such sums have been paid over to a state prior to January 1, 1974. For the purposes of this subdivision, the words "deemed abandoned" have the same meaning as those words have as used in Section 604 of Public Law Number 93-495 (October 28, 1974), 88th Statutes at Large 1500.


1513. (a) Subject to Sections 1510 and 1511, the following property held or owing by a business association escheats to this state: (1) (A) Except as provided in paragraph (6), any demand, savings, or matured time deposit, or account subject to a negotiable order of withdrawal, made with a banking organization, together with any interest or dividends thereon, excluding, from demand deposits and accounts subject to a negotiable order of withdrawal only, any reasonable service charges that may lawfully be withheld and that do not (where made in this state) exceed those set forth in schedules filed by the banking organization from time to time with the Controller, when the owner, for more than three years, has not done any of the following: (i) Increased or decreased the amount of the deposit, cashed an interest check, or presented the passbook or other similar evidence of the deposit for the crediting of interest. (ii) Corresponded electronically or in writing with the banking organization concerning the deposit. (iii) Otherwise indicated an interest in the deposit as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the banking organization. (B) A deposit or account shall not, however, escheat to the state if, during the previous three years, the owner has owned another deposit or account with the banking organization or the owner has owned an individual retirement account or funds held by the banking organization under a retirement plan for self-employed individuals or a similar account or plan established pursuant to the internal revenue laws of the United States or the laws of this state, as described in paragraph (6), and, with respect to that deposit, account, or plan, the owner has done any of the acts described in clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (A), and the banking organization has communicated electronically or in writing with the owner, at the address to which communications regarding that deposit, account, or plan are regularly sent, with regard to the deposit, account, or plan that would otherwise escheat under subparagraph (A). For purposes of this subparagraph, "communications" includes account statements or statements required under the internal revenue laws of the United States. (C) No banking organization may discontinue any interest or dividends on any savings deposit because of the inactivity contemplated by this section. (2) (A) Except as provided in paragraph (6), any demand, savings, or matured time deposit, or matured investment certificate, or account subject to a negotiable order of withdrawal, or other interest in a financial organization or any deposit made therewith, and any interest or dividends thereon, excluding, from demand deposits and accounts subject to a negotiable order of withdrawal only, any reasonable service charges that may lawfully be withheld and that do not (where made in this state) exceed those set forth in schedules filed by the financial organization from time to time with the Controller, when the owner, for more than three years, has not done any of the following: (i) Increased or decreased the amount of the funds or deposit, cashed an interest check, or presented an appropriate record for the crediting of interest or dividends. (ii) Corresponded electronically or in writing with the financial organization concerning the funds or deposit. (iii) Otherwise indicated an interest in the funds or deposit as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the financial organization. (B) A deposit or account shall not, however, escheat to the state if, during the previous three years, the owner has owned another deposit or account with the financial organization or the owner has owned an individual retirement account or funds held by the financial organization under a retirement plan for self-employed individuals or a similar account or plan established pursuant to the internal revenue laws of the United States or the laws of this state, as described in paragraph (6), and, with respect to that deposit, account, or plan, the owner has done any of the acts described in clauses (i), (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (A), and the financial organization has communicated electronically or in writing with the owner, at the address to which communications regarding that deposit, account, or plan are regularly sent, with regard to the deposit, account, or plan that would otherwise escheat under subparagraph (A). For purposes of this subparagraph, "communications" includes account statements or statements required under the internal revenue laws of the United States. (C) No financial organization may discontinue any interest or dividends on any funds paid toward purchase of shares or other interest, or on any deposit, because of the inactivity contemplated by this section. (3) Any sum payable on a traveler's check issued by a business association that has been outstanding for more than 15 years from the date of its issuance, when the owner, for more than 15 years, has not corresponded in writing with the business association concerning it, or otherwise indicated an interest as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the association. (4) Any sum payable on any other written instrument on which a banking or financial organization is directly liable, including, by way of illustration but not of limitation, any draft, cashier's check, teller's check, or certified check, that has been outstanding for more than three years from the date it was payable, or from the date of its issuance if payable on demand, when the owner, for more than three years, has not corresponded electronically or in writing with the banking or financial organization concerning it, or otherwise indicated an interest as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the banking or financial organization. (5) Any sum payable on a money order issued by a business association (including a banking or financial organization), that has been outstanding for more than seven years from the date it was payable, or from the date of its issuance if payable on demand, excluding any reasonable service charges that may lawfully be withheld and that do not, when made in this state, exceed those set forth in schedules filed by the business association from time to time with the Controller, when the owner, for more than seven years, has not corresponded electronically or in writing with the business association, banking, or financial organization concerning it, or otherwise indicated an interest as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the business association. For the purposes of this subdivision, "reasonable service charge" means a service charge that meets all of the following requirements: (A) It is uniformly applied to all of the issuer's money orders. (B) It is clearly disclosed to the purchaser at the time of purchase and to the recipient of the money order. (C) It does not begin to accrue until three years after the purchase date, and it stops accruing after the value of the money order escheats. (D) It is permitted by contract between the issuer and the purchaser. (E) It does not exceed 25 cents ($0.25) per month or the aggregate amount of twenty-one dollars ($21). (6) (A) Any funds held by a business association in an individual retirement account or under a retirement plan for self-employed individuals or similar account or plan established pursuant to the internal revenue laws of the United States or of this state, when the owner, for more than three years after the funds become payable or distributable, has not done any of the following: (i) Increased or decreased the principal. (ii) Accepted payment of principal or income. (iii) Corresponded electronically or in writing concerning the property or otherwise indicated an interest. (B) Funds held by a business association in an individual retirement account or under a retirement plan for self-employed individuals or a similar account or plan created pursuant to the internal revenue laws of the United States or the laws of this state shall not escheat to the state if, during the previous three years, the owner has owned another such account or plan with the business association and, with respect to that account or plan, the owner has done any of the acts described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A), and the business association has communicated electronically or in writing with the owner, at the address to which communications regarding that account or plan are regularly sent, with regard to the account or plan that would otherwise escheat under subparagraph (A). For purposes of this subparagraph, "communications" includes account statements or statements required under the internal revenue laws of the United States. (C) These funds are not payable or distributable within the meaning of this subdivision unless, under the terms of the account or plan, distribution of all or a part of the funds would then be mandatory. (7) Any wages or salaries that have remained unclaimed by the owner for more than one year after the wages or salaries become payable. (b) For purposes of this section "service charges" means service charges imposed because of the inactivity contemplated by this section.

1513.5. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (c), if the holder has in its records an address for the apparent owner, which the holder's records do not disclose to be inaccurate, every banking or financial organization shall make reasonable efforts to notify any owner by mail or, if the owner has consented to electronic notice, electronically, that the owner's deposit, account, shares, or other interest in the banking or financial organization will escheat to the state pursuant to clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraphs (1), (2), or (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 1513. The holder shall give notice either: (1) Not less than two years nor more than two and one-half years after the date of last activity by, or communication with, the owner with respect to the account, deposit, shares, or other interest, as shown on the record of the banking or financial organization. (2) Not less than six nor more than 12 months before the time the account, deposit, shares, or other interest becomes reportable to the Controller in accordance with this chapter. (b) The notice required by this section shall specify the time that the deposit, account, shares, or other interest will escheat and the effects of escheat, including the necessity for filing a claim for the return of the deposit, account, shares, or other interest. The face of the notice shall contain a heading at the top that reads as follows: "THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA REQUIRES US TO NOTIFY YOU THAT YOUR UNCLAIMED PROPERTY MAY BE TRANSFERRED TO THE STATE IF YOU DO NOT CONTACT US," or substantially similar language. The notice required by this section shall, in boldface type or in a font a minimum of two points larger than the rest of the notice, exclusive of the heading, (1) specify that since the date of last activity, or for the last two years, there has been no owner activity on the deposit, account, shares, or other interest; (2) identify the deposit, account, shares, or other interest by number or identifier, which need not exceed four digits; (3) indicate that the deposit, account, shares, or other interest is in danger of escheating to the state; and (4) specify that the California Unclaimed Property Law requires banks, banking organizations, and financial organizations to transfer funds of a deposit, account, shares, or other interest if it has been inactive for three years. It shall also include a form, as prescribed by the Controller, by which the owner may declare an intention to maintain the deposit, account, shares, or other interest. If that form is filled out, signed by the owner, and returned to the banking or financial organization, it shall satisfy the requirement of clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1), clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2), or clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 1513. In lieu of returning the form, the banking or financial organization may provide a telephone number or other electronic means to enable the owner to contact that organization. The contact, as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the banking or financial organization, shall satisfy the requirement of clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1), clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2), or clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 1513. The banking or financial organization may impose a service charge on the deposit, account, shares, or other interest for this notice in an amount not to exceed the administrative cost of mailing or electronically sending the notice and form and in no case to exceed two dollars ($2). (c) Notice as provided by subdivisions (a) and (b) shall not be required for deposits, accounts, shares, or other interests of less than fifty dollars ($50), and no service charge may be made for notice on these items. (d) In addition to the notices required pursuant to subdivision (a), the holder may give additional notice as described in subdivision (b) at any time between the date of last activity by, or communication with, the owner and the date the holder transfers the deposit, account, shares, or other interest to the Controller. (e) At the time a new account is opened with a banking or financial organization, the organization shall provide a written notice to the person opening the account informing the person that his or her property may be transferred to the appropriate state if no activity occurs in the account within the time period specified by state law. If the person opening the account has consented to electronic notice, that notice may be provided electronically. This subdivision shall become effective on January 1, 2011.


1514. (a) The contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, any safe deposit box or any other safekeeping repository, held in this state by a business association, escheat to this state if unclaimed by the owner for more than three years from the date on which the lease or rental period on the box or other repository expired, or from the date of termination of any agreement because of which the box or other repository was furnished to the owner without cost, whichever last occurs. (b) If a business association has in its records an address for an apparent owner of the contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository described in subdivision (a), and the records of the business association do not disclose the address to be inaccurate, the business association shall make reasonable efforts to notify the owner by mail, or, if the owner has consented to electronic notice, electronically, that the owner's contents, or the proceeds of the sale of the contents, will escheat to the state pursuant to this section. The business association shall give notice not less than six months and not more than 12 months before the time the contents, or the proceeds of the sale of the contents, become reportable to the Controller in accordance with this chapter. (c) The face of the notice shall contain a heading at the top that reads as follows: "THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA REQUIRES US TO NOTIFY YOU THAT YOUR UNCLAIMED PROPERTY MAY BE TRANSFERRED TO THE STATE IF YOU DO NOT CONTACT US," or substantially similar language. The notice required by this subdivision shall specify the date that the property will escheat and the effects of escheat, including the necessity for filing a claim for the return of the property. The notice required by this section shall, in boldface type or in a font a minimum of two points larger than the rest of the notice, exclusive of the heading, do all of the following: (1) Identify the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository by number or identifier. (2) State that the lease or rental period on the box or repository has expired or the agreement has terminated. (3) Indicate that the contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository will escheat to the state unless the owner requests the contents or their proceeds. (4) Specify that the California Unclaimed Property Law requires business associations to transfer the contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository to the Controller if they remain unclaimed for more than three years. (5) Advise the owner to make arrangements with the business association to either obtain possession of the contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository, or enter into a new agreement with the business association to establish a leasing or rental arrangement. If an owner fails to establish such an arrangement prior to the end of the period described in subdivision (a), such contents or proceeds shall escheat to this state. (d) In addition to the notice required pursuant to subdivision (b), the business association may give additional notice in accordance with subdivision (c) at any time between the date on which the lease or rental period for the safe deposit box or repository expired, or from the date of the termination of any agreement, through which the box or other repository was furnished to the owner without cost, whichever is earlier, and the date the business association transfers the contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository to the Controller. (e) The contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository shall not escheat to the state if, as of June 30 or the fiscal yearend next preceding the date on which a report is required to be filed under Section 1530, the owner has owned, with a banking organization providing the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository, any demand, savings, or matured time deposit, or account subject to a negotiable order of withdrawal, which has not escheated under Section 1513 and is not reportable under subdivision (d) of Section 1530. (f) The contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository shall not escheat to the state if, as of June 30 or the fiscal yearend next preceding the date on which a report is required to be filed under Section 1530, the owner has owned, with a financial organization providing the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository, any demand, savings, or matured time deposit, or matured investment certificate, or account subject to a negotiable order of withdrawal, or other interest in a financial organization or any deposit made therewith, and any interest or dividends thereon, which has not escheated under Section 1513 and is not reportable under subdivision (d) of Section 1530. (g) The contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository shall not escheat to the state if, as of June 30 or the fiscal yearend next preceding the date on which a report is required to be filed under Section 1530, the owner has owned, with a banking or financial organization providing the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository, any funds in an individual retirement account or under a retirement plan for self-employed individuals or similar account or plan pursuant to the internal revenue laws of the United States or the income tax laws of this state, which has not escheated under Section 1513 and is not reportable under subdivision (d) of Section 1530. (h) In the event the owner is in default under the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository agreement and the owner has owned any demand, savings, or matured time deposit, account, or plan described in subdivisions (e), (f), or (g), the banking or financial organization may pay or deliver the contents of, or the proceeds of sale of the contents of, the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository to the owner after deducting any amount due and payable from those proceeds under that agreement. Upon making that payment or delivery under these subdivisions, the banking or financial organization shall be relieved of all liability to the extent of the value of those contents or proceeds. (i) For new accounts opened for a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository with a business association on and after January 1, 2011, the business association shall provide a written notice to the person leasing the safe deposit box or safekeeping repository informing the person that his or her property, or the proceeds of sale of such property, may be transferred to the appropriate state upon running of the time period specified by state law from the date the lease or rental period on the safe deposit box or repository expired, or from the date of termination of any agreement because of which the box or other repository was furnished to the owner without cost, whichever is earlier. (j) A business association may directly escheat the contents of a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository without exercising its rights under Article 2 (commencing with Section 1660) of Chapter 13 of Division 1 of the Financial Code.


1515. (a) Subject to Section 1510, funds held or owing by a life insurance corporation under any life or endowment insurance policy or annuity contract which has matured or terminated escheat to this state if unclaimed and unpaid for more than three years after the funds became due and payable as established from the records of the corporation. (b) If a person other than the insured or annuitant is entitled to the funds and no address of that person is known to the corporation or if it is not definite and certain from the records of the corporation what person is entitled to the funds, it is presumed that the last known address of the person entitled to the funds is the same as the last known address of the insured or annuitant according to the records of the corporation. This presumption is a presumption affecting the burden of proof. (c) A life insurance policy not matured by actual proof of the death of the insured according to the records of the corporation is deemed to be matured and the proceeds due and payable if: (1) The insured has attained, or would have attained if he or she were living, the limiting age under the mortality table on which the reserve is based. (2) The policy was in force at the time the insured attained, or would have attained, the limiting age specified in paragraph (1). (3) Neither the insured nor any other person appearing to have an interest in the policy has, within the preceding three years, according to the records of the corporation (i) assigned, readjusted, or paid premiums on the policy, (ii) subjected the policy to loan, or (iii) corresponded in writing with the life insurance corporation concerning the policy. (d) Any funds otherwise payable according to the records of the corporation are deemed due and payable although the policy or contract has not been surrendered as required.


1515.5. Property distributable in the course of a demutualization or related reorganization of an insurance company is deemed abandoned as follows: (a) On the date of the demutualization or reorganization, if the instruments or statements reflecting the distribution are not mailed to the owner because the address on the books and records for the holder is known to be incorrect. (b) Two years after the date of the demutualization or reorganization, if instruments or statements reflecting the distribution are mailed to the owner and returned by the post office as undeliverable and the owner has done neither of the following: (1) Communicated in writing with the holder or its agent regarding the property. (2) Otherwise communicated with the holder or its agent regarding the property as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the holder or its agent. (c) Three years after the date of the demutualization or reorganization, if instruments or statements reflecting the distribution are mailed to the owner and not returned by the post office as undeliverable and the owner has done neither of the following: (1) Communicated in writing with the holder or its agent regarding the property. (2) Otherwise communicated with the holder or its agent regarding the property as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the holder or its agent.


1516. (a) Subject to Section 1510, any dividend, profit, distribution, interest, payment on principal, or other sum held or owing by a business association for or to its shareholder, certificate holder, member, bondholder, or other security holder, or a participating patron of a cooperative, who has not claimed it, or corresponded in writing with the business association concerning it, within three years after the date prescribed for payment or delivery, escheats to this state. (b) Subject to Section 1510, any intangible interest in a business association, as evidenced by the stock records or membership records of the association, escheats to this state if (1) the interest in the association is owned by a person who for more than three years has neither claimed a dividend or other sum referred to in subdivision (a) nor corresponded in writing with the association or otherwise indicated an interest as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the association, and (2) the association does not know the location of the owner at the end of the three-year period. With respect to the interest, the business association shall be deemed the holder. (c) Subject to Section 1510, any dividends or other distributions held for or owing to a person at the time the stock or other security to which they attach escheats to this state also escheat to this state as of the same time. (d) If the business association has in its records an address for the apparent owner, which the business association's records do not disclose to be inaccurate, with respect to any interest that may escheat pursuant to subdivision (b), the business association shall make reasonable efforts to notify the owner by mail or, if the owner has consented to electronic notice, electronically, that the owner's interest in the business association will escheat to the state. The notice shall be given not less than 6 nor more than 12 months before the time the interest in the business association becomes reportable to the Controller in accordance with this chapter. The face of the notice shall contain a heading at the top that reads as follows: "THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA REQUIRES US TO NOTIFY YOU THAT YOUR UNCLAIMED PROPERTY MAY BE TRANSFERRED TO THE STATE IF YOU DO NOT CONTACT US," or substantially similar language. The notice required by this subdivision shall specify the time that the interest will escheat and the effects of escheat, including the necessity for filing a claim for the return of the interest. The notice required by this section shall, in boldface type or in a font a minimum of two points larger than the rest of the notice, exclusive of the heading, (1) specify that since the date of last activity, or for the last two years, there has been no customer activity on the deposit, account, shares, or other interest; (2) identify the deposit, account, shares, or other interest by number or identifier, which need not exceed four digits; (3) indicate that the deposit, account, shares, or other interest is in danger of escheating to the state; and (4) specify that the California Unclaimed Property Law requires banks, banking organizations, and financial organizations to transfer funds of a deposit, account, shares, or other interest if it has been inactive for three years. It shall also include a form, as prescribed by the Controller, by which the owner may confirm the owner's current address. If that form is filled out, signed by the owner, and returned to the holder, it shall be deemed that the business association knows the location of the owner. In lieu of returning the form, the business association may provide a telephone number or other electronic means to enable the owner to contact the association. With that contact, as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the business association, the business association shall be deemed to know the location of the owner. The business association may impose a service charge on the deposit, account, shares, or other interest for this notice and form in an amount not to exceed the administrative cost of mailing or electronically sending the notice and form, and in no case to exceed two dollars ($2). (e) In addition to the notice required pursuant to subdivision (d), the holder may give additional notice as described in subdivision (d) at any time between the date of last activity by, or communication with, the owner and the date the holder transfers the deposit, shares, or other interest to the Controller.


1517. (a) All property distributable in the course of a voluntary or involuntary dissolution or liquidation of a business association that is unclaimed by the owner within six months after the date of final distribution or liquidation escheats to this state. (b) All property distributable in the course of voluntary or involuntary dissolution or liquidation of an insurer or other person brought under Article 14 (commencing with Section 1010) of Chapter 1 of Part 2 of Division 1 of the Insurance Code, that is unclaimed by the owner after six months of the date of final distribution, shall be transferred to the Department of Insurance, with any proceeds of sale of property and other funds to be deposited in the Insurance Fund for expenditure as provided in Section 12937 of the Insurance Code. (c) This section applies to all tangible personal property located in this state and, subject to Section 1510, to all intangible personal property.

1518. (a) All tangible personal property located in this state and, subject to Section 1510, all intangible personal property, and the income or increment on such tangible or intangible property, held in a fiduciary capacity for the benefit of another person escheats to this state if after it becomes payable or distributable, the owner has not, within a period of three years, increased or decreased the principal, accepted payment of principal or income, corresponded in writing concerning the property, or otherwise indicated an interest as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the fiduciary. (b) Funds in an individual retirement account or a retirement plan for self-employed individuals or similar account or plan established pursuant to the internal revenue laws of the United States or of this state are not payable or distributable within the meaning of subdivision (a) unless, under the terms of the account or plan, distribution of all or part of the funds would then be mandatory. (c) For the purpose of this section, when a person holds property as an agent for a business association, he or she is deemed to hold the property in a fiduciary capacity for the business association alone, unless the agreement between him or her and the business association clearly provides the contrary. For the purposes of this chapter, if a person holds property in a fiduciary capacity for a business association alone, he or she is the holder of the property only insofar as the interest of the business association in the property is concerned and the association is deemed to be the holder of the property insofar as the interest of any other person in the property is concerned.


1519. All tangible personal property located in this state, and, subject to Section 1510, all intangible personal property, held for the owner by any government or governmental subdivision or agency, that has remained unclaimed by the owner for more than three years escheats to this state.


1519.5. Subject to Section 1510, any sums held by a business association that have been ordered to be refunded by a court or an administrative agency including, but not limited to, the Public Utilities Commission, which have remained unclaimed by the owner for more than one year after becoming payable in accordance with the final determination or order providing for the refund, whether or not the final determination or order requires any person entitled to a refund to make a claim for it, escheats to this state. It is the intent of the Legislature that the provisions of this section shall apply retroactively to all funds held by business associations on or after January 1, 1977, and which remain undistributed by the business association as of the effective date of this act. Further, it is the intent of the Legislature that nothing in this section shall be construed to change the authority of a court or administrative agency to order equitable remedies.


1520. (a) All tangible personal property located in this state and, subject to Section 1510, all intangible personal property, except property of the classes mentioned in Sections 1511, 1513, 1514, 1515, 1515.5, 1516, 1517, 1518, 1519, and 1521, including any income or increment thereon and deducting any lawful charges, that is held or owing in the ordinary course of the holder's business and has remained unclaimed by the owner for more than three years after it became payable or distributable escheats to this state. (b) Except as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 1513.5, subdivision (b) of Section 1514, and subdivision (d) of Section 1516, if the holder has in its records an address for the apparent owner of property valued at fifty dollars ($50) or more, which the holder's records do not disclose to be inaccurate, the holder shall make reasonable efforts to notify the owner by mail or, if the owner has consented to electronic notice, electronically, that the owner's property will escheat to the state pursuant to this chapter. The notice shall be mailed not less than six nor more than 12 months before the time when the owner's property held by the business becomes reportable to the Controller in accordance with this chapter. The face of the notice shall contain a heading at the top that reads as follows: "THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA REQUIRES US TO NOTIFY YOU THAT YOUR UNCLAIMED PROPERTY MAY BE TRANSFERRED TO THE STATE IF YOU DO NOT CONTACT US," or substantially similar language. The notice required by this subdivision shall specify the time when the property will escheat and the effects of escheat, including the need to file a claim in order for the owner's property to be returned to the owner. The notice required by this section shall, in boldface type or in a font a minimum of two points larger than the rest of the notice, exclusive of the heading, (1) specify that since the date of last activity, or for the last two years, there has been no owner activity on the deposit, account, shares, or other interest; (2) identify the deposit, account, shares, or other interest by number or identifier, which need not exceed four digits; (3) indicate that the deposit, account, shares, or other interest is in danger of escheating to the state; and (4) specify that the California Unclaimed Property Law requires banks, banking organizations, and financial organizations to transfer funds of a deposit, account, shares, or other interest if it has been inactive for three years. It shall also include a form, as prescribed by the Controller, by which the owner may confirm the owner's current address. If that form is filled out, signed by the owner, and returned to the holder, it shall be deemed that the account, or other device in which the owner's property is being held, remains currently active and recommences the escheat period. In lieu of returning the form, the holder may provide a telephone number or other electronic means to enable the owner to contact the holder. With that contact, as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the holder, the account or other device in which the owner' s property is being held shall be deemed to remain currently active and shall recommence the escheat period. The holder may impose a service charge on the deposit, account, shares, or other interest for this notice in an amount not to exceed the administrative cost of mailing or electronically sending the notice and form, and in no case to exceed two dollars ($2). (c) In addition to the notice required pursuant to subdivision (b), the holder may give additional notice as described in subdivision (b) at any time between the date of last activity by, or communication with, the owner and the date the holder transfers the property to the Controller. (d) For purposes of this section, "lawful charges" means charges which are specifically authorized by statute, other than the Unclaimed Property Law, or by a valid, enforceable contract.


1520.5. Section 1520 does not apply to gift certificates subject to Title 1.4A (commencing with Section 1749.45) of Part 4 of Division 3 of the Civil Code. However, Section 1520 applies to any gift certificate that has an expiration date and that is given in exchange for money or any other thing of value.


1521. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), and subject to Section 1510, all employee benefit plan distributions and any income or other increment thereon escheats to the state if the owner has not, within three years after it becomes payable or distributable, accepted the distribution, corresponded in writing concerning the distribution, or otherwise indicated an interest as evidenced by a memorandum or other record on file with the fiduciary of the trust or custodial fund or administrator of the plan under which the trust or fund is established. As used in this section, "fiduciary" means any person exercising any power, authority, or responsibility of management or disposition with respect to any money or other property of a retirement system or plan, and "administrator" means the person specifically so designated by the plan, trust agreement, contract, or other instrument under which the retirement system or plan is operated, or if none is designated, the employer. (b) Except as provided in subdivision (c), an employee benefit plan distribution and any income or other increment thereon shall not escheat to this state if, at the time the distribution shall become payable to a participant in an employee benefit plan, the plan contains a provision for forfeiture or expressly authorizes the administrator to declare a forfeiture of a distribution to a beneficiary thereof who cannot be found after a period of time specified in the plan, and the trust or fund established under the plan has not terminated prior to the date on which the distribution would become forfeitable in accordance with the provision. (c) A participant entitled to an employee benefit plan distribution in the form of residuals shall be relieved from a forfeiture declared under subdivision (b) upon the making of a claim therefor.

1522. No service, handling, maintenance or other charge or fee of any kind which is imposed because of the inactive or unclaimed status contemplated by this chapter, may be deducted or withheld from any property subject to escheat under this chapter, unless specifically permitted by this chapter. Even when specifically permitted by this chapter, such charges or fees may not be excluded, withheld or deducted from property subject to this chapter if, under its policy or procedure, the holder would not have excluded, withheld or deducted such charges or fees in the event the property had been claimed by the owner prior to being reported or remitted to the Controller.


1523. If an insurer, after a good faith effort to locate and deliver to a policyholder a Proposition 103 rebate ordered or negotiated pursuant to Section 1861.01 of the Insurance Code, determines that a policyholder cannot be located, all funds attributable to that rebate escheat to the state and shall be delivered to the Controller. The funds subject to escheat on or after July 1, 1997, shall be transferred by the Controller to the Department of Insurance for deposit in the Insurance Fund in the following amounts and for the following purposes: (a) Up to the amount that will repay principal and interest on the General Fund loan authorized by Item 0845-001-0001 of the Budget Act of 1996 for expenditure as provided in Section 12936 of the Insurance Code. (b) The sum of four million dollars ($4,000,000) for expenditure during the 1998-1999 fiscal year as provided in Section 12967 of the Insurance Code.


1528. This chapter does not apply to unclaimed funds held by a life insurance corporation which is organized or admitted as a domestic fraternal benefit society under Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 10970) of Part 2 of Division 2 of the Insurance Code, so long as such funds are used for scholarship funds, exclusive of costs of administration thereof.


Article 3. Identification Of Escheated Property

Ca Codes (ccp:1530-1533) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1530-1533



1530. (a) Every person holding funds or other property escheated to this state under this chapter shall report to the Controller as provided in this section. (b) The report shall be on a form prescribed or approved by the Controller and shall include: (1) Except with respect to traveler's checks and money orders, the name, if known, and last known address, if any, of each person appearing from the records of the holder to be the owner of any property of value of at least fifty dollars ($50) escheated under this chapter. (2) In the case of escheated funds of life insurance corporations, the full name of the insured or annuitant, and his or her last known address, according to the life insurance corporation's records. (3) In the case of the contents of a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository or in the case of other tangible property, a description of the property and the place where it is held and may be inspected by the Controller. The report shall set forth any amounts owing to the holder for unpaid rent or storage charges and for the cost of opening the safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository, if any, in which the property was contained. (4) The nature and identifying number, if any, or description of any intangible property and the amount appearing from the records to be due, except that items of value under fifty dollars ($50) each may be reported in aggregate. (5) Except for any property reported in the aggregate, the date when the property became payable, demandable, or returnable, and the date of the last transaction with the owner with respect to the property. (6) Other information which the Controller prescribes by rule as necessary for the administration of this chapter. (c) If the holder is a successor to other persons who previously held the property for the owner, or if the holder has changed his or her name while holding the property, he or she shall file with his or her report all prior known names and addresses of each holder of the property. (d) The report shall be filed before November 1 of each year as of June 30 or fiscal yearend next preceding, but the report of life insurance corporations, and the report of all insurance corporation demutualization proceeds subject to Section 1515.5, shall be filed before May 1 of each year as of December 31 next preceding. The initial report for property subject to Section 1515.5 shall be filed on or before May 1, 2004, with respect to conditions in effect on December 31, 2003, and all property shall be determined to be reportable under Section 1515.5 as if that section were in effect on the date of the insurance company demutualization or related reorganization. The Controller may postpone the reporting date upon his or her own motion or upon written request by any person required to file a report. (e) The report, if made by an individual, shall be verified by the individual; if made by a partnership, by a partner; if made by an unincorporated association or private corporation, by an officer; and if made by a public corporation, by its chief fiscal officer or other employee authorized by the holder.


1531. (a) Within one year after payment or delivery of escheated property as required by Section 1532, the Controller shall cause a notice to be published, in a newspaper of general circulation which the Controller determines is most likely to give notice to the apparent owner of the property. (b) Each published notice shall be entitled "notice to owners of unclaimed property." (c) Each published notice shall also contain a statement that information concerning the amount or description of the property may be obtained by any persons possessing an interest in the property by addressing any inquiry to the Controller. (d) Within 165 days after the final date for filing the report required by Section 1530, the Controller shall mail a notice to each person having an address listed in the report who appears to be entitled to property of the value of fifty dollars ($50) or more escheated under this chapter. If the report filed pursuant to Section 1530 includes a social security number, the Controller shall request the Franchise Tax Board to provide a current address for the apparent owner on the basis of that number. The Controller shall mail the notice to the apparent owner for whom a current address is obtained if the address is different from the address previously reported to the Controller. If the Franchise Tax Board does not provide an address or a different address, then the Controller shall mail the notice to the address listed in the report required by Section 1530. (e) The mailed notice shall contain all of the following: (1) A statement that, according to a report filed with the Controller, property is being held to which the addressee appears entitled. (2) The name and address of the person holding the property and any necessary information regarding changes of name and address of the holder. (3) A statement that, if satisfactory proof of claim is not presented by the owner to the holder by the date specified in the notice, the property will be placed in the custody of the Controller and may be sold or destroyed pursuant to this chapter, and all further claims concerning the property or, if sold, the net proceeds of its sale, must be directed to the Controller. (f) This section is intended to inform owners about the possible existence of unclaimed property identified pursuant to this chapter.


1531.5. (a) The Controller shall establish and conduct a notification program designed to inform owners about the possible existence of unclaimed property received pursuant to this chapter. (b) Any notice sent pursuant to this section shall not contain a photograph or likeness of an elected official. (c) (1) Notwithstanding any other law, upon the request of the Controller, a state or local governmental agency may furnish to the Controller from its records the address or other identification or location information that could reasonably be used to locate an owner of unclaimed property. (2) If the address or other identification or location information requested by the Controller is deemed confidential under any laws or regulations of this state, it shall nevertheless be furnished to the Controller. However, neither the Controller nor any officer, agent, or employee of the Controller shall use or disclose that information except as may be necessary in attempting to locate the owner of unclaimed property. (3) This subdivision shall not be construed to require disclosure of information in violation of federal law. (4) If a fee or charge is customarily made for the information requested by the Controller, the Controller shall pay that customary fee or charge. (d) Costs for administering this section shall be subject to the level of appropriation in the annual Budget Act.


1532. (a) Every person filing a report as provided by Section 1530 shall, no sooner than seven months and no later than seven months and 15 days after the final date for filing the report, pay or deliver to the Controller all escheated property specified in the report. Any payment of unclaimed cash in an amount of at least twenty thousand dollars ($20,000) shall be made by electronic funds transfer pursuant to regulations adopted by the Controller. The Controller may postpone the date for payment or delivery of the property, and the date for any report required by subdivision (b), upon his or her own motion or upon written request by any person required to pay or deliver the property or file a report as required by this section. (b) If a person establishes his or her right to receive any property specified in the report to the satisfaction of the holder before that property has been delivered to the Controller, or it appears that, for any other reason, the property may not be subject to escheat under this chapter, the holder shall not pay or deliver the property to the Controller but shall instead file a report with the Controller, on a form and in a format prescribed or approved by the Controller, containing information pertaining to the property not subject to escheat. (c) Any property not paid or delivered pursuant to subdivision (b) that is later determined by the holder to be subject to escheat under this chapter shall not be subject to the interest provision of Section 1577. (d) The holder of any interest under subdivision (b) of Section 1516 shall deliver a duplicate certificate to the Controller or shall register the securities in uncertificated form in the name of the Controller. Upon delivering a duplicate certificate or providing evidence of registration of the securities in uncertificated form to the Controller, the holder, any transfer agent, registrar, or other person acting for or on behalf of the holder in executing or delivering the duplicate certificate or registering the uncertificated securities, shall be relieved from all liability of every kind to any person including, but not limited to, any person acquiring the original certificate or the duplicate of the certificate issued to the Controller for any losses or damages resulting to that person by the issuance and delivery to the Controller of the duplicate certificate or the registration of the uncertificated securities to the Controller. (e) Payment of any intangible property to the Controller shall be made at the office of the Controller in Sacramento or at another location as the Controller by regulation may designate. Except as otherwise agreed by the Controller and the holder, tangible personal property shall be delivered to the Controller at the place where it is held. (f) Payment is deemed complete on the date the electronic funds transfer is initiated if the settlement to the state's demand account occurs on or before the banking day following the date the transfer is initiated. If the settlement to the state's demand account does not occur on or before the banking day following the date the transfer is initiated, payment is deemed to occur on the date settlement occurs. (g) Any person required to pay cash by electronic funds transfer who makes the payment by means other than an authorized electronic funds transfer shall be liable for a civil penalty of 2 percent of the amount of the payment that is due pursuant to this section, in addition to any other penalty provided by law. Penalties are due at the time of payment. If the Controller finds that a holder's failure to make payment by an appropriate electronic funds transfer in accordance with the Controller's procedures is due to reasonable cause and circumstances beyond the holder's control, and occurred notwithstanding the exercise of ordinary care and in the absence of willful neglect, that holder shall be relieved of the penalties. (h) An electronic funds transfer shall be accomplished by an automated clearinghouse debit, an automated clearinghouse credit, a Federal Reserve Wire Transfer (Fedwire), or by an international funds transfer. Banking costs incurred for the automated clearinghouse debit transaction by the holder shall be paid by the state. Banking costs incurred by the state for the automated clearinghouse credit transaction may be paid by the holder originating the credit. Banking costs incurred for the Fedwire transaction charged to the holder and the state shall be paid by the person originating the transaction. Banking costs charged to the holder and to the state for an international funds transfer may be charged to the holder. (i) For purposes of this section: (1) "Electronic funds transfer" means any transfer of funds, other than a transaction originated by check, draft, or similar paper instrument, that is initiated through an electronic terminal, telephonic instrument, modem, computer, or magnetic tape, so as to order, instruct, or authorize a financial institution to credit or debit an account. (2) "Automated clearinghouse" means any federal reserve bank, or an organization established by agreement with the National Automated Clearing House Association or any similar organization, that operates as a clearinghouse for transmitting or receiving entries between banks or bank accounts and that authorizes an electronic transfer of funds between those banks or bank accounts. (3) "Automated clearinghouse debit" means a transaction in which the state, through its designated depository bank, originates an automated clearinghouse transaction debiting the holder's bank account and crediting the state's bank account for the amount of payment. (4) "Automated clearinghouse credit" means an automated clearinghouse transaction in which the holder, through its own bank, originates an entry crediting the state's bank account and debiting the holder's bank account. (5) "Fedwire" means any transaction originated by the holder and utilizing the national electronic payment system to transfer funds through federal reserve banks, pursuant to which the holder debits its own bank account and credits the state's bank account. (6) "International funds transfer" means any transaction originated by the holder and utilizing the international electronic payment system to transfer funds, pursuant to which the holder debits its own bank account, and credits the funds to a United States bank that credits the Unclaimed Property Fund.


1532.1. Notwithstanding Sections 1531 and 1532, property that escheats to the state pursuant to Section 1514 shall not be paid or delivered to the state until the earlier of (a) the time when the holder is requested to do so by the Controller or (b) within one year after the final date for filing the report required by Section 1530 as specified in subdivision (d) of Section 1530. Within one year after receipt of property as provided by this section, the Controller shall cause a notice to be published as provided in Section 1531.


1533. Tangible personal property may be excluded from the notices required by Section 1531, shall not be delivered to the State Controller, and shall not escheat to the state, if the State Controller, in his discretion, determines that it is not in the interest of the state to take custody of the property and notifies the holder in writing, within 120 days from receipt of the report required by Section 1530, of his determination not to take custody of the property.


Article 4. Payment Of Claims

Ca Codes (ccp:1540-1542) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1540-1542



1540. (a) Any person, excluding another state, who claims an interest in property paid or delivered to the Controller under this chapter may file a claim to the property or to the net proceeds from its sale. The claim shall be on a form prescribed by the Controller and shall be verified by the claimant. (b) The Controller shall consider each claim within 180 days after it is filed and may hold a hearing and receive evidence. The Controller shall give written notice to the claimant if he or she denies the claim in whole or in part. The notice may be given by mailing it to the address, if any, stated in the claim as the address to which notices are to be sent. If no address is stated in the claim, the notice may be mailed to the address, if any, of the claimant as stated in the claim. No notice of denial need be given if the claim fails to state either an address to which notices are to be sent or an address of the claimant. (c) No interest shall be payable on any claim paid under this chapter. (d) For the purposes of this section, "owner" means the person who had legal right to the property prior to its escheat, his or her heirs, his or her legal representative, or a public administrator acting pursuant to the authority granted in Sections 7660 and 7661 of the Probate Code. (e) Following a public hearing, the Controller shall adopt guidelines and forms that shall provide specific instructions to assist owners in filing claims pursuant to this article.


1541. Any person aggrieved by a decision of the Controller or as to whose claim the Controller has failed to make a decision within 180 days after the filing of the claim, may commence an action, naming the Controller as a defendant, to establish his or her claim in the superior court in any county or city and county in which the Attorney General has an office. The action shall be brought within 90 days after the decision of the Controller or within 270 days from the filing of the claim if the Controller fails to make a decision. The summons and a copy of the complaint shall be served upon the Controller and the Attorney General and the Controller shall have 60 days within which to respond by answer. The action shall be tried without a jury.


1542. (a) At any time after property has been paid or delivered to the Controller under this chapter, another state is entitled to recover the property if: (1) The property escheated to this state under subdivision (b) of Section 1510 because no address of the apparent owner of the property appeared on the records of the holder when the property was escheated under this chapter, the last known address of the apparent owner was in fact in that other state, and, under the laws of that state, the property escheated to that state. (2) The last known address of the apparent owner of the property appearing on the records of the holder is in that other state and, under the laws of that state, the property has escheated to that state. (3) The property is the sum payable on a travelers check, money order, or other similar instrument that escheated to this state under Section 1511, the travelers check, money order, or other similar instrument was in fact purchased in that other state, and, under the laws of that state, the property escheated to that state. (4) The property is funds held or owing by a life insurance corporation that escheated to this state by application of the presumption provided by subdivision (b) of Section 1515, the last known address of the person entitled to the funds was in fact in that other state, and, under the laws of that state, the property escheated to that state. (b) The claim of another state to recover escheated property under this section shall be presented in writing to the Controller, who shall consider the claim within 180 days after it is presented. The Controller may hold a hearing and receive evidence. The Controller shall allow the claim upon determination that the other state is entitled to the escheated property. (c) Paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) do not apply to property described in paragraph (3) or (4) of that subdivision.



Article 5. Administration Of Unclaimed Property

Ca Codes (ccp:1560-1567) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1560-1567



1560. (a) Upon the payment or delivery of escheated property to the Controller, the state shall assume custody and shall be responsible for the safekeeping of the property. Any person who pays or delivers escheated property to the Controller under this chapter and who, prior to escheat, if the person's records contain an address for the apparent owner, which the holder's records do not disclose to be inaccurate, has made reasonable efforts to notify the owner by mail or, if the owner has consented to electronic notice, electronically, in substantial compliance with Sections 1513.5, 1514, 1516, and 1520, that the owner's property, deposit, account, shares, or other interest will escheat to the state, is relieved of all liability to the extent of the value of the property so paid or delivered for any claim which then exists or which thereafter may arise or be made in respect to the property. Property removed from a safe deposit box or other safekeeping repository shall be received by the Controller subject to any valid lien of the holder for rent and other charges, such rent and other charges to be paid out of the proceeds remaining after the Controller has deducted therefrom his or her selling cost. (b) Any holder who has paid moneys to the State Controller pursuant to this chapter may make payment to any person appearing to such holder to be entitled thereto, and upon filing proof of such payment and proof that the payee was entitled thereto, the Controller shall forthwith reimburse the holder for the payment without deduction of any fee or other charges. Where reimbursement is sought for a payment made on a negotiable instrument (including a traveler's check or money order), the holder shall be reimbursed under this subdivision upon filing proof that the instrument was duly presented to him or her and that payment was made thereon to a person who appeared to the holder to be entitled to payment. (c) The holder shall be reimbursed under this section even if he made the payment to a person whose claim against him was barred because of the expiration of any such period of time as those described in Section 1570. (d) Any holder who has delivered personal property, including a certificate of any interest in a business association, to the Controller pursuant to this chapter may reclaim such personal property if still in the possession of the Controller without payment of any fee or other charges upon filing proof that the owner thereof has claimed such personal property from such holder. The Controller may, in his or her discretion, accept an affidavit of the holder stating the facts that entitle the holder to reimbursement under this subdivision as sufficient proof for the purposes of this subdivision.


1561. (a) If the holder pays or delivers escheated property to the State Controller in accordance with this chapter and thereafter any person claims the property from the holder or another state claims the property from the holder under that state's laws relating to escheat, the State Controller shall, upon written notice of such claim, defend the holder against the claim and indemnify him against any liability on the claim. (b) If any holder, because of mistake of law or fact, pays or delivers any property to the State Controller that has not escheated under this chapter and thereafter claims the property from the State Controller, the State Controller shall, if he has not disposed of the property in accordance with this chapter, refund or redeliver the property to the holder without deduction for any fee or other charge. (c) As used in this section, "escheated property" means property which this chapter provides escheats to this state, whether or not it is determined that another state had a superior right to escheat such property at the time it was paid or delivered to the State Controller or at some time thereafter.


1562. When property other than money is delivered to the State Controller under this chapter, any dividends, interest or other increments realized or accruing on such property at or prior to liquidation or conversion thereof into money, shall upon receipt be credited to the owner's account by the State Conroller. Except for amounts so credited the owner is not entitled to receive income or other increments on money or other property paid or delivered to the State Controller under this chapter. All interest received and other income derived from the investment of moneys deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund under the provisions of this chapter shall, on order of the State Controller, be transferred to the General Fund.


1563. (a) Except as provided in subdivisions (b) and (c), all escheated property delivered to the Controller under this chapter shall be sold by the Controller to the highest bidder at public sale in whatever city in the state affords in his or her judgment the most favorable market for the property involved, or the Controller may conduct the sale by electronic media, including, but not limited to, the Internet, if in his or her judgment it is cost effective to conduct the sale of the property involved in that manner. However, no sale shall be made pursuant to this subdivision until 18 months after the final date for filing the report required by Section 1530. The Controller may decline the highest bid and reoffer the property for sale if he or she considers the price bid insufficient. The Controller need not offer any property for sale if, in his or her opinion, the probable cost of sale exceeds the value of the property. Any sale of escheated property held under this section shall be preceded by a single publication of notice thereof, at least one week in advance of sale, in an English language newspaper of general circulation in the county where the property is to be sold. (b) Securities listed on an established stock exchange shall be sold at the prevailing prices on that exchange. Other securities may be sold over the counter at prevailing prices or, with prior approval of the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board, by any other method that the Controller may determine to be advisable. These securities shall be sold by the Controller no sooner than 18 months, but no later than 20 months, after the final date for filing the report required by Section 1530. If securities delivered to the Controller by a holder of the securities remain in the custody of the Controller, a person making a valid claim for those securities under this chapter shall be entitled to receive the securities from the Controller. If the securities have been sold, the person shall be entitled to receive the net proceeds received by the Controller from the sale of the securities. United States government savings bonds and United States war bonds shall be presented to the United States for payment. Subdivision (a) does not apply to the property described in this subdivision. (c) (1) All escheated property consisting of military awards, decorations, equipment, artifacts, memorabilia, documents, photographs, films, literature, and any other item relating to the military history of California and Californians that is delivered to the Controller is exempt from subdivision (a) and shall be held in trust for the Controller at the California State Military Museum and Resource Center. All escheated property held in trust pursuant to this subdivision is subject to the applicable regulations of the United States Army governing Army museum activities as described in Section 179 of the Military and Veterans Code. Any person claiming an interest in the escheated property may file a claim to the property pursuant to Article 4 (commencing with Section 1540). (2) The California State Military Museum and Resource Center shall be responsible for the costs of storage and maintenance of escheated property delivered by the Controller under this subdivision. (d) The purchaser at any sale conducted by the Controller pursuant to this chapter shall receive title to the property purchased, free from all claims of the owner or prior holder thereof and of all persons claiming through or under them. The Controller shall execute all documents necessary to complete the transfer of title.


1564. (a) All money received under this chapter, including the proceeds from the sale of property under Section 1563, shall be deposited in the Unclaimed Property Fund in an account titled "Abandoned Property." (b) Notwithstanding Section 13340 of the Government Code, all money in the Abandoned Property Account in the Unclaimed Property Fund is hereby continuously appropriated to the Controller, without regard to fiscal years, for expenditure in accordance with law in carrying out and enforcing the provisions of this chapter, including, but not limited to, the following purposes: (1) For payment of claims allowed by the Controller under the provisions of this chapter. (2) For refund, to the person making such deposit, of amounts, including overpayments, deposited in error in such fund. (3) For payment of the cost of appraisals incurred by the Controller covering property held in the name of an account in such fund. (4) For payment of the cost incurred by the Controller for the purchase of lost instrument indemnity bonds, or for payment to the person entitled thereto, for any unpaid lawful charges or costs which arose from holding any specific property or any specific funds which were delivered or paid to the Controller, or which arose from complying with this chapter with respect to such property or funds. (5) For payment of amounts required to be paid by the state as trustee, bailee, or successor in interest to the preceding owner. (6) For payment of costs incurred by the Controller for the repair, maintenance, and upkeep of property held in the name of an account in such fund. (7) For payment of costs of official advertising in connection with the sale of property held in the name of an account in such fund. (8) For transfer to the General Fund as provided in subdivision (c). (9) For transfer to the Inheritance Tax Fund of the amount of any inheritance taxes determined to be due and payable to the state by any claimant with respect to any property claimed by him or her under the provisions of this chapter. (c) At the end of each month, or more often if he or she deems it advisable, the Controller shall transfer all money in the Abandoned Property Account in excess of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) to the General Fund. Before making this transfer, the Controller shall record the name and last known address of each person appearing from the holders' report to be entitled to the escheated property and the name and last known address of each insured person or annuitant, and with respect to each policy or contract listed in the report of a life insurance corporation, its number, and the name of the corporation. The record shall be available for public inspection at all reasonable business hours.


1565. Any property delivered to the State Controller pursuant to this chapter that has no apparent commercial value shall be retained by the Controller for a period of not less than 18 months from the date the property is delivered to the Controller. If the Controller determines that any property delivered to him or her pursuant to this chapter has no apparent commercial value, he or she may at any time thereafter destroy or otherwise dispose of the property, and in that event no action or proceeding shall be brought or maintained against the state or any officer thereof, or against the holder for, or on account of any action taken by, the Controller pursuant to this chapter with respect to the property.

1566. (a) When payment or delivery of money or other property has been made to any claimant under the provisions of this chapter, no suit shall thereafter be maintained by any other claimant against the state or any officer or employee thereof for or on account of such property. (b) Except as provided in Section 1541, no suit shall be maintained by any person against the state or any officer or employee thereof for or on account of any transaction entered into by the State Controller pursuant to this chapter.


1567. The Director of Parks and Recreation may examine any tangible personal property delivered to the Controller under this chapter for purposes of determining whether such property would be useful under the provisions of Section 512 of the Public Resources Code. If the director makes such a determination with respect to the property, the Controller may deliver the property to the director for use in carrying out the purposes of Section 512 of the Public Resources Code. Upon the termination of any such use, the director shall return the property to the Controller.


Article 6. Compliance And Enforcement

Ca Codes (ccp:1570-1577.5) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1570-1577.5



1570. The expiration of any period of time specified by statute or court order, during which an action or proceeding may be commenced or enforced to obtain payment of a claim for money or recovery of property from the holder, does not prevent the money or property from being escheated, nor affect any duty to file a report required by this chapter or to pay or deliver escheated property to the State Controller.


1571. (a) The Controller may at reasonable times and upon reasonable notice examine the records of any person if the Controller has reason to believe that the person is a holder who has failed to report property that should have been reported pursuant to this chapter. (b) When requested by the Controller, the examination shall be conducted by any licensing or regulating agency otherwise empowered by the laws of this state to examine the records of the holder. For the purpose of determining compliance with this chapter, the Commissioner of Financial Institutions is vested with full authority to examine the records of any banking organization and any savings association doing business within this state but not organized under the laws of or created in this state. (c) Following a public hearing, the Controller shall adopt guidelines as to the policies and procedures governing the activity of third-party auditors who are hired by the Controller. (d) Following a public hearing, the Controller shall adopt guidelines, on or before July 1, 1999, establishing forms, policies, and procedures to enable a person to dispute or appeal the results of any record examination conducted pursuant to this section.


1572. (a) The State Controller may bring an action in a court of appropriate jurisdiction, as specified in this section, for any of the following purposes: (1) To enforce the duty of any person under this chapter to permit the examination of the records of such person. (2) For a judicial determination that particular property is subject to escheat by this state pursuant to this chapter. (3) To enforce the delivery of any property to the State Controller as required under this chapter. (b) The State Controller may bring an action under this chapter in any court of this state of appropriate jurisdiction in any of the following cases: (1) Where the holder is any person domiciled in this state, or is a government or governmental subdivision or agency of this state. (2) Where the holder is any person engaged in or transacting business in this state, although not domiciled in this state. (3) Where the property is tangible personal property and is held in this state. (c) In any case where no court of this state can obtain jurisdiction over the holder, the State Controller may bring an action in any federal or state court with jurisdiction over the holder.

1573. The State Controller may enter into an agreement to provide information needed to enable another state to determine unclaimed property it may be entitled to escheat if such other state or an official thereof agrees to provide this state with information needed to enable this state to determine unclaimed property it may be entitled to escheat. The State Controller may, by regulation, require the reporting of information needed to enable him to comply with agreements made pursuant to this section and may, by regulation, prescribe the form, including verification, of the information to be reported and the times for filing the reports.


1574. At the request of another state, the Attorney General of this state may bring an action in the name of the other state, in any court of appropriate jurisdiction of this state or federal court within this state, to enforce the unclaimed property laws of the other state against a holder in this state of property subject to escheat by the other state, if: (a) The courts of the other state cannot obtain jurisdiction over the holder; (b) The other state has agreed to bring actions in the name of this state at the request of the Attorney General of this state to enforce the provisions of this chapter against any person in the other state believed by the State Controller to hold property subject to escheat under this chapter, where the courts of this state cannot obtain jurisdiction over such person; and (c) The other state has agreed to pay reasonable costs incurred by the Attorney General in bringing the action.


1575. (a) If the State Controller believes that a person in another state holds property subject to escheat under this chapter and the courts of this state cannot obtain jurisdiction over that person, the Attorney General of this state may request an officer of the other state to bring an action in the name of this state to enforce the provisions of this chapter against such person. (b) This state shall pay all reasonable costs incurred by the other state in any action brought under the authority of this section. The State Controller may agree to pay to any state bringing such an action a reward not to exceed fifteen percent of the value, after deducting reasonable costs, of any property recovered for this state as a direct or indirect result of such action. Any costs or rewards paid pursuant to this section shall be paid from the Abandoned Property Account in the Unclaimed Property Fund and shall not be deducted from the amount that is subject to be claimed by the owner in accordance with this chapter.


1576. (a) Any person who willfully fails to render any report or perform other duties, including use of the report format described in Section 1530, required under this chapter shall be punished by a fine of one hundred dollars ($100) for each day such report is withheld or such duty is not performed, but not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000). (b) Any person who willfully refuses to pay or deliver escheated property to the Controller as required under this chapter shall be punished by a fine of not less than five thousand dollars ($5,000) nor more than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000). (c) No person shall be considered to have willfully failed to report, pay, or deliver escheated property, or perform other duties unless he or she has failed to respond within a reasonable time after notification by certified mail by the Controller's office of his or her failure to act.


1577. In addition to any damages, penalties, or fines for which a person may be liable under other provisions of law, any person who fails to report, pay, or deliver unclaimed property within the time prescribed by this chapter, unless that failure is due to reasonable cause, shall pay to the Controller interest at the rate of 12 percent per annum on that property or value thereof from the date the property should have been reported, paid, or delivered. If a holder pays or delivers unclaimed property in a timely manner, but files a report that is not in substantial compliance with the requirements of Section 1530, the interest payable shall not exceed ten thousand dollars ($10,000). The holder shall not be subject to any interest payment if the holder's failure to report in substantial compliance with the requirements of Section 1530 is due to reasonable cause.


1577.5. (a) Section 1577 does not apply to, and interest may not be imposed upon, any escheated property paid or delivered to the Controller at any time on or before December 31, 2002. (b) Subdivision (a) shall apply only if the following requirements are met: (1) On or before January 1, 2003, the holder of the property was not the subject of an investigation by the Attorney General or a party to litigation with the Controller, relating to the property. "Investigation by the Attorney General" means an investigation being conducted under any law authorizing the investigation, including, but not limited to, investigations authorized by or conducted pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 11180) of Chapter 2 of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code by the office of the Attorney General relating to the escheat of property subject to subdivision (a). (2) On or before January 3, 2000, the holder of the property was not the subject of an audit by the Controller relating to the property. "Audit by the Controller" means a formal field audit of the propertyholder's books and records by audit personnel of the Controller's office for the purpose of determining compliance with this chapter. (3) The property was required to be reported on or before November 1, 1999. (4) The property is surrendered directly to the state or its authorized agent. (5) Reports respecting the property are reported by electronic media satisfactory to the Controller, provided that paper reports shall be permitted with respect to holders reporting fewer than 50 accounts or other items. (6) All property reported after the effective date of this act shall be reported on a report separate from property currently reportable, and may not be reported with property not eligible for the amnesty program. (7) The property is paid or delivered to the Controller at the time the report is made. (8) Securities are remitted in accordance with Section 1532. (9) Records shall be maintained in a manner satisfactory to the Controller, to permit verification and compliance audits. (c) Nothing in subdivision (a) shall create an entitlement to a refund of interest paid to the Controller prior to the effective date of this section. (d) The Controller shall conduct an outreach and publicity program regarding the provisions of this section. (e) The Controller shall submit a report to the Legislature on the amnesty program. The report shall include a comprehensive accounting of all unclaimed property surrendered under the amnesty program, the date the property was surrendered, and the identities of the holders of surrendered unclaimed property. The report shall be published no later than July 31, 2003. (f) Nothing in this section shall preclude liability pursuant to Article 9 (commencing with Section 12650) of Chapter 6 of Title 2 of Division 3 of the Government Code regarding false claims. Reporting or filing extensions shall not be granted for property under this section.


Article 7. Miscellaneous

Ca Codes (ccp:1580-1582) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1580-1582



1580. The State Controller is hereby authorized to make necessary rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this chapter.


1581. (a) Any business association that sells in this state its travelers checks, money orders, or other similar written instruments (other than third-party bank checks) on which such business association is directly liable, or that provides such travelers checks, money orders, or similar written instruments to others for sale in this state, shall maintain a record indicating those travelers checks, money orders, or similar written instruments that are purchased from it in this state. (b) The record required by this section may be destroyed after it has been retained for such reasonable time as the State Controller shall designate by regulation. (c) Any business association that willfully fails to comply with this section is liable to the state for a civil penalty of five hundred dollars ($500) for each day of such failure to comply, which penalty may be recovered in an action brought by the State Controller.

1582. No agreement to locate, deliver, recover, or assist in the recovery of property reported under Section 1530, entered into between the date a report is filed under subdivision (d) of Section 1530 and the date of publication of notice under Section 1531 is valid. Such an agreement made after publication of notice is valid if the fee or compensation agreed upon is not in excess of 10 percent of the recoverable property and the agreement is in writing and signed by the owner after disclosure in the agreement of the nature and value of the property and the name and address of the person or entity in possession of the property. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent an owner from asserting, at any time, that any agreement to locate property is based upon an excessive or unjust consideration. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, records of the Controller's office pertaining to unclaimed property are not available for public inspection or copying until after publication of notice of the property or, if publication of notice of the property is not required, until one year after delivery of the property to the Controller.


Chapter 8. Property In Custody Of Federal Officers, Agencies, And Departments

Ca Codes (ccp:1600-1615) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1600-1615



1600. It is the policy of this State: (a) To discover property in the custody of officers, departments, and agencies of the United States, which property is unclaimed by owners whose addresses are known or presumed to be in this State; (b) To provide a procedure for judicial determination of the right of the State to receive custody of such unclaimed property; and (c) To authorize expenditure of state funds to pay the proportionate cost of the State in discovering such unclaimed property and to hold the United States harmless against claims concerning such property when delivered to the custody of the State in accordance with this chapter.


1601. As used in this chapter: (a) "Unclaimed property" means any tangible personal property or intangible personal property, including choses in action in amounts certain, and all debts owed or entrusted funds or other property held by any federal agency or any officer or employee thereof, whether occasioned by contract or operation of law or otherwise, except bonuses and gratuities, which has remained unclaimed by the owner for: (1) Twenty years from the date of maturity or call for payment, if arising from transactions under the public debt; or (2) Twenty years after the last transaction concerning principal or interest, if deposits in the postal savings system; or (3) Five years after the property first became payable, demandable, or returnable, if arising from any other transaction. (b) "Owner" means any person, including his or her legal representative, who has or had a legal or equitable interest in unclaimed property. The owner shall be conclusively presumed to be the person to whom unclaimed property was or is payable or returnable according to the records of the United States Government. If two or more persons are interested in the property, and the extent of their respective interests is unknown, it shall be presumed that their interests in such property are equal. (c) "Person" includes any individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, unincorporated association, or other legal entity.


1602. The Controller is authorized to enter into agreements establishing the time and manner for payments of this State's proportionate share of the actual and necessary cost incurred by the United States in examining records and reporting information to this State as such share of such cost shall be determined pursuant to federal law. Said agreements may provide for single payments at stated times over a period of years. The State Controller shall make all payments at the time and in the manner provided in said agreements.

1603. The State hereby undertakes to hold the United States harmless against any claim concerning property delivered to the custody of the State in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. In the event an action or proceeding on such claim is brought against the United States the Attorney General shall intervene therein. The State consents to suit by such claimant in such contingency and any defense in favor of the United States shall be available to and urged by the State.


1604. (a) All unclaimed intangible property, together with all interest and other increments accruing thereto, is subject to delivery to this state if the last known address of the owner is in this state. If the last known address of an owner is in this state, any other owner's address which is unknown shall be presumed to be in this state. If the last known addresses of owners are in this state and in one or more other states, the addresses of other owners whose addresses are unknown shall be presumed to be within this state if the federal agency having custody of the unclaimed property initially acquired possession in this state. If the records of the United States do not disclose the address of any owner of unclaimed property, such address shall be presumed to be within this state if the federal agency having custody of such property initially acquired possession in this state. All addresses presumed to be within this state are presumed to be within the County of Sacramento. For the purposes of this chapter, it shall be presumed that the situs of unclaimed intangible property is in this state if the last known or presumed address of the owner is in this state. (b) All unclaimed tangible property is subject to delivery to this state if the federal agency having custody of the unclaimed property initially acquired possession in this state.


1605. The Governor shall certify to the Comptroller General or other proper officer of the United States that the law of this State provides effective means whereby the United States shall be compensated at reasonable times for this State's proportionate share of the actual and necessary cost of examining records and for reporting information and whereby the United States shall be held harmless in the event of claim for property delivered to this State in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. Such certification shall be made on the thirtieth day of June next following the effective date of any federal statute requiring such certification.


1606. On the thirtieth day of June next following the date of certification by the Governor, and annually thereafter, the Controller shall request the Comptroller General or other proper officer of the United States to report all previously unreported information relating to unclaimed property as determined by that officer pursuant to federal law.


1607. When a report is received from the Comptroller General or other proper officer of the United States, the Controller shall prepare and forward a copy thereof to the clerk of the superior court of each county within this state and the clerk shall post a copy at the courthouse for a period of 60 days. Any person asserting an interest in property mentioned in the report may elect to claim against the United States under the laws of the United States, in which event and within 90 days following the date of initial posting by the clerk the person shall notify the Controller of the asserted interest and intention to so claim. The Controller shall omit the property from any claim by the state until such time as the asserted interest may be finally determined against the claimant. The interest may not thereafter be asserted against the state.


1608. The expiration of any period of time specified by statute or court order, during which an action or proceeding may be commenced or enforced to obtain payment of a claim for funds or delivery of property shall not affect the right of this State to acquire possession of unclaimed property in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.


1609. Within 120 days following the date of initial posting by the clerk of the superior court, the Attorney General shall commence a proceeding by filing a petition to determine the state's right to custody of all property mentioned in such report and unclaimed within the time and in the manner provided by Section 1607. The proceeding shall be commenced and heard in the superior court in the County of Sacramento and venue shall not be affected by the provisions of Section 401, Code of Civil Procedure. The petition shall name as respondents all persons known to have been interested and "all persons unknown claiming any title or interest in or to the property described or referred to in the petition." If the records of the United States fail to disclose with reasonable certainty the identity or number of owners or claimants of specific funds or other personal property, or the extent of their interests therein, such persons may be designated and described as a class, to wit, as "all unknown owners or claimants to the funds or property mentioned in or affected by ____," and, as the case may be, the petition shall identify and set forth the court actions or proceedings to the credit of which such funds or other property are held, or the accounts or other identifying references under which they are carried upon the records of the United States. The petition shall describe or refer to the property, and may include one or more items, as the Attorney General may be advised, without prejudice to his right to commence subsequent proceedings relating to other items not included. The petition shall also state the name of the owner and his last address as known or as presumed under this chapter, and shall set forth the facts and circumstances by virtue of which it is claimed that such funds or property are subject to custody by the state. Any number of respondents may be joined whether they reside in the same or different counties, and any number of causes of action may be joined and need not be separately stated.


1610. No summons or other process shall issue to direct the appearance and answer of a respondent. Commencing within five days after filing petition, notice of the proceeding shall be published once each week for three consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation published within the County of Sacramento. At the time the notice is first published, a copy of the petition and notice shall be posted at the courthouse in the county where each defendant was last known or presumed to have had an address. Such petition and such notice shall remain posted for 45 days. The notice of proceeding shall advise that the State seeks custody of unclaimed property held by the United States. The names but not the addresses of the respondents shall be contained in the notice with a statement that such persons are believed to live or to have lived within the State and are believed to be or to have been owners of the unclaimed property. The notice shall not contain a description of the unclaimed property but shall advise that such description together with the last known or presumed addresses of owners may be determined by examining the petition filed in the proceeding. The petition and its place of filing shall be sufficiently identified and described. The notice shall advise that persons claiming an interest must answer the petition within the time prescribed by law, which time shall be stated, if they elect to pursue their claims against the United States, otherwise their rights to property shall be preserved subject to delayed delivery as provided by law. The notice shall advise that Section 1611, Code of Civil Procedure, should be consulted for the time, form, and costs of an answer. The notice shall be deemed completed 45 days after the date of first publication, whereupon the court shall have full and complete jurisdiction over the property described in the petition and not claimed within the time or in the manner provided in Section 1611, and shall have full and complete jurisdiction to determine the right of the State to custody and to render an appropriate judgment therefor.


1611. Any person, whether or not named in the petition, may within 15 days after completion of notice respond to the petition by answer describing the property, asserting an interest as owner or successor, and declaring an intention to claim the same from the United States under the laws of the United States. Such answer shall not be filed unless accompanied by the sum of ten dollars ($10) for deposit in court, and no other answer or response shall be filed by or on behalf of a claimant. The court shall strike from the petition and dismiss from the proceeding all property described in the answer. The funds on deposit shall be transmitted by the court to the Controller and shall be received for deposit in the abandoned property account in the Unclaimed Property Fund as total reimbursement for costs and services expended on behalf of the claimant. Such dismissal shall be without prejudice to a subsequent petition should it appear that the claimant is not entitled to the property, and the interest asserted in said answer shall not thereafter be asserted against the State.


1612. Within 20 days following expiration of time for filing answer under Section 1611, the Attorney General shall apply to the court for a judgment relating to all property set forth in the petition and not claimed by answer. The court shall find that such property appears to be or to have been owned by persons residing within this State and remains unclaimed by such persons. The court shall declare that the property, which shall be described, is subject to custody of the State and shall be delivered to and received by the State of California to be retained until such time as it may be claimed pursuant to law.

1613. The Controller shall request delivery or payment of all unclaimed property described in the judgment declaring the right of the State to receive custody of such property. The request shall be accompanied by a certified copy of said judgment and shall be directed to such officer, agency, or department of the United States as may be designated for such purposes by federal law. The Controller shall furnish receipts for all property delivered or paid.


1614. Property received under this chapter shall be deposited or sold by the State Controller as though received under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1500) of this title. Property received under this chapter shall not be subject to claim within two years following the date upon which it is paid to or received by the state. Thereafter, claims shall be made in the manner provided in Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1500) of this title.


1615. All money in the abandoned property account in the Unclaimed Property Fund is hereby continuously appropriated to the State Controller without regard to fiscal years, for expenditure in accordance with this chapter for the following purposes: (a) For payment of the proportionate costs of this State pursuant to the terms of any contract entered with the United States; (b) For payment of sums necessary to indemnify the United States for losses occasioned by claims to property delivered to the custody of this State.


Title 11. Sister State And Foreign Money--judgments

Chapter 1. Sister State Money--judgments

Ca Codes (ccp:1710.10-1710.65) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1710.10-1710.65



1710.10. As used in this chapter: (a) "Judgment creditor" means the person or persons who can bring an action to enforce a sister state judgment. (b) "Judgment debtor" means the person or persons against whom an action to enforce a sister state judgment can be brought. (c) "Sister state judgment" means that part of any judgment, decree, or order of a court of a state of the United States, other than California, which requires the payment of money, but does not include a support order as defined in Section 155 of the Family Code.


1710.15. (a) A judgment creditor may apply for the entry of a judgment based on a sister state judgment by filing an application pursuant to Section 1710.20. (b) The application shall be executed under oath and shall include all of the following: (1) A statement that an action in this state on the sister state judgment is not barred by the applicable statute of limitations. (2) A statement, based on the applicant's information and belief, that no stay of enforcement of the sister state judgment is currently in effect in the sister state. (3) A statement of the amount remaining unpaid under the sister state judgment and, if accrued interest on the sister state judgment is to be included in the California judgment, a statement of the amount of interest accrued on the sister state judgment (computed at the rate of interest applicable to the judgment under the law of the sister state), a statement of the rate of interest applicable to the judgment under the law of the sister state, and a citation to the law of the sister state establishing the rate of interest. (4) A statement that no action based on the sister state judgment is currently pending in any court in this state and that no judgment based on the sister state judgment has previously been entered in any proceeding in this state. (5) Where the judgment debtor is an individual, a statement setting forth the name and last known residence address of the judgment debtor. Where the judgment debtor is a corporation, a statement of the corporation's name, place of incorporation, and whether the corporation, if foreign, has qualified to do business in this state under the provisions of Chapter 21 (commencing with Section 2100) of Division 1 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code. Where the judgment debtor is a partnership, a statement of the name of the partnership, whether it is a foreign partnership, and, if it is a foreign partnership, whether it has filed a statement pursuant to Section 15800 of the Corporations Code designating an agent for service of process. Except for facts which are matters of public record in this state, the statements required by this paragraph may be made on the basis of the judgment creditor's information and belief. (6) A statement setting forth the name and address of the judgment creditor. (c) A properly authenticated copy of the sister state judgment shall be attached to the application.


1710.20. (a) An application for entry of a judgment based on a sister state judgment shall be filed in a superior court. (b) Subject to the power of the court to transfer proceedings under this chapter pursuant to Title 4 (commencing with Section 392) of Part 2, the proper county for the filing of an application is any of the following: (1) The county in which any judgment debtor resides. (2) If no judgment debtor is a resident, any county in this state. (c) A case in which the sister state judgment amounts to twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) or less is a limited civil case.

1710.25. (a) Upon the filing of the application, the clerk shall enter a judgment based upon the application for the total of the following amounts as shown therein: (1) The amount remaining unpaid under the sister state judgment. (2) The amount of interest accrued on the sister state judgment (computed at the rate of interest applicable to the judgment under the law of the sister state). (3) The amount of the fee for filing the application for entry of the sister state judgment. (b) Entry shall be made in the same manner as entry of an original judgment of the court. From the time of entry, interest shall accrue on the judgment so entered at the rate of interest applicable to a judgment entered in this state.


1710.30. (a) Notice of entry of judgment shall be served promptly by the judgment creditor upon the judgment debtor in the manner provided for service of summons by Article 3 (commencing with Section 415.10) of Chapter 4 of Title 5 of Part 2. Notice shall be in a form prescribed by the Judicial Council and shall inform the judgment debtor that the judgment debtor has 30 days within which to make a motion to vacate the judgment. (b) The fee for service of the notice of entry of judgment under this section is an item of costs recoverable in the same manner as statutory fees for service of a writ as provided in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 685.010) of Division 1 of Title 9 of Part 2, but such fee may not exceed the amount allowed to a public officer or employee in this state for such service.


1710.35. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a judgment entered pursuant to this chapter shall have the same effect as an original money judgment of the court and may be enforced or satisfied in like manner.

1710.40. (a) A judgment entered pursuant to this chapter may be vacated on any ground which would be a defense to an action in this state on the sister state judgment, including the ground that the amount of interest accrued on the sister state judgment and included in the judgment entered pursuant to this chapter is incorrect. (b) Not later than 30 days after service of notice of entry of judgment pursuant to Section 1710.30, proof of which has been made in the manner provided by Article 5 (commencing with Section 417.10) of Chapter 4 of Title 5 of Part 2, the judgment debtor, on written notice to the judgment creditor, may make a motion to vacate the judgment under this section. (c) Upon the hearing of the motion to vacate the judgment under this section, the judgment may be vacated upon any ground provided in subdivision (a) and another and different judgment entered, including, but not limited to, another and different judgment for the judgment creditor if the decision of the court is that the judgment creditor is entitled to such different judgment. The decision of the court on the motion to vacate the judgment shall be given and filed with the clerk of court in the manner provided in Sections 632, 634, and 635, except that the court is not required to make any written findings and conclusions if the amount of the judgment as entered under Section 1710.25 does not exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000).


1710.45. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a writ of execution on a judgment entered pursuant to this chapter shall not issue, nor may the judgment be enforced by other means, until at least 30 days after the judgment creditor serves notice of entry of the judgment upon the judgment debtor, proof of which has been made in the manner provided by Article 5 (commencing with Section 417.10) of Chapter 4 of Title 5 of Part 2. (b) A writ of execution may be issued, or other enforcement sought, before service of the notice of entry of judgment if the judgment debtor is any of the following: (1) An individual who does not reside in this state. (2) A foreign corporation not qualified to do business in this state under the provisions of Chapter 21 (commencing with Section 2100) of Division 1 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code. (3) A foreign partnership which has not filed a statement pursuant to Section 15700 of the Corporations Code designating an agent for service of process. (c) The court may order that a writ of execution be issued, or may permit enforcement by other means, before service of the notice of entry of judgment if the court finds upon an ex parte showing that great or irreparable injury would result to the judgment creditor if issuance of the writ or enforcement were delayed as provided in subdivision (a). (d) Property levied upon pursuant to a writ issued under subdivision (b) or (c) or otherwise sought to be applied to the satisfaction of the judgment shall not be sold or distributed before 30 days after the judgment creditor serves notice of entry of the judgment upon the judgment debtor, proof of which has been made in the manner provided by Article 5 (commencing with Section 417.10) of Chapter 4 of Title 5 of Part 2. However, if property levied upon is perishable, it may be sold in order to prevent its destruction or loss of value, but the proceeds of the sale shall not be distributed to the judgment creditor before the date sale of nonperishable property is permissible.


1710.50. (a) The court shall grant a stay of enforcement where: (1) An appeal from the sister state judgment is pending or may be taken in the state which originally rendered the judgment. Under this paragraph, enforcement shall be stayed until the proceedings on appeal have been concluded or the time for appeal has expired. (2) A stay of enforcement of the sister state judgment has been granted in the sister state. Under this paragraph, enforcement shall be stayed until the sister state stay of enforcement expires or is vacated. (3) The judgment debtor has made a motion to vacate pursuant to Section 1710.40. Under this paragraph, enforcement shall be stayed until the judgment debtor's motion to vacate is determined. (4) Any other circumstance exists where the interests of justice require a stay of enforcement. (b) The court may grant a stay of enforcement under this section on its own motion, on ex parte motion, or on noticed motion. (c) The court shall grant a stay of enforcement under this section on such terms and conditions as are just including but not limited to the following: (1) The court may require an undertaking in an amount it determines to be just, but the amount of the undertaking shall not exceed double the amount of the judgment creditor's claim. (2) If a writ of execution has been issued, the court may order that it remain in effect. (3) If property of the judgment debtor has been levied upon under a writ of execution, the court may order the levying officer to retain possession of the property capable of physical possession and to maintain the levy on other property.


1710.55. No judgment based on a sister state judgment may be entered pursuant to this chapter in any of the following cases: (a) A stay of enforcement of the sister state judgment is currently in effect in the sister state. (b) An action based on the sister state judgment is currently pending in any court in this state. (c) A judgment based on the sister state judgment has previously been entered in any proceeding in this state.


1710.60. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), nothing in this chapter affects any right a judgment creditor may have to bring an action to enforce a sister state judgment. (b) No action to enforce a sister state judgment may be brought where a judgment based on such sister state judgment has previously been entered pursuant to this chapter.


1710.65. The entry of a judgment based on a sister state judgment pursuant to this chapter does not limit the right of the judgment creditor to bring an action based on the part of a judgment of a sister state which does not require the payment of money, nor does the bringing of such an action limit the right of the judgment creditor to obtain entry of judgment based on the sister state judgment pursuant to this chapter.


Chapter 2. Foreign-country Money Judgments

Ca Codes (ccp:1713-1724) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1713-1724



1713. This chapter may be cited as the Uniform Foreign-Country Money Judgments Recognition Act.


1714. As used in this chapter: (a) "Foreign country" means a government other than any of the following: (1) The United States. (2) A state, district, commonwealth, territory, or insular possession of the United States. (3) Any other government with regard to which the decision in this state as to whether to recognize a judgment of that government's courts is initially subject to determination under the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the United States Constitution. (b) "Foreign-country judgment" means a judgment of a court of a foreign country. "Foreign-country judgment" includes a judgment by any Indian tribe recognized by the government of the United States.


1715. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), this chapter applies to a foreign-country judgment to the extent that the judgment both: (1) Grants or denies recovery of a sum of money. (2) Under the law of the foreign country where rendered, is final, conclusive, and enforceable. (b) This chapter does not apply to a foreign-country judgment, even if the judgment grants or denies recovery of a sum of money, to the extent that the judgment is any of the following: (1) A judgment for taxes. (2) A fine or other penalty. (3) (A) A judgment for divorce, support, or maintenance, or other judgment rendered in connection with domestic relations. (B) A judgment for divorce, support, or maintenance, or other judgment rendered in connection with domestic relations may be recognized by a court of this state pursuant to Section 1723. (c) A party seeking recognition of a foreign-country judgment has the burden of establishing that the foreign-country judgment is entitled to recognition under this chapter.


1716. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivisions (b) and (c), a court of this state shall recognize a foreign-country judgment to which this chapter applies. (b) A court of this state shall not recognize a foreign-country judgment if any of the following apply: (1) The judgment was rendered under a judicial system that does not provide impartial tribunals or procedures compatible with the requirements of due process of law. (2) The foreign court did not have personal jurisdiction over the defendant. (3) The foreign court did not have jurisdiction over the subject matter. (c) A court of this state is not required to recognize a foreign-country judgment if any of the following apply: (1) The defendant in the proceeding in the foreign court did not receive notice of the proceeding in sufficient time to enable the defendant to defend. (2) The judgment was obtained by fraud that deprived the losing party of an adequate opportunity to present its case. (3) The judgment or the cause of action or claim for relief on which the judgment is based is repugnant to the public policy of this state or of the United States. (4) The judgment conflicts with another final and conclusive judgment. (5) The proceeding in the foreign court was contrary to an agreement between the parties under which the dispute in question was to be determined otherwise than by proceedings in that foreign court. (6) In the case of jurisdiction based only on personal service, the foreign court was a seriously inconvenient forum for the trial of the action. (7) The judgment was rendered in circumstances that raise substantial doubt about the integrity of the rendering court with respect to the judgment. (8) The specific proceeding in the foreign court leading to the judgment was not compatible with the requirements of due process of law. (9) The judgment includes recovery for a claim of defamation unless the court determines that the defamation law applied by the foreign court provided at least as much protection for freedom of speech and the press as provided by both the United States and California Constitutions. (d) If the party seeking recognition of a foreign-country judgment has met its burden of establishing recognition of the foreign-country judgment pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 1715, a party resisting recognition of a foreign-country judgment has the burden of establishing that a ground for nonrecognition stated in subdivision (b) or (c) exists.


1717. (a) A foreign-country judgment shall not be refused recognition for lack of personal jurisdiction if any of the following apply: (1) The defendant was served with process personally in the foreign country. (2) The defendant voluntarily appeared in the proceeding, other than for the purpose of protecting property seized or threatened with seizure in the proceeding or of contesting the jurisdiction of the court over the defendant. (3) The defendant, before the commencement of the proceeding, had agreed to submit to the jurisdiction of the foreign court with respect to the subject matter involved. (4) The defendant was domiciled in the foreign country when the proceeding was instituted or was a corporation or other form of business organization that had its principal place of business in, or was organized under the laws of, the foreign country. (5) The defendant had a business office in the foreign country and the proceeding in the foreign court involved a cause of action or claim for relief arising out of business done by the defendant through that office in the foreign country. (6) The defendant operated a motor vehicle or airplane in the foreign country and the proceeding involved a cause of action or claim for relief arising out of that operation. (b) The list of bases for personal jurisdiction in subdivision (a) is not exclusive. The courts of this state may recognize bases of personal jurisdiction other than those listed in subdivision (a) as sufficient to support a foreign-country judgment. (c) If a judgment was rendered in an action for defamation in a foreign country against a person who is a resident of California or a person or entity amenable to jurisdiction in California, and declaratory relief with respect to liability for the judgment or a determination that the judgment is not recognizable in California under Section 1716 is sought, a court has jurisdiction to determine the declaratory relief action as well as personal jurisdiction over the person or entity who obtained the foreign-country judgment if both of the following apply: (1) The publication at issue was published in California. (2) The person who is a resident, or the person or entity who is amenable to jurisdiction in California, either (A) has assets in California that might be subject to an enforcement proceeding to satisfy the foreign-country defamation judgment, or (B) may have to take actions in California to comply with the foreign-country defamation judgment. This subdivision shall apply to persons who obtained judgments in defamation proceedings in a foreign country both prior to and after January 1, 2010.


1718. (a) If recognition of a foreign-country judgment is sought as an original matter, the issue of recognition shall be raised by filing an action seeking recognition of the foreign-country judgment. (b) If recognition of a foreign-country judgment is sought in a pending action, the issue of recognition may be raised by counterclaim, cross-claim, or affirmative defense.


1719. If the court in a proceeding under Section 1718 finds that the foreign-country judgment is entitled to recognition under this chapter then, to the extent that the foreign-country judgment grants or denies recovery of a sum of money, the foreign-country judgment is both of the following: (a) Conclusive between the parties to the same extent as the judgment of a sister state entitled to full faith and credit in this state would be conclusive. (b) Enforceable in the same manner and to the same extent as a judgment rendered in this state.

1720. If a party establishes that an appeal from a foreign-country judgment is pending or will be taken in the foreign country, the court may stay any proceedings with regard to the foreign-country judgment until the appeal is concluded, the time for appeal expires, or the appellant has had sufficient time to prosecute the appeal and has failed to do so.


1721. An action to recognize a foreign-country judgment shall be commenced within the earlier of the time during which the foreign-country judgment is effective in the foreign country or 10 years from the date that the foreign-country judgment became effective in the foreign country.


1722. In applying and construing this uniform act, consideration shall be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it.


1723. This chapter does not prevent the recognition under principles of comity or otherwise of a foreign-country judgment not within the scope of this chapter.


1724. (a) This chapter applies to all actions commenced on or after the effective date of this chapter in which the issue of recognition of a foreign-country judgment is raised. (b) The former Uniform Foreign Money-Judgments Recognition Act (Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1713) of Title 11 of Part 3) applies to all actions commenced before the effective date of this chapter in which the issue of recognition of a foreign-country judgment is raised.


Title 11.6. Civil Action Mediation

Ca Codes (ccp:1775-1775.15) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1775-1775.15



1775. The Legislature finds and declares that: (a) The peaceful resolution of disputes in a fair, timely, appropriate, and cost-effective manner is an essential function of the judicial branch of state government under Article VI of the California Constitution. (b) In the case of many disputes, litigation culminating in a trial is costly, time consuming, and stressful for the parties involved. Many disputes can be resolved in a fair and equitable manner through less formal processes. (c) Alternative processes for reducing the cost, time, and stress of dispute resolution, such as mediation, have been effectively used in California and elsewhere. In appropriate cases mediation provides parties with a simplified and economical procedure for obtaining prompt and equitable resolution of their disputes and a greater opportunity to participate directly in resolving these disputes. Mediation may also assist to reduce the backlog of cases burdening the judicial system. It is in the public interest for mediation to be encouraged and used where appropriate by the courts. (d) Mediation and similar alternative processes can have the greatest benefit for the parties in a civil action when used early, before substantial discovery and other litigation costs have been incurred. Where appropriate, participants in disputes should be encouraged to utilize mediation and other alternatives to trial for resolving their differences in the early stages of a civil action. (e) As a pilot project in Los Angeles County and in other counties which elect to apply this title, courts should be able to refer cases to appropriate dispute resolution processes such as judicial arbitration and mediation as an alternative to trial, consistent with the parties' right to obtain a trial if a dispute is not resolved through an alternative process. (f) The purpose of this title is to encourage the use of court-annexed alternative dispute resolution methods in general, and mediation in particular. It is estimated that the average cost to the court for processing a civil case of the kind described in Section 1775.3 through judgment is three thousand nine hundred forty-three dollars ($3,943) for each judge day, and that a substantial portion of this cost can be saved if these cases are resolved before trial. The Judicial Council, through the Administrative Office of the Courts, shall conduct a survey to determine the number of cases resolved by alternative dispute resolution authorized by this title, and shall estimate the resulting savings realized by the courts and the parties. The results of the survey shall be included in the report submitted pursuant to Section 1775.14. The programs authorized by this title shall be deemed successful if they result in estimated savings of at least two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000) to the courts and corresponding savings to the parties.


1775.1. (a) As used in this title, "mediation" means a process in which a neutral person or persons facilitate communication between the disputants to assist them in reaching a mutually acceptable agreement. (b) Unless otherwise specified in this title or ordered by the court, any act to be performed by a party may also be performed by his or her counsel of record.


1775.2. (a) This title shall apply to the courts of the County of Los Angeles. (b) A court of any county, at the option of the presiding judge, may elect whether or not to apply this title to eligible actions filed in that court, and this title shall not apply in any court which has not so elected. An election under this subdivision may be revoked by the court at any time. (c) Courts are authorized to apply this title to all civil actions pending or commenced on or after January 1, 1994.


1775.3. (a) In the courts of the County of Los Angeles and in other courts that elect to apply this title, all at-issue civil actions in which arbitration is otherwise required pursuant to Section 1141.11, whether or not the action includes a prayer for equitable relief, may be submitted to mediation by the presiding judge or the judge designated under this title as an alternative to judicial arbitration pursuant to Chapter 2.5 (commencing with Section 1141.10) of Title 3. (b) Any civil action otherwise within the scope of this title in which a party to the action is a public agency or public entity may be submitted to mediation pursuant to subdivision (a).


1775.4. An action that has been ordered into arbitration pursuant to Section 1141.11 or 1141.12 may not be ordered into mediation under this title, and an action that has been ordered into mediation pursuant to Section 1775.3 may not be ordered into arbitration pursuant to Section 1141.11.


1775.5. The court shall not order a case into mediation where the amount in controversy exceeds fifty thousand dollars ($50,000). The determination of the amount in controversy shall be made in the same manner as provided in Section 1141.16 and, in making this determination, the court shall not consider the merits of questions of liability, defenses, or comparative negligence.


1775.6. In actions submitted to mediation pursuant to Section 1775.3, a mediator shall be selected for the action within 30 days of its submission to mediation. The method of selection and qualification of the mediator shall be as the parties determine. If the parties are unable to agree on a mediator within 15 days of the date of submission of the action to mediation, the court may select a mediator pursuant to standards adopted by the Judicial Council.


1775.7. (a) Submission of an action to mediation pursuant to this title shall not suspend the running of the time periods specified in Chapter 1.5 (commencing with Section 583.110) of Title 8 of Part 2, except as provided in this section. (b) If an action is or remains submitted to mediation pursuant to this title more than four years and six months after the plaintiff has filed the action, then the time beginning on the date four years and six months after the plaintiff has filed the action and ending on the date on which a statement of nonagreement is filed pursuant to Section 1775.9 shall not be included in computing the five-year period specified in Section 583.310.


1775.8. (a) The compensation of court-appointed mediators shall be the same as the compensation of arbitrators pursuant to Section 1141.18, except that no compensation shall be paid prior to the filing of a statement of nonagreement by the mediator pursuant to Section 1775.9 or prior to settlement of the action by the parties. (b) All administrative costs of mediation, including compensation of mediators, shall be paid in the same manner as for arbitration pursuant to Section 1141.28. Funds allocated for the payment of arbitrators under the judicial arbitration program shall be equally available for the payment of mediators under this title.


1775.9. (a) In the event that the parties to mediation are unable to reach a mutually acceptable agreement and any party to the mediation wishes to terminate the mediation, then the mediator shall file a statement of nonagreement. This statement shall be in a form to be developed by the Judicial Council. (b) Upon the filing of a statement of nonagreement, the matter shall be calendared for trial, by court or jury, both as to law and fact, insofar as possible, so that the trial shall be given the same place on the active list as it had prior to mediation, or shall receive civil priority on the next setting calendar.


1775.10. All statements made by the parties during the mediation shall be subject to Sections 703.5 and 1152, and Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1115) of Division 9, of the Evidence Code.


1775.11. Any party who participates in mediation pursuant to Section 1775.3 shall retain the right to obtain discovery to the extent available under the Civil Discovery Act, Title 4 (commencing with Section 2016.010) of Part 4.

1775.12. Any reference to the mediation or the statement of nonagreement filed pursuant to Section 1775.9 during any subsequent trial shall constitute an irregularity in the proceedings of the trial for the purposes of Section 657.

1775.13. It is the intent of the Legislature that nothing in this title be construed to preempt other current or future alternative dispute resolution programs operating in the trial courts.


1775.14. (a) On or before January 1, 1998, the Judicial Council shall submit a report to the Legislature concerning court alternative dispute resolution programs. This report shall include, but not be limited to, a review of programs operated in Los Angeles County and other courts that have elected to apply this title, and shall examine, among other things, the effect of this title on the judicial arbitration programs of courts that have participated in that program. (b) The Judicial Council shall, by rule, require that each court applying this title file with the Judicial Council data that will enable the Judicial Council to submit the report required by subdivision (a).


1775.15. Notwithstanding any other provision of law except the provisions of this title, the Judicial Council shall provide by rule for all of the following: (a) The procedures to be followed in submitting actions to mediation under this act. (b) Coordination of the procedures and processes under this act with those under the trial Court Delay Reduction Act, Article 5 (commencing with Section 68600) of Chapter 2 of Title 8 of the Government Code. (c) Exceptions for cause from provisions of this title. In providing for exceptions, the Judicial Council shall take into consideration whether the civil action might not be amenable to mediation.


Title 11.7. Recovery Of Preferences And Exempt Property In An Assignment For The Benefit Of Creditors

Ca Codes (ccp:1800-1802) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1800-1802



1800. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the following meanings: (1) "Insolvent" means: (A) With reference to a person other than a partnership, a financial condition such that the sum of the person's debts is greater than all of the person's property, at a fair valuation, exclusive of both of the following: (i) Property transferred, concealed, or removed with intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the person's creditors. (ii) Property that is exempt from property of the estate pursuant to the election of the person made pursuant to Section 1801. (B) With reference to a partnership, financial condition such that the sum of the partnership's debts are greater than the aggregate of, at a fair valuation, both of the following: (i) All of the partnership's property, exclusive of property of the kind specified in clause (i) of subparagraph (A). (ii) The sum of the excess of the value of each general partner's separate property, exclusive of property of the kind specified in clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), over the partner's separate debts. (2) "Inventory" means personal property leased or furnished, held for sale or lease, or to be furnished under a contract for service, raw materials, work in process, or materials used or consumed in a business, including farm products such as crops or livestock, held for sale or lease. (3) "Insider" means: (A) If the assignor is an individual, any of the following: (i) A relative of the assignor or of a general partner of the assignor. (ii) A partnership in which the assignor is a general partner. (iii) A general partner of the assignor. (iv) A corporation of which the assignor is a director, officer, or person in control. (B) If the assignor is a corporation, any of the following: (i) A director of the assignor. (ii) An officer of the assignor. (iii) A person in control of the assignor. (iv) A partnership in which the assignor is a general partner. (v) A general partner of the assignor. (vi) A relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the assignor. (C) If the assignor is a partnership, any of the following: (i) A general partner in the assignor. (ii) A relative of a general partner in, general partner of, or person in control of the assignor. (iii) A partnership in which the assignor is a general partner. (iv) A general partner of the assignor. (v) A person in control of the assignor. (D) An affiliate of the assignor or an insider of an affiliate as if the affiliate were the assignor. (E) A managing agent of the assignor. As used in this paragraph, the following terms have the following meanings: "Relative" means an individual related by affinity or consanguinity within the third degree as determined by the common law, or an individual in a step or adoptive relationship within the third degree. An "affiliate" means a person that directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds, with power to vote, 20 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities of the assignor, or 20 percent or more of whose outstanding voting securities are directly or indirectly owned, controlled, or held with power to vote by the assignor, excluding securities held in a fiduciary or agency capacity without sole discretionary power to vote, or held solely to secure a debt if the holder has not in fact exercised the power to vote, or a person who operates the business of the assignor under a lease or operating agreement or whose business is operated by the assignor under a lease or operating agreement. (4) "Judicial lien" means a lien obtained by judgment, levy, sequestration, or other legal or equitable process or proceeding. (5) "New value" means money or money's worth in goods, services, or new credit, or release by a transferee of property previously transferred to the transferee in a transaction that is neither void nor voidable by the assignor or the assignee under any applicable law, but does not include an obligation substituted for an existing obligation. (6) "Receivable" means a right to payment, whether or not the right has been earned by performance. (7) "Security agreement" means an agreement that creates or provides for a security interest. (8) "Security interest" means a lien created by an agreement. (9) "Statutory lien" means a lien arising solely by force of a statute on specified circumstances or conditions, or lien of distress for rent, whether or not statutory, but does not include a security interest or judicial lien, whether or not the interest or lien is provided by or is dependent on a statute and whether or not the interest or lien is made fully effective by statute. (10) "Transfer" means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, or disposing of or parting with property or with an interest in property, including retention of title as a security interest. (b) Except as provided in subdivision (c), the assignee of any general assignment for the benefit of creditors, as defined in Section 493.010, may recover any transfer of property of the assignor that is all of the following: (1) To or for the benefit of a creditor. (2) For or on account of an antecedent debt owed by the assignor before the transfer was made. (3) Made while the assignor was insolvent. (4) Made on or within 90 days before the date of the making of the assignment or made between 90 days and one year before the date of making the assignment if the creditor, at the time of the transfer, was an insider and had reasonable cause to believe the debtor was insolvent at the time of the transfer. (5) Enables the creditor to receive more than another creditor of the same class. (c) The assignee may not recover under this section a transfer as follows: (1) To the extent that the transfer was both of the following: (A) Intended by the assignor and the creditor to or for whose benefit the transfer was made to be a contemporaneous exchange for new value given to the assignor. (B) In fact a substantially contemporaneous exchange. (2) To the extent that the transfer was all of the following: (A) In payment of a debt incurred in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the assignor and the transferee. (B) Made in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the assignor and the transferee. (C) Made according to ordinary business terms. (3) Of a security interest in property acquired by the assignor that meets both of the following: (A) To the extent the security interest secures new value that was all of the following: (i) Given at or after the signing of a security agreement that contains a description of the property as collateral. (ii) Given by or on behalf of the secured party under the agreement. (iii) Given to enable the assignor to acquire the property. (iv) In fact used by the assignor to acquire the property. (B) That is perfected within 20 days after the security interest attaches. (4) To or for the benefit of a creditor, to the extent that, after the transfer, the creditor gave new value to or for the benefit of the assignor that meets both of the following: (A) Not secured by an otherwise unavoidable security interest. (B) On account of which new value the assignor did not make an otherwise unavoidable transfer to or for the benefit of the creditor. (5) Of a perfected security interest in inventory or a receivable or the proceeds of either, except to the extent that the aggregate of all the transfers to the transferee caused a reduction, as of the date of the making of the assignment and to the prejudice of other creditors holding unsecured claims, of any amount by which the debt secured by the security interest exceeded the value of all security interest for the debt on the later of the following: (A) Ninety days before the date of the making of the assignment. (B) The date on which new value was first given under the security agreement creating the security interest. (6) That is the fixing of a statutory lien. (7) That is payment to a claimant, as defined in Section 3085 of the Civil Code, in exchange for the claimant's waiver or release of any potential or asserted claim of lien, stop notice, or right to recover on a payment bond, or any combination thereof. (8) To the extent that the transfer was a bona fide payment of a debt to a spouse, former spouse, or child of the debtor, for alimony to, maintenance for, or support of, the spouse or child, in connection with a separation agreement, divorce decree, or other order of a court of record, or a determination made in accordance with state or territorial law by a governmental unit, or property settlement agreement; but not to the extent that either of the following occurs: (A) The debt is assigned to another entity voluntarily, by operation of law or otherwise, in which case the assignee may not recover that portion of the transfer that is assigned to the state or any political subdivision of the state pursuant to Part D of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 601 et seq.) and passed on to the spouse, former spouse, or child of the debtor. (B) The debt includes a liability designated as alimony, maintenance, or support, unless the liability is actually in the nature of alimony, maintenance, or support. (d) An assignee of any general assignment for the benefit of creditors, as defined in Section 493.010, may avoid a transfer of property of the assignor transferred to secure reimbursement of a surety that furnished a bond or other obligation to dissolve a judicial lien that would have been avoidable by the assignee under subdivision (b). The liability of the surety under the bond or obligation shall be discharged to the extent of the value of the property recovered by the assignee or the amount paid to the assignee. (e) (1) For the purposes of this section: (A) A transfer of real property other than fixtures, but including the interest of a seller or purchaser under a contract for the sale of real property, is perfected when a bona fide purchaser of the property from the debtor, against whom applicable law permits the transfer to be perfected, cannot acquire an interest that is superior to the interest of the transferee. (B) A transfer of a fixture or property other than real property is perfected when a creditor on a simple contract cannot acquire a judicial lien that is superior to the interest of the transferee. (2) For the purposes of this section, except as provided in paragraph (3), a transfer is made at any of the following times: (A) At the time the transfer takes effect between the transferor and the transferee, if the transfer is perfected at, or within 10 days after, the time, except as provided in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (c). (B) At the time the transfer is perfected, if the transfer is perfected after the 10 days. (C) Immediately before the date of making the assignment if the transfer is not perfected at the later of: (i) The making of the assignment. (ii) Ten days after the transfer takes effect between the transferor and the transferee. (3) For the purposes of this section, a transfer is not made until the assignor has acquired rights in the property transferred. (f) For the purposes of this section, the assignor is presumed to have been insolvent on and during the 90 days immediately preceding the date of making the assignment. (g) An action by an assignee under this section must be commenced within one year after making the assignment.


1800. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the following meanings: (1) "Insolvent" means: (A) With reference to a person other than a partnership, a financial condition such that the sum of the person's debts is greater than all of the person's property, at a fair valuation, exclusive of both of the following: (i) Property transferred, concealed, or removed with intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the person's creditors. (ii) Property that is exempt from property of the estate pursuant to the election of the person made pursuant to Section 1801. (B) With reference to a partnership, financial condition such that the sum of the partnership's debts are greater than the aggregate of, at a fair valuation, both of the following: (i) All of the partnership's property, exclusive of property of the kind specified in clause (i) of subparagraph (A). (ii) The sum of the excess of the value of each general partner's separate property, exclusive of property of the kind specified in clause (ii) of subparagraph (A), over the partner's separate debts. (2) "Inventory" means personal property leased or furnished, held for sale or lease, or to be furnished under a contract for service, raw materials, work in process, or materials used or consumed in a business, including farm products such as crops or livestock, held for sale or lease. (3) "Insider" means: (A) If the assignor is an individual, any of the following: (i) A relative of the assignor or of a general partner of the assignor. (ii) A partnership in which the assignor is a general partner. (iii) A general partner of the assignor. (iv) A corporation of which the assignor is a director, officer, or person in control. (B) If the assignor is a corporation, any of the following: (i) A director of the assignor. (ii) An officer of the assignor. (iii) A person in control of the assignor. (iv) A partnership in which the assignor is a general partner. (v) A general partner of the assignor. (vi) A relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the assignor. (C) If the assignor is a partnership, any of the following: (i) A general partner in the assignor. (ii) A relative of a general partner in, general partner of, or person in control of the assignor. (iii) A partnership in which the assignor is a general partner. (iv) A general partner of the assignor. (v) A person in control of the assignor. (D) An affiliate of the assignor or an insider of an affiliate as if the affiliate were the assignor. (E) A managing agent of the assignor. As used in this paragraph, the following terms have the following meanings: "Relative" means an individual related by affinity or consanguinity within the third degree as determined by the common law, or an individual in a step or adoptive relationship within the third degree. An "affiliate" means a person that directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds, with power to vote, 20 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities of the assignor, or 20 percent or more of whose outstanding voting securities are directly or indirectly owned, controlled, or held with power to vote by the assignor, excluding securities held in a fiduciary or agency capacity without sole discretionary power to vote, or held solely to secure a debt if the holder has not in fact exercised the power to vote, or a person who operates the business of the assignor under a lease or operating agreement or whose business is operated by the assignor under a lease or operating agreement. (4) "Judicial lien" means a lien obtained by judgment, levy, sequestration, or other legal or equitable process or proceeding. (5) "New value" means money or money's worth in goods, services, or new credit, or release by a transferee of property previously transferred to the transferee in a transaction that is neither void nor voidable by the assignor or the assignee under any applicable law, but does not include an obligation substituted for an existing obligation. (6) "Receivable" means a right to payment, whether or not the right has been earned by performance. (7) "Security agreement" means an agreement that creates or provides for a security interest. (8) "Security interest" means a lien created by an agreement. (9) "Statutory lien" means a lien arising solely by force of a statute on specified circumstances or conditions, or lien of distress for rent, whether or not statutory, but does not include a security interest or judicial lien, whether or not the interest or lien is provided by or is dependent on a statute and whether or not the interest or lien is made fully effective by statute. (10) "Transfer" means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, or disposing of or parting with property or with an interest in property, including retention of title as a security interest. (b) Except as provided in subdivision (c), the assignee of any general assignment for the benefit of creditors, as defined in Section 493.010, may recover any transfer of property of the assignor that is all of the following: (1) To or for the benefit of a creditor. (2) For or on account of an antecedent debt owed by the assignor before the transfer was made. (3) Made while the assignor was insolvent. (4) Made on or within 90 days before the date of the making of the assignment or made between 90 days and one year before the date of making the assignment if the creditor, at the time of the transfer, was an insider and had reasonable cause to believe the debtor was insolvent at the time of the transfer. (5) Enables the creditor to receive more than another creditor of the same class. (c) The assignee may not recover under this section a transfer as follows: (1) To the extent that the transfer was both of the following: (A) Intended by the assignor and the creditor to or for whose benefit the transfer was made to be a contemporaneous exchange for new value given to the assignor. (B) In fact a substantially contemporaneous exchange. (2) To the extent that the transfer was all of the following: (A) In payment of a debt incurred in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the assignor and the transferee. (B) Made in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the assignor and the transferee. (C) Made according to ordinary business terms. (3) Of a security interest in property acquired by the assignor that meets both of the following: (A) To the extent the security interest secures new value that was all of the following: (i) Given at or after the signing of a security agreement that contains a description of the property as collateral. (ii) Given by or on behalf of the secured party under the agreement. (iii) Given to enable the assignor to acquire the property. (iv) In fact used by the assignor to acquire the property. (B) That is perfected within 20 days after the security interest attaches. (4) To or for the benefit of a creditor, to the extent that, after the transfer, the creditor gave new value to or for the benefit of the assignor that meets both of the following: (A) Not secured by an otherwise unavoidable security interest. (B) On account of which new value the assignor did not make an otherwise unavoidable transfer to or for the benefit of the creditor. (5) Of a perfected security interest in inventory or a receivable or the proceeds of either, except to the extent that the aggregate of all the transfers to the transferee caused a reduction, as of the date of the making of the assignment and to the prejudice of other creditors holding unsecured claims, of any amount by which the debt secured by the security interest exceeded the value of all security interest for the debt on the later of the following: (A) Ninety days before the date of the making of the assignment. (B) The date on which new value was first given under the security agreement creating the security interest. (6) That is the fixing of a statutory lien. (7) That is payment to a claimant, as defined in Section 8004 of the Civil Code, in exchange for the claimant's waiver or release of any potential or asserted claim of lien, stop payment notice, or right to recover on a payment bond, or any combination thereof. (8) To the extent that the transfer was a bona fide payment of a debt to a spouse, former spouse, or child of the debtor, for alimony to, maintenance for, or support of, the spouse or child, in connection with a separation agreement, divorce decree, or other order of a court of record, or a determination made in accordance with state or territorial law by a governmental unit, or property settlement agreement; but not to the extent that either of the following occurs: (A) The debt is assigned to another entity voluntarily, by operation of law or otherwise, in which case the assignee may not recover that portion of the transfer that is assigned to the state or any political subdivision of the state pursuant to Part D of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 601 et seq.) and passed on to the spouse, former spouse, or child of the debtor. (B) The debt includes a liability designated as alimony, maintenance, or support, unless the liability is actually in the nature of alimony, maintenance, or support. (d) An assignee of any general assignment for the benefit of creditors, as defined in Section 493.010, may avoid a transfer of property of the assignor transferred to secure reimbursement of a surety that furnished a bond or other obligation to dissolve a judicial lien that would have been avoidable by the assignee under subdivision (b). The liability of the surety under the bond or obligation shall be discharged to the extent of the value of the property recovered by the assignee or the amount paid to the assignee. (e) (1) For the purposes of this section: (A) A transfer of real property other than fixtures, but including the interest of a seller or purchaser under a contract for the sale of real property, is perfected when a bona fide purchaser of the property from the debtor, against whom applicable law permits the transfer to be perfected, cannot acquire an interest that is superior to the interest of the transferee. (B) A transfer of a fixture or property other than real property is perfected when a creditor on a simple contract cannot acquire a judicial lien that is superior to the interest of the transferee. (2) For the purposes of this section, except as provided in paragraph (3), a transfer is made at any of the following times: (A) At the time the transfer takes effect between the transferor and the transferee, if the transfer is perfected at, or within 10 days after, the time, except as provided in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (c). (B) At the time the transfer is perfected, if the transfer is perfected after the 10 days. (C) Immediately before the date of making the assignment if the transfer is not perfected at the later of: (i) The making of the assignment. (ii) Ten days after the transfer takes effect between the transferor and the transferee. (3) For the purposes of this section, a transfer is not made until the assignor has acquired rights in the property transferred. (f) For the purposes of this section, the assignor is presumed to have been insolvent on and during the 90 days immediately preceding the date of making the assignment. (g) An action by an assignee under this section must be commenced within one year after making the assignment.


1801. In any general assignment for the benefit of creditors (as defined in Section 493.010), the assignor, if an individual, may choose to retain as exempt property either the property which is otherwise exempt under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 703.010) of Division 2 of Title 9 of Part 2 or, in the alternative, the following property: (a) The assignor's aggregate interest, not to exceed seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500) in value, in real property or personal property that the assignor or a dependent of the assignor uses as a residence, in a cooperative that owns property that the assignor or a dependent of the assignor uses as a residence, or in a burial plot for the assignor or a dependent of the assignor. (b) The assignor's interest, not to exceed one thousand two hundred dollars ($1,200) in value, in one motor vehicle. (c) The assignor's interest, not to exceed two hundred dollars ($200) in value in any particular item, in household furnishings, household goods, wearing apparel, appliances, books, animals, crops, or musical instruments, that are held primarily for the personal, family, or household use of the assignor or a dependent of the assignor. (d) The assignor's aggregate interest, not to exceed five hundred dollars ($500) in value, in jewelry held primarily for the personal, family, or household use of the assignor or a dependent of the assignor. (e) The assignor's aggregate interest, not to exceed in value four hundred dollars ($400) plus any unused amount of the exemption provided under subdivision (a), in any property. (f) The assignor's aggregate interest, not to exceed seven hundred fifty dollars ($750) in value, in any implements, professional books, or tools, of the trade of the assignor or the trade of a dependent of the assignor. (g) Any unmatured life insurance contract owned by the assignor, other than a credit life insurance contract. (h) The assignor's aggregate interest, not to exceed in value four thousand dollars ($4,000) in any accrued dividend or interest under, or loan value of, any unmatured life insurance contract owned by the assignor under which the insured is the assignor or an individual of whom the assignor is a dependent. (i) Professionally prescribed health aids for the assignor or a dependent of the assignor. (j) The assignor's right to receive any of the following: (1) A social security benefit, unemployment compensation, or a local public assistance benefit except that this paragraph does not preclude the application of Section 1255.7 of the Unemployment Insurance Code. (2) A veterans' benefit. (3) A disability, illness, or unemployment benefit except that this paragraph does not preclude the application of Section 1255.7 of the Unemployment Insurance Code. (4) Alimony, support, or separate maintenance, to the extent reasonably necessary for the support of the assignor and any dependent of the assignor. (5) A payment under a stock bonus, pension, profit sharing, annuity, or similar plan or contract on account of illness, disability, death, age, or length of service, to the extent reasonably necessary for the support of the assignor and any dependent of the assignor, unless: (i) The plan or contract was established by or under the auspices of an employer of which the assignor was a partner, officer, director or controlling person at the time the assignor's rights under the plan or contract arose; (ii) The payment is on account of age or length of service; and (iii) Such plan or contract does not qualify under Section 401(a), 403(a), 403(b), 408, or 409 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 401(a), 403(a), 403(b), 408, or 409). (k) The assignor's right to receive, or property that is traceable to any of the following: (1) An award under a crime victim's reparation law. (2) A payment on account of the wrongful death of an individual of whom the assignor was a dependent, to the extent reasonably necessary for the support of the assignor and any dependent of the assignor. (3) A payment under a life insurance contract that insured the life of an individual of whom the assignor was a dependent on the date of such individual's death, to the extent reasonably necessary for the support of the assignor and any dependent of the assignor. (4) A payment, not to exceed seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500), on account of personal bodily injury, as compensation for pain and suffering or actual pecuniary loss (other than loss of future earnings), of the assignor or an individual of whom the assignor is a dependent. (5) A payment in compensation of loss of future earnings of the assignor or an individual of whom the assignor is or was a dependent, to the extent reasonably necessary for the support of the assignor and any dependent of the assignor. In this section, "dependent" includes spouse, whether or not actually dependent, "assignor" means each spouse, if the assignment is made by a married couple, and "value" means fair market value as of the date of the making of the assignment.


1802. (a) In any general assignment for the benefit of creditors, as defined in Section 493.010, the assignee shall, within 30 days after the assignment has been accepted in writing, give written notice of the assignment to the assignor's creditors, equityholders, and other parties in interest as set forth on the list provided by the assignor pursuant to subdivision (c). (b) In the notice given pursuant to subdivision (a), the assignee shall establish a date by which creditors must file their claims to be able to share in the distribution of proceeds of the liquidation of the assignor's assets. That date shall be not less than 150 days and not greater than 180 days after the date of the first giving of the written notice to creditors and parties in interest. (c) The assignor shall provide to the assignee at the time of the making of the assignment a list of creditors, equityholders, and other parties in interest, signed under penalty of perjury, which shall include the names, addresses, cities, states, and ZIP Codes for each person together with the amount of that person's anticipated claim in the assignment proceedings.


Title 12. Tribal Injunctions

Ca Codes (ccp:1811) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1811



1811. (a) Following the issuance of the bonds as specified in Section 63048.65 of the Government Code and during the term of the bonds, if it reasonably appears that the exclusive right of an Indian tribe with a designated tribal compact, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 63048.6 of the Government Code, pursuant to Section 3.2(a) of that compact has been violated, the tribe may seek a preliminary and permanent injunction against that gaming or the authorization of that gaming as a substantial impairment of the rights specified in Section 3.2(a), in order to afford the tribe stability in its gaming operation and to maintain the bargained-for source of payment and security of the bonds. However, no remedy other than an injunction shall be available against the state or any of its political subdivisions for a violation of Section 3.2(a). The Legislature hereby finds and declares that any such violation of the exclusive right to gaming under Section 3.2(a) is a substantial impairment of the rights specified in that section and will cause irreparable harm that cannot be adequately remedied by damages. No undertaking shall be required on the part of the tribes in connection with any action to seek the preliminary or permanent injunction. (b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the parties to an action brought pursuant to subdivision (a) may petition the Supreme Court for a writ of mandate from any order granting or denying a preliminary injunction. Any such petition shall be filed within 15 days following the notice of entry of the superior court order, and no extension of that period shall be allowed. In any case in which a petition has been filed within the time allowed therefor, the Supreme Court shall make any orders, as it may deem proper in the circumstances.


Title 13. Inspection Warrants

Ca Codes (ccp:1822.50-1822.60) Code Of Civil Procedure Section 1822.50-1822.60



1822.50. An inspection warrant is an order, in writing, in the name of the people, signed by a judge of a court of record, directed to a state or local official, commanding him to conduct any inspection required or authorized by state or local law or regulation relating to building, fire, safety, plumbing, electrical, health, labor, or zoning.


1822.51. An inspection warrant shall be issued upon cause, unless some other provision of state or federal law makes another standard applicable. An inspection warrant shall be supported by an affidavit, particularly describing the place, dwelling, structure, premises, or vehicle to be inspected and the purpose for which the inspection is made. In addition, the affidavit shall contain either a statement that consent to inspect has been sought and refused or facts or circumstances reasonably justifying the failure to seek such consent.


1822.52. Cause shall be deemed to exist if either reasonable legislative or administrative standards for conducting a routine or area inspection are satisfied with respect to the particular place, dwelling, structure, premises, or vehicle, or there is reason to believe that a condition of nonconformity exists with respect to the particular place, dwelling, structure, premises, or vehicle.


1822.53. Before issuing an inspection warrant, the judge may examine on oath the applicant and any other witness, and shall satisfy himself of the existence of grounds for granting such application.


1822.54. If the judge is satisfied that the proper standard for issuance of the warrant has been met, he or she shall issue the warrant particularly describing each place, dwelling, structure, premises, or vehicle to be inspected and designating on the warrant the purpose and limitations of the inspection, including the limitations required by this title.


1822.55. An inspection warrant shall be effective for the time specified therein, but not for a period of more than 14 days, unless extended or renewed by the judge who signed and issued the original warrant, upon satisfying himself that such extension or renewal is in the public interest. Such inspection warrant must be executed and returned to the judge by whom it was issued within the time specified in the warrant or within the extended or renewed time. After the expiration of such time, the warrant, unless executed, is void.


1822.56. An inspection pursuant to this warrant may not be made between 6:00 p.m. of any day and 8:00 a.m. of the succeeding day, nor in the absence of an owner or occupant of the particular place, dwelling, structure, premises, or vehicle unless specifically authorized by the judge upon a showing that such authority is reasonably necessary to effectuate the purpose of the regulation being enforced. An inspection pursuant to a warrant shall not be made by means of forcible entry, except that the judge may expressly authorize a forcible entry where facts are shown sufficient to create a reasonable suspicion of a violation of a state or local law or regulation relating to building, fire, safety, plumbing, electrical, health, labor, or zoning, which, if such violation existed, would be an immediate threat to health or safety, or where facts are shown establishing that reasonable attempts to serve a previous warrant have been unsuccessful. Where prior consent has been sought and refused, notice that a warrant has been issued must be given at least 24 hours before the warrant is executed, unless the judge finds that immediate execution is reasonably necessary in the circumstances shown.


1822.57. Any person who willfully refuses to permit an inspection lawfully authorized by warrant issued pursuant to this title is guilty of a misdemeanor.

1822.58. A warrant may be issued under the requirements of this title to authorize personnel of the Department of Fish and Game to conduct inspections of locations where fish, amphibia, or aquatic plants are held or stored under Division 12 (commencing with Section 15000) of the Fish and Game Code.


1822.59. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1822.54, for purposes of an animal or plant pest or disease eradication effort pursuant to Division 4 (commencing with Section 5001) or Division 5 (commencing with Section 9101) of the Food and Agricultural Code, the judge may issue a warrant under the requirements of this title describing a specified geographic area to be inspected by authorized personnel of the Department of Food and Agriculture. (b) A warrant issued pursuant to this section may only authorize the inspection of the exterior of places, dwellings, structures, premises or vehicles, and only in areas urban in character. The warrant shall state the geographical area which it covers and the purpose of and limitations on the inspection. (c) A warrant may be issued pursuant to this section whether or not the property owners in the area have refused to consent to the inspection. A peace officer may use reasonable force to enter a property to be inspected if so authorized by the warrant.


1822.60. A warrant may be issued under the requirements of this title to authorize personnel of the Department of Justice to conduct inspections as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 19827 of the Business and Professions Code.


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