Law:Division 12. Equipment Of Vehicles (California)

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Contents

Chapter 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (veh:24000-24018) Vehicle Code Section 24000-24018



24000. Wherever in this division the word "department" occurs, it means the Department of the California Highway Patrol.


24001. This division and Division 13 (commencing at Section 29000), unless otherwise provided, applies to all vehicles whether publicly or privately owned when upon the highways, including all authorized emergency vehicles.

24001.5. A golf cart as defined in Section 345 shall only be subject to the provisions of this division which are applicable to a motorcycle.

24002. (a) It is unlawful to operate any vehicle or combination of vehicles which is in an unsafe condition, or which is not safely loaded, and which presents an immediate safety hazard. (b) It is unlawful to operate any vehicle or combination of vehicles which is not equipped as provided in this code.


24002.5. (a) No person may operate a farm labor vehicle that is in a condition that presents an immediate safety hazard or in violation of Section 24004 or 31402. (b) A violation of this section is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars ($1,000) and not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000), or both that fine and a sentence of confinement for not more than six months in the county jail. No part of any fine imposed under this section may be suspended. (c) As used in this section, an "immediate safety hazard" is any equipment violation described in subdivision (a) of Section 31401 or Section 31405, including any violation of a regulation adopted pursuant to those provisions. (d) Any member of the Department of the California Highway Patrol may impound a farm labor vehicle operated in violation of this section pursuant to Section 34506.4.


24003. No vehicle shall be equipped with any lamp or illuminating device not required or permitted in this code, nor shall any lamp or illuminating device be mounted inside a vehicle unless specifically permitted by this code. This section does not apply to: (a) Interior lamps such as door, brake and instrument lamps, and map, dash, and dome lamps designed and used for the purpose of illuminating the interior of the vehicle. (b) Lamps needed in the operation or utilization of those vehicles mentioned in Section 25801, or vehicles used by public utilities in the repair or maintenance of their service, or used only for the illumination of cargo space of a vehicle while loading or unloading. (c) Warning lamps mounted inside an authorized emergency vehicle and meeting requirements established by the department.


24004. No person shall operate any vehicle or combination of vehicles after notice by a peace officer, as defined in Section 830.1 or subdivision (a) of Section 830.2 of the Penal Code, that the vehicle is in an unsafe condition or is not equipped as required by this code, except as may be necessary to return the vehicle or combination of vehicles to the residence or place of business of the owner or driver or to a garage, until the vehicle and its equipment have been made to conform with the requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall not apply to an employee who does not know that such notice has been issued, and in such event the provisions of Section 40001 shall be applicable.


24005. It is unlawful for any person to sell, offer for sale, lease, install, or replace, either for himself or as the agent or employee of another, or through such agent or employee, any glass, lighting equipment, signal devices, brakes, vacuum or pressure hose, muffler, exhaust, or any kind of equipment whatsoever for use, or with knowledge that any such equipment is intended for eventual use, in any vehicle, that is not in conformity with this code or regulations made thereunder.


24005.5. It is unlawful for any person to sell or offer for sale for use on loads regulated by the department any type of synthetic fiber rope or webbing strap material unless it meets requirements established by the department.

24006. No person shall sell or offer for sale either separately or as a part of the equipment of a new motor vehicle any equipment or device subject to requirements established by the department unless the equipment or device bears thereon the trademark or name and type or model designation under requirements established by the department and is accompanied by any printed instructions which may be required by the department as to the light source to be used with lamps, any particular methods of mounting or adjustment of lamps or other devices, and any other instructions as determined by the department necessary for compliance with this code.


24007. (a) (1) No dealer or person holding a retail seller's permit shall sell a new or used vehicle that is not in compliance with this code and departmental regulations adopted pursuant to this code, unless the vehicle is sold to another dealer, sold for the purpose of being legally wrecked or dismantled, or sold exclusively for off-highway use. (2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to any vehicle sold by either (A) a dismantler after being reported for dismantling pursuant to Section 11520 or (B) a salvage pool after obtaining a salvage certificate pursuant to Section 11515 or a nonrepairable vehicle certificate issued pursuant to Section 11515.2. (3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the equipment requirements of this division do not apply to the sale of a leased vehicle by a dealer to a lessee if the lessee is in possession of the vehicle immediately prior to the time of the sale and the vehicle is registered in this state. (b) (1) Except as provided in Section 24007.5, no person shall sell, or offer or deliver for sale, to the ultimate purchaser, or to any subsequent purchaser a new or used motor vehicle, as those terms are defined in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 39010) of Part 1 of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code, subject to Part 5 (commencing with Section 43000) of that Division 26 which is not in compliance with that part and the rules and regulations of the State Air Resources Board, unless the vehicle is sold to a dealer or sold for the purpose of being legally wrecked or dismantled. (2) Prior to or at the time of delivery for sale, the seller shall provide the purchaser a valid certificate of compliance or certificate of noncompliance, as appropriate, issued in accordance with Section 44015 of the Health and Safety Code. (3) Paragraph (2) does not apply to any vehicle whose transfer of ownership and registration is described in subdivision (d) of Section 4000.1. (4) Paragraphs (1) and (2) do not apply to any vehicle sold by either (A) a dismantler after being reported for dismantling pursuant to Section 11520 or (B) a salvage pool after obtaining a salvage certificate pursuant to Section 11515 or a nonrepairable vehicle certificate issued pursuant to Section 11515.2. (c) (1) With each application for initial registration of a new motor vehicle or transfer of registration of a motor vehicle subject to Part 5 (commencing with Section 43000) of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code, a dealer, the purchaser, or his or her authorized representative, shall transmit to the Department of Motor Vehicles a valid certificate of compliance or noncompliance, as appropriate, issued in accordance with Section 44015 of the Health and Safety Code. (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subdivision, with respect to new vehicles certified pursuant to Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 43100) of Part 5 of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code, a dealer may transmit, in lieu of a certificate of compliance, a statement, in a form and containing information deemed necessary and appropriate by the Director of Motor Vehicles and the Executive Officer of the State Air Resources Board, to attest to the vehicle's compliance with that chapter. The statement shall be certified under penalty of perjury, and shall be signed by the dealer or the dealer's authorized representative. (3) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a transfer of ownership and registration under any of the circumstances described in subdivision (d) of Section 4000.1.


24007.1. (a) The manufacturer of equipment used in the assembly of an authorized emergency vehicle, as defined in Section 165, used by a local public fire service agency shall, upon request of the fire department, reimburse the agency for the cost of repairs to the vehicle if (1) the repair was made to correct a manufacturer's defect, and (2) the vehicle is placed on a safety-related recall to correct that defect. (b) A final stage equipment manufacturer is deemed to be an original equipment manufacturer in the event of a warranty dispute with a local public fire service agency regarding the failure of component parts used in the assembly of the agency's authorized emergency vehicle. As used in this section, "final stage equipment manufacturer" means the manufacturer who assembles the authorized emergency vehicle from one or more components supplied by other manufacturers. (c) The Legislature finds and declares that local public fire service agencies of this state are entitled to safe and efficient use of their equipment, and that defects in emergency equipment, especially emergency vehicles, endanger the firefighters of California and the public they serve. It is the intent of the Legislature to ensure that these defects are repaired as expeditiously as possible and with no expense to the local public fire service agencies.

24007.2. If a dealer, or a person holding a retail seller's permit, sells to an elderly low-income person, as defined in Section 39026.5 of the Health and Safety Code, a 1966 through 1970 model year motor vehicle which is not equipped, as required pursuant to Sections 43654 and 43656 of that code, with a certified device to control its exhaust emission of oxides of nitrogen, the dealer or such person, as the case may be, shall install the required certified device on the motor vehicle without cost to the elderly low-income person.


24007.5. (a) (1) No auctioneer or public agency shall sell, at public auction, any vehicle specified in subdivision (a) of Section 24007, which is not in compliance with this code. (2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a vehicle that is sold under the conditions specified in subdivision (c), (d), (e), or (g) or is sold to a dealer or for the purpose of being wrecked or dismantled or is sold exclusively for off-highway use. (b) Except with respect to the sale of a vehicle specified in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), the consignor of any vehicle, specified in subdivision (b) of Section 24007, sold at public auction, shall provide the purchaser a valid certificate of compliance or certificate of noncompliance, as appropriate, issued in accordance with Section 44015 of the Health and Safety Code. (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this code, if, in the opinion of a public utility or public agency, the cost of repairs to a vehicle exceeds the value of the vehicle to the public utility or public agency, the public utility or public agency shall, as transferee or owner, surrender the certificates of registration, documents satisfactory to the Department of Motor Vehicles showing proof of ownership, and the license plates issued for the vehicle to the Department of Motor Vehicles. As used in this section, "public utility" means a public utility as described in Sections 218, 222, and 234 of the Public Utilities Code. (d) The public utility or public agency having complied with subdivision (c) shall, upon sale of the vehicle, give to the purchaser a bill of sale which includes, in addition to any other required information, the last issued license plate number. (e) (1) Subdivisions (a) and (b) do not apply to any judicial sale, including, but not limited to, a bankruptcy sale, conducted pursuant to a writ of execution or order of court. (2) Subdivision (b) does not apply to any lien sale if the lienholder does both of the following: (A) Gives the notice required by subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 5900. (B) Notifies the buyer that California law requires that the buyer obtain a certificate of compliance or noncompliance and register the vehicle with the department, and that failure to comply will result in a lien against any vehicle owned by the buyer pursuant to Section 10876 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, enforceable pursuant to Section 10877 of the Revenue and Taxation Code and Article 6 (commencing with Section 9800) of Chapter 6 of Division 3. Receipt of the notice required by this subparagraph shall be evidenced by the signature of the buyer. (f) The exceptions in this section do not apply to any requirements for registration of a vehicle pursuant to Section 4000.1, 4000.2, or 4000.3. (g) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (e), any public agency or auctioneer which sells, at public auction, any vehicle specified in subdivision (b) of Section 24007, which is registered to a public agency or a public utility, shall provide each bidder with a notice in writing that a certificate of compliance is required to be obtained, certifying that the vehicle complies with Part 5 (commencing with Section 43000) of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code, before the vehicle may be registered in this state, unless the vehicle is sold to a dealer or for the purpose of being wrecked or dismantled or is sold exclusively for off-highway use. Prior to the sale of the vehicle, a public agency or public utility shall remove the license plates from the vehicle and surrender them to the department. The purchaser of the vehicle shall be given a bill of sale which includes, in addition to any other required information, the vehicle's last issued license plate number.


24007.6. Except for vehicles sold to a dealer or for the purpose of being wrecked or dismantled or sold exclusively for off-highway use, a salvage pool shall do both of the following: (a) Give the notice required by subdivisions (a) and (b) of Section 5900. (b) Notify the buyer that California law requires that the buyer obtain a certificate of compliance or noncompliance and to register the vehicle with the department, and that failure to comply will result in a lien against any vehicle owned by the buyer pursuant to Section 10876 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, enforceable pursuant to Section 10877 of the Revenue and Taxation Code and Article 6 (commencing with Section 9800) of Chapter 6 of Division 3. Receipt of the notice required by this paragraph shall be evidenced by the signature of the buyer.


24008. It is unlawful to operate any passenger vehicle, or commercial vehicle under 6,000 pounds, which has been modified from the original design so that any portion of the vehicle, other than the wheels, has less clearance from the surface of a level roadway than the clearance between the roadway and the lowermost portion of any rim of any wheel in contact with the roadway.


24008.5. (a) No person shall operate any motor vehicle with a frame height or body floor height greater than specified in subdivisions (b) and (c). (b) The maximum frame height is as follows: Vehicle Type Frame Height (1) Passenger vehicles, except 23 inches housecars .......................... (2) All other motor vehicles, including housecars, as follows: ......................... Up to 4,500 pounds GVWR ............. 27 inches 4,501 to 7,500 pounds GVWR .......... 30 inches 7,501 to 10,000 pounds GVWR.......... 31 inches (c) The lowest portion of the body floor shall not be more than five inches above the top of the frame. (d) The following definitions govern the construction of this section: (1) "Frame" means the main longitudinal structural members of the chassis of the vehicle or, for vehicles with unitized body construction, the lowest main longitudinal structural members of the body of the vehicle. (2) "Frame height" means the vertical distance between the ground and the lowest point on the frame, measured when the vehicle is unladen on a level surface at the lowest point on the frame midway between the front axle and the second axle on the vehicle. (3) "GVWR" means the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating, as defined in Section 390, whether or not the vehicle is modified by use of parts not originally installed by the manufacturer.


24009. No person shall sell or offer for sale a new motor truck, truck tractor, or bus that is not equipped with an identification plate or marking bearing the manufacturer's name and the manufacturer' s gross vehicle weight rating of such vehicle.


24010. (a) No person engaged in the rental of any vehicle, for periods of 30 days or less, shall rent, lease or otherwise allow the operation of such vehicle unless all of the following requirements are met: (1) All necessary equipment required by this code and regulations adopted pursuant to this code for the operation of the vehicle upon a highway has been provided or offered to the lessee for his or her use. (2) The vehicle conforms to all applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards established under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1381 et seq.) and the regulations adopted under that act. (3) The vehicle is mechanically sound and safe to operate within the meaning of Section 24002. (b) In order to ensure compliance with this section, the department may conduct periodic inspections, without prior notice, of the business premises of persons engaged in the rental of vehicles for periods of 30 days or less and of the vehicles themselves, for the purpose of ascertaining that the vehicles are in compliance with this section. Any vehicle which is found not in compliance shall not be rented or leased until proof of full compliance with this section is made to the satisfaction of the department. (c) The contract or rental agreement shall include the name of the person from whom the vehicle is rented, leased or obtained, the address of that person's place of business in this state where the vehicle is rented, leased, or delivered, and a statement of any required equipment refused by the person to whom the vehicle is rented, leased, or delivered.


24011. Whenever a federal motor vehicle safety standard is established under federal law (49 U.S.C. Sec. 30101 et seq.), no dealer shall sell or offer for sale a vehicle to which the standard is applicable, and no person shall sell or offer for sale for use upon a vehicle an item of equipment to which the standard is applicable, unless: (a) The vehicle or equipment conforms to the applicable federal standard. (b) The vehicle or equipment bears thereon a certification by the manufacturer or distributor that it complies with the applicable federal standards. The certification may be in the form of a symbol prescribed in the federal standards or, if there is no federal symbol, by a symbol acceptable to the department.


24011.3. (a) Every manufacturer or importer of new passenger vehicles for sale or lease in this state, shall affix to a window or the windshield of the vehicle a notice with either of the following statements, whichever is appropriate: (1) "This vehicle is equipped with bumpers that can withstand an impact of 2.5 miles per hour with no damage to the vehicle's body and safety systems, although the bumper and related components may sustain damage. The bumper system on this vehicle conforms to the current federal bumper standard of 2.5 miles per hour. " (2) "This vehicle is equipped with a front bumper of a type that has been tested at an impact speed of (here specify the appropriate number) miles per hour, and a rear bumper of a type that has been tested at an impact speed of (here specify the appropriate number) miles per hour, resulting in no damage to the vehicle's body and safety systems and minimal damage to the bumper and attachment hardware. "Minimal damage to the bumper' means minor cosmetic damage that can be repaired with the use of common repair materials and without replacing any parts. The stronger the bumper, the less likely the vehicle will require repair after a low-speed collision. This vehicle exceeds the current federal bumper standard of 2.5 miles per hour." (b) The impact speed required to be specified in the notice pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) is the maximum speed of impact upon the bumper of the vehicle at which the vehicle sustains no damage to the body and safety systems and only minimal damage to the bumper when subjected to the fixed barrier and pendulum impact tests, and when subjected to the corner impact test at not less than 60 percent of that maximum speed, conducted pursuant to Part 581 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. (c) (1) A manufacturer who willfully fails to affix the notice required by subdivision (a), or willfully misstates any information in the notice, is guilty of a misdemeanor, which shall be punishable by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500). Each failure or misstatement is a separate offense. (2) A person who willfully defaces, alters, or removes the notice required by subdivision (a) prior to the delivery of the vehicle, to which the notice is required to be affixed, to the registered owner or lessee is guilty of a misdemeanor, which shall be punishable by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500). Each willful defacement, alteration, or removal is a separate offense. (d) For purposes of this section, the following terms have the following meanings: (1) "Manufacturer" is any person engaged in the manufacture or assembly of new passenger vehicles for distribution or sale, and includes an importer of new passenger vehicles for distribution or sale and any person who acts for, or is under the control of, a manufacturer in connection with the distribution or sale of new passenger vehicles. (2) "Passenger vehicle" means, notwithstanding Section 465, a motor vehicle subject to impact testing conducted pursuant to Part 581 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. (3) "No damage" means that, when a passenger vehicle is subjected to impact testing, conducted pursuant to the conditions and test procedures of Sections 581.6 and 581.7 of Part 581 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the vehicle sustains no damage to the body and safety systems. (4) For purposes of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) and subdivision (b), "minimal damage to the bumper and attachment hardware" means damage that can be repaired with the use of common repair materials and without replacing any parts. In addition, not later than 30 minutes after completion of each pendulum or barrier impact test, the bumper face bar shall have no permanent deviation greater than three-quarters of one inch from its original contour and position relative to the vehicle frame and no permanent deviation greater than three-eighths of one inch from its original contour on areas of contact with the barrier face or impact ridge of the pendulum test device, measured from a straight line connecting the bumper contours adjoining the contact area. (e) The notice required by this section may be included in any notice or label required by federal law to be affixed to a window or windshield of the vehicle.


24011.7. (a) Nothing in Chapter 20.4 (commencing with Section 9889.50) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code, shall be construed as having any effect on the existing inspection program conducted by the department. Rather, it is the intent of the Legislature that such program continue and that a cooperative relationship between the department and the Department of Consumer Affairs be established, under which the department can inform the Department of Consumer Affairs of the results and experiences of the department in order to provide data on exhaust and noise emission control device tampering and performance deterioration following mandatory inspections.


24012. All lighting equipment or devices subject to requirements established by the department shall comply with the engineering requirements and specifications, including mounting and aiming instructions, determined and publicized by the department.


24013. No new motor vehicle shall be sold unless the seller provides the buyer with a statement of the minimum octane number of the gasoline for such vehicle. As used in this section "octane number" means the octane number of the gasoline adopted by the Federal Trade Commission, and if the Federal Trade Commission does not adopt an octane number, then the American Society for Testing Materials research octane number of the gasoline as defined by Section 20710 of the Business and Professions Code.


24013.5. (a) No dealer shall sell, offer for sale, or display for sale any new light duty truck with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 pounds or less unless there is securely affixed to the windshield or side window of the light duty truck a label on which the manufacturer has endorsed clearly, distinctly, and legibly, true and correct entries disclosing the following information concerning the light duty truck: (1) The make, model, and serial or identification number or numbers. (2) The retail price of the light duty truck as suggested by the manufacturer. (3) The retail delivered price, as suggested by the manufacturer, for each accessory or item of optional equipment which is physically attached to the light duty truck at the time of its delivery to the dealer and which is not included within the price of the light duty truck as stated pursuant to paragraph (2). (4) The amount charged, if any, to the dealer for the transportation of the light duty truck to the location at which it is delivered to the dealer. (5) The total of the amounts specified pursuant to paragraphs (2), (3), and (4). (b) Subdivision (a) applies to every light duty truck sold, offered for sale, or displayed in California which is manufactured on or after September 1, 1988.


24014. (a) No dealer shall sell, offer for sale, or display, any new, assembled motorcycle on its premises, unless there is securely attached to its handlebar a label, approved by the Department of Motor Vehicles, furnished by the manufacturer, on which the manufacturer shall clearly indicate the following: (1) The recommended retail price of the motorcycle. (2) The recommended price for each accessory or item of optional equipment physically attached to the motorcycle at the time of its delivery to the dealer. (b) The dealer shall clearly indicate on the label, furnished by the manufacturer, the following: (1) The amount charged, if any, over and above the suggested retail price for transportation to the dealership. (2) The amount charged, if any, for the assembly, preparation, or both, of the motorcycle. (3) The amount charged, if any, for each dealer added accessory or item of optional equipment. (4) The total recommended retail price of the vehicle which shall be the aggregate value of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) and paragraphs (1), (2) and (3) of subdivision (b).


24015. (a) Motorized bicycles shall comply with those federal motor vehicle safety standards established under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C., Sec. 1381, et seq.) which are applicable to a motor-driven cycle, as that term is defined in such federal standards. Such standards include, but are not limited to, provisions requiring a headlamp, taillamp, stoplamp, side and rear reflex reflectors, and adequate brakes. (b) In addition to equipment required in subdivision (a), all motorized bicycles operated upon a highway shall be equipped with a mirror as required in subdivision (a) of Section 26709, a horn as required in Section 27000, and an adequate muffler as required in subdivision (a) of Section 27150. (c) Except as provided in subdivisions (a) and (b), none of the provisions of this chapter relating to motorcycles and motor-driven cycles, as defined in this code, shall apply to a motorized bicycle.


24016. (a) A motorized bicycle described in subdivision (b) of Section 406 shall meet the following criteria: (1) Comply with the equipment and manufacturing requirements for bicycles adopted by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (16 C.F.R. 1512.1, et seq.) or the requirements adopted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (49 C.F.R. 571.1, et seq.) in accordance with the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1381, et seq.) for motor driven cycles. (2) Operate in a manner so that the electric motor is disengaged or ceases to function when the brakes are applied, or operate in a manner such that the motor is engaged through a switch or mechanism that, when released, will cause the electric motor to disengage or cease to function. (b) All of the following apply to a motorized bicycle described in subdivision (b) of Section 406: (1) No person shall operate a motorized bicycle unless the person is wearing a properly fitted and fastened bicycle helmet that meets the standards described in Section 21212. (2) A person operating a motorized bicycle is subject to Sections 21200 and 21200.5. (3) A person operating a motorized bicycle is not subject to the provisions of this code relating to financial responsibility, driver' s licenses, registration, and license plate requirements, and a motorized bicycle is not a motor vehicle. (4) A motorized bicycle shall only be operated by a person 16 years of age or older. (5) Every manufacturer of a motorized bicycle shall certify that it complies with the equipment and manufacturing requirements for bicycles adopted by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (16 C.F.R. 1512.1, et seq.). (c) No person shall tamper with or modify a motorized bicycle described in subdivision (b) of Section 406 so as to increase the speed capability of the bicycle.


24018. (a) Every transit bus operated by a motor carrier, whether that motor carrier is a private company or a public agency, that provides public transportation services shall be equipped with a two-way communication device that enables the driver to contact the motor carrier in the event of an emergency. The two-way communication devices shall be maintained in good working order. (b) For the purposes of this section, "two-way communication device" is a radio, cellular telephone, or other similar device permitting communication between the transit bus driver and personnel responsible for the safety of operations of the motor carrier, including, but not limited to, the motor carrier's dispatcher. (c) This section does not apply to buses operated by a school district or on behalf of a school district. (d) The commissioner shall upon request grant a nonrenewable one year extension to any motor carrier to comply with the requirements of this section. (e) Nothing in this section shall require a motor carrier to replace an existing two-way communication device that currently meets the requirements of this section.


Chapter 2. Lighting Equipment

Article 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (veh:24250-24255) Vehicle Code Section 24250-24255



24250. During darkness, a vehicle shall be equipped with lighted lighting equipment as required for the vehicle by this chapter.


24251. Any requirement in this chapter as to the distance from which any lighting equipment shall render a person or vehicle visible or within which any lighting equipment shall be visible shall apply during darkness, directly ahead upon a straight, level unlighted highway, and under normal atmospheric conditions, unless a different time, direction, or condition is expressly stated.


24252. (a) All lighting equipment of a required type installed on a vehicle shall at all times be maintained in good working order. Lamps shall be equipped with bulbs of the correct voltage rating corresponding to the nominal voltage at the lamp socket. (b) The voltage at any tail, stop, license plate, side marker or clearance lamp socket on a vehicle shall not be less than 85 percent of the design voltage of the bulb. Voltage tests shall be conducted with the engine operating. (c) Two or more lamp or reflector functions may be combined, provided each function subject to requirements established by the department meets such requirements. (1) No turn signal lamp may be combined optically with a stoplamp unless the stoplamp is extinguished when the turn signal is flashing. (2) No clearance lamp may be combined optically with any taillamp or identification lamp.


24253. (a) All motor vehicles manufactured and first registered after January 1, 1970, shall be equipped so all taillamps are capable of remaining lighted for a period of at least one-quarter hour with the engine inoperative. This requirement shall be complied with by an energy storing system which is recharged by energy produced by the vehicle. (b) All motorcycles manufactured and first registered after January 1, 1971, shall be equipped so all taillamps, when turned on, will remain lighted automatically for a period of at least one-quarter hour if the engine stops.


24254. Whenever a requirement is declared as to the mounted height of lamps or reflectors, the height shall be measured from the center of the lamp or reflector to the level surface upon which the vehicle stands when it is without a load.


24255. (a) A vehicle may be equipped with a system to supplement the driver's visibility of the roadway to the front or rear of the vehicle during darkness. This system may incorporate an illuminating device that emits radiation predominantly in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum and a display monitor to provide an image visible to the driver of the vehicle. The system, or any portion of it, shall not obstruct the vision of the driver, and shall not emit any glaring light visible in any direction or to any person. The illuminating device may be mounted inside the vehicle, if it is constructed and mounted so as to prevent any direct or reflected light, other than a monitorial indicator emitted from the device, from being visible to the driver. (b) The system shall be operated only with the headlamps lighted. An illuminating device for the system shall be interlocked with the headlamp switch so that it is operable only when the headlamps are lighted. (c) (1) No part of the illuminating device may be physically or optically combined with any other required or permitted lighting device. (2) The illuminating device may be installed within a housing containing other required or permitted lighting devices, if the function of the other devices is not impaired thereby.


Article 2. Headlamps And Auxiliary Lamps

Ca Codes (veh:24400-24411) Vehicle Code Section 24400-24411



24400. (a) A motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, shall be equipped with at least two headlamps, with at least one on each side of the front of the vehicle, and, except as to vehicles registered prior to January 1, 1930, they shall be located directly above or in advance of the front axle of the vehicle. The headlamps and every light source in any headlamp unit shall be located at a height of not more than 54 inches nor less than 22 inches. (b) A motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, shall be operated during darkness, or inclement weather, or both, with at least two lighted headlamps that comply with subdivision (a). (c) As used in subdivision (b), "inclement weather" is a weather condition that is either of the following: (1) A condition that prevents a driver of a motor vehicle from clearly discerning a person or another motor vehicle on the highway from a distance of 1,000 feet. (2) A condition requiring the windshield wipers to be in continuous use due to rain, mist, snow, fog, or other precipitation or atmospheric moisture.


24401. Whenever any motor vehicle is parked or standing upon a highway any headlamp that is lighted shall be dimmed or on the lower beam.

24402. (a) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary driving lamps mounted on the front at a height of not less than 16 inches nor more than 42 inches. Driving lamps are lamps designed for supplementing the upper beam from headlamps and may not be lighted with the lower beam. (b) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary passing lamps mounted on the front at a height of not less than 24 inches nor more than 42 inches. Passing lamps are lamps designed for supplementing the lower beam from headlamps and may also be lighted with the upper beam.


24403. (a) A motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than two foglamps that may be used with, but may not be used in substitution of, headlamps. (b) On a motor vehicle other than a motorcycle, the foglamps authorized under this section shall be mounted on the front at a height of not less than 12 inches nor more than 30 inches and aimed so that when the vehicle is not loaded none of the high-intensity portion of the light to the left of the center of the vehicle projects higher than a level of four inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes, for a distance of 25 feet in front of the vehicle. (c) On a motorcycle, the foglamps authorized under this section shall be mounted on the front at a height of not less than 12 inches nor more than 40 inches and aimed so that when the vehicle is not loaded none of the high-intensity portion of the light to the left of the center of the vehicle projects higher than a level of four inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes, for a distance of 25 feet in front of the vehicle.


24404. (a) A motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two white spotlamps, which shall not be used in substitution of headlamps. (b) No spotlamp shall be equipped with any lamp source exceeding 32 standard candlepower or 30 watts nor project any glaring light into the eyes of an approaching driver. (c) Every spotlamp shall be so directed when in use: That no portion of the main substantially parallel beam of light will strike the roadway to the left of the prolongation of the left side line of the vehicle. That the top of the beam will not strike the roadway at a distance in excess of 300 feet from the vehicle. (d) This section does not apply to spotlamps on authorized emergency vehicles. (e) No spotlamp when in use shall be directed so as to illuminate any other moving vehicle.


24405. (a) Not more than four lamps of the following types showing to the front of a vehicle may be lighted at any one time: (1) Headlamps. (2) Auxiliary driving or passing lamps. (3) Fog lamps. (4) Warning lamps. (5) Spot lamps. (6) Gaseous discharge lamps specified in Section 25258. (b) For the purpose of this section each pair of a dual headlamp system shall be considered as one lamp. (c) Subdivision (a) does not apply to any authorized emergency vehicle.


24406. Except as otherwise provided, the headlamps, or other auxiliary driving lamps, or a combination thereof, on a motor vehicle during darkness shall be so arranged that the driver may select at will between distributions of light projected to different elevations, and the lamps may, in addition, be so arranged that the selection can be made automatically.


24407. Multiple-beam road lighting equipment shall be designed and aimed as follows: (a) There shall be an uppermost distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed and of such intensity as to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 350 feet ahead for all conditions of loading. (b) There shall be a lowermost distribution of light, or composite beam so aimed and of sufficient intensity to reveal a person or vehicle at a distance of at least 100 feet ahead. On a straight level road under any condition of loading none of the high intensity portion of the beam shall be directed to strike the eyes of an approaching driver.


24408. (a) Every new motor vehicle registered in this state after January 1, 1940, which has multiple-beam road lighting equipment shall be equipped with a beam indicator, which shall be lighted whenever the uppermost distribution of light from the headlamps is in use, and shall not otherwise be lighted. (b) The indicator shall be so designed and located that when lighted it will be readily visible without glare to the driver of the vehicle so equipped. Any such lamp on the exterior of the vehicle shall have a light source not exceeding two candlepower, and the light shall not show to the front or sides of the vehicle.


24409. Whenever a motor vehicle is being operated during darkness, the driver shall use a distribution of light, or composite beam, directed high enough and of sufficient intensity to reveal persons and vehicles at a safe distance in advance of the vehicle, subject to the following requirements and limitations: (a) Whenever the driver of a vehicle approaches an oncoming vehicle within 500 feet, he shall use a distribution of light or composite beam so aimed that the glaring rays are not projected into the eyes of the oncoming driver. The lowermost distribution of light specified in this article shall be deemed to avoid glare at all times regardless of road contour. (b) Whenever the driver of a vehicle follows another vehicle within 300 feet to the rear, he shall use the lowermost distribution of light specified in this article.


24410. Headlamps arranged to provide a single distribution of light not supplemented by auxiliary driving lamps are permitted on motor vehicles manufactured and sold prior to September 19, 1940, in lieu of multiple-beam road lighting equipment if the single distribution of light complies with the following requirements and limitations: (a) The headlamps shall be so aimed that when the vehicle is not loaded none of the high-intensity portion of the light shall at a distance of 25 feet ahead project higher than a level of five inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes, and in no case higher than 42 inches above the level on which the vehicle stands at a distance of 75 feet ahead. (b) The intensity shall be sufficient to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 200 feet.


24411. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a vehicle may be equipped with not more than eight lamps for use as headlamps while the vehicle is operated or driven off the highway. The lamps shall be mounted at a height of not less than 16 inches from the ground, or more than 12 inches above the top of the passenger compartment, at any place between the front of the vehicle and a line lying on a point 40 inches to the rear of the seat occupied by the driver, shall be wired independently of all other lighting circuits, and, whenever the vehicle is operated or driven upon a highway, shall be covered or hooded with an opaque hood or cover, and turned off.


Article 3. Rear Lighting Equipment

Ca Codes (veh:24600-24617) Vehicle Code Section 24600-24617



24600. During darkness every motor vehicle which is not in combination with any other vehicle and every vehicle at the end of a combination of vehicles shall be equipped with lighted taillamps mounted on the rear as follows: (a) Every vehicle shall be equipped with one or more taillamps. (b) Every vehicle, other than a motorcycle, manufactured and first registered on or after January 1, 1958, shall be equipped with not less than two taillamps, except that trailers and semitrailers manufactured after July 23, 1973, which are less than 30 inches wide, may be equipped with one taillamp which shall be mounted at or near the vertical centerline of the vehicles. If a vehicle is equipped with two taillamps, they shall be mounted as specified in subdivision (d). (c) Every vehicle or vehicle at the end of a combination of vehicles, subject to subdivision (a) of Section 22406 shall be equipped with not less than two taillamps. (d) When two taillamps are required, at least one shall be mounted at the left and one at the right side respectively at the same level. (e) Taillamps shall be red in color and shall be plainly visible from all distances within 500 feet to the rear except that taillamps on vehicles manufactured after January 1, 1969, shall be plainly visible from all distances within 1,000 feet to the rear. (f) Taillamps on vehicles manufactured on or after January 1, 1969, shall be mounted not lower than 15 inches nor higher than 72 inches, except that a tow truck, in addition to being equipped with the required taillamps, may also be equipped with two taillamps which may be mounted not lower than 15 inches nor higher than the maximum allowable vehicle height and as far forward as the rearmost portion of the driver's seat in the rearmost position. The additional taillamps on a tow truck shall be lighted whenever the headlamps are lighted.

24601. Either the taillamp or a separate lamp shall be so constructed and placed as to illuminate with a white light the rear license plate during darkness and render it clearly legible from a distance of 50 feet to the rear. When the rear license plate is illuminated by a lamp other than a required taillamp, the two lamps shall be turned on or off only by the same control switch at all times.

24602. (a) A vehicle may be equipped with not more than two red fog taillamps mounted on the rear which may be lighted, in addition to the required taillamps, only when atmospheric conditions, such as fog, rain, snow, smoke, or dust, reduce the daytime or nighttime visibility of other vehicles to less than 500 feet. (b) The lamps authorized under subdivision (a) shall be installed as follows: (1) When two lamps are installed, one shall be mounted at the left side and one at the right side at the same level and as close as practical to the sides. When one lamp is installed, it shall be mounted as close as practical to the left side or on the center of the vehicle. (2) The lamps shall be mounted not lower than 12 inches nor higher than 60 inches. (3) The edge of the lens of the lamp shall be no closer than four inches from the edge of the lens of any stoplamp. (4) The lamps shall be wired so they can be turned on only when the headlamps are on and shall have a switch that allows them to be turned off when the headlamps are on. (5) A nonflashing amber pilot light that is lighted when the lamps are turned on shall be mounted in a location readily visible to the driver.


24603. Every motor vehicle that is not in combination with any other vehicle and every vehicle at the end of a combination of vehicles shall at all times be equipped with stoplamps mounted on the rear as follows: (a) Every such vehicle shall be equipped with one or more stoplamps. (b) Every such vehicle, other than a motorcycle, manufactured and first registered on or after January 1, 1958, shall be equipped with two stoplamps, except that trailers and semitrailers manufactured after July 23, 1973, which are less than 30 inches wide, may be equipped with one stoplamp which shall be mounted at or near the vertical centerline of the trailer. If such vehicle is equipped with two stoplamps, they shall be mounted as specified in subdivision (d). (c) Except as provided in subdivision (h), stoplamps on vehicles manufactured on or after January 1, 1969, shall be mounted not lower than 15 inches nor higher than 72 inches, except that a tow truck or a repossessor's tow vehicle, in addition to being equipped with the required stoplamps, may also be equipped with two stoplamps which may be mounted not lower than 15 inches nor higher than the maximum allowable vehicle height and as far forward as the rearmost portion of the driver's seat in the rearmost position. (d) Where two stoplamps are required, at least one shall be mounted at the left and one at the right side, respectively, at the same level. (e) Stoplamps on vehicles manufactured on or after January 1, 1979, shall emit a red light. Stoplamps on vehicles manufactured before January 1, 1979, shall emit a red or yellow light. All stoplamps shall be plainly visible and understandable from a distance of 300 feet to the rear both during normal sunlight and at nighttime, except that stoplamps on a vehicle of a size required to be equipped with clearance lamps shall be visible from a distance of 500 feet during those times. (f) Stoplamps shall be activated upon application of the service (foot) brake and the hand control head for air, vacuum, or electric brakes. In addition, all stoplamps may be activated by a mechanical device designed to function only upon sudden release of the accelerator while the vehicle is in motion. Stoplamps on vehicles equipped with a manual transmission may be manually activated by a mechanical device when the vehicle is downshifted if the device is automatically rendered inoperative while the vehicle is accelerating. (g) Any vehicle may be equipped with supplemental stoplamps mounted to the rear of the rearmost portion of the driver's seat in its rearmost position in addition to the lamps required to be mounted on the rear of the vehicle. Supplemental stoplamps installed after January 1, 1979, shall be red in color and mounted not lower than 15 inches above the roadway. The supplemental stoplamp on that side of a vehicle toward which a turn will be made may flash as part of the supplemental turn signal lamp. A supplemental stoplamp may be mounted inside the rear window of a vehicle, if it is mounted at the centerline of the vehicle and is constructed and mounted so as to prevent any light, other than a monitorial indicator emitted from the device, either direct or reflected, from being visible to the driver. (h) Any supplemental stoplamp installed after January 1, 1987, shall comply with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (49 C.F.R. 571.108). Any vehicle equipped with a stoplamp that complies with the federal motor vehicle safety standards applicable to that make and model vehicle shall conform to that applicable safety standard unless modified to comply with the federal motor vehicle safety standard designated in this subdivision.


24604. Whenever the load upon any vehicle extends, or whenever any integral part of any vehicle projects, to the rear four feet or more beyond the rear of the vehicle, as measured from the taillamps, there shall be displayed at the extreme end of the load or projecting part of the vehicle during darkness, in addition to the required taillamp, two red lights with a bulb rated not in excess of six candlepower plainly visible from a distance of at least 500 feet to the sides and rear. At any other time there shall be displayed at the extreme end of the load or projecting part of the vehicle a solid red or fluorescent orange flag or cloth not less than 12 inches square.


24605. (a) A tow truck or an automobile dismantler's tow vehicle used to tow a vehicle shall be equipped with and carry a taillamp, a stoplamp, and turn signal lamps for use on the rear of a towed vehicle. (b) Whenever a tow truck or an automobile dismantler's tow vehicle is towing a vehicle and a stoplamp and turn signal lamps cannot be lighted and displayed on the rear of the towed vehicle, the operator of the tow truck or the automobile dismantler's tow vehicle shall display to the rear a stoplamp and turn signal lamps mounted on the towed vehicle, except as provided in subdivision (c). During darkness, if a taillamp on the towed vehicle cannot be lighted, the operator of the tow truck or the automobile dismantler's tow vehicle shall display to the rear a taillamp mounted on the towed vehicle. No other lighting equipment need be displayed on the towed vehicle. (c) Whenever any motor vehicle is towing another motor vehicle, stoplamps and turn signal lamps are not required on the towed motor vehicle, but only if a stoplamp and a turn signal lamp on each side of the rear of the towing vehicle is plainly visible to the rear of the towed vehicle. This subdivision does not apply to driveaway-towaway operations.


24606. (a) Every motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, of a type subject to registration and manufactured on and after January 1, 1969, shall be equipped with one or more backup lamps either separately or in combination with another lamp. Any vehicle may be equipped with backup lamps. (b) Backup lamps shall be so directed as to project a white light illuminating the highway to the rear of the vehicle for a distance not to exceed 75 feet. A backup lamp may project incidental red, amber, or white light through reflectors or lenses that are adjacent or close to, or a part of, the lamp assembly. (c) Backup lamps shall not be lighted except when the vehicle is about to be or is backing or except in conjunction with a lighting system which activates the lights for a temporary period after the ignition system is turned off. (d) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with a lamp emitting white light on each side near or on the rear of the vehicle which is designed to provide supplemental illumination in an area to the side and rear not lighted by the backup lamps. These lamps shall be lighted only with the backup lamps.


24607. Every vehicle subject to registration under this code shall at all times be equipped with red reflectors mounted on the rear as follows: (a) Every vehicle shall be equipped with at least one reflector so maintained as to be plainly visible at night from all distances within 350 to 100 feet from the vehicle when directly in front of the lawful upper headlamp beams. (b) Every vehicle, other than a motorcycle or a low-speed vehicle, manufactured and first registered on or after January 1, 1965, shall be equipped with at least two reflectors meeting the visibility requirements of subdivision (a), except that trailers and semitrailers manufactured after July 23, 1973, that are less than 30 inches wide, may be equipped with one reflector which shall be mounted at or near the vertical centerline of the trailer. If the vehicle is equipped with two reflectors, they shall be mounted as specified in subdivision (d). (c) Every motortruck having an unladen weight of more than 5,000 pounds, every trailer coach, every camp trailer, every vehicle, or vehicle at the end of a combination of vehicles, subject to subdivision (a) of Section 22406, and every vehicle 80 or more inches in width manufactured on or after January 1, 1969, shall be equipped with at least two reflectors maintained so as to be plainly visible at night from all distances within 600 feet to 100 feet from the vehicle when directly in front of lawful upper headlamp beams. (d) When more than one reflector is required, at least one shall be mounted at the left side and one at the right side, respectively, at the same level. Required reflectors shall be mounted not lower than 15 inches nor higher than 60 inches, except that a tow truck, in addition to being equipped with the required reflectors, may also be equipped with two reflectors which may be mounted not lower than 15 inches nor higher than the maximum allowable vehicle height and as far forward as the rearmost portion of the driver's seat in the rearmost position. Additional reflectors of a type meeting requirements established by the department may be mounted at any height. (e) Reflectors on truck tractors may be mounted on the rear of the cab. Any reflector installed on a vehicle as part of its original equipment prior to January 1, 1941, need not meet the requirements of the department provided it meets the visibility requirements of subdivision (a). (f) Area reflectorizing material may be used in lieu of the reflectors required or permitted in subdivisions (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e), provided each installation is of sufficient size to meet the photometric requirement for those reflectors.


24608. (a) Motortrucks, trailers, semitrailers, and buses 80 or more inches in width manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, shall be equipped with an amber reflector on each side at the front and a red reflector on each side at the rear. Any vehicle may be so equipped. (b) Motortrucks, trailers, semitrailers, housecars, and buses 80 or more inches in width and 30 or more feet in length manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, shall be equipped with an amber reflector mounted on each side at the approximate midpoint of the vehicle. Any such vehicle manufactured prior to January 1, 1968, may be so equipped. (c) Required reflectors on the sides of vehicles shall be mounted not lower than 15 inches nor higher than 60 inches. Additional reflectors of a type meeting requirements established by the department may be mounted at any height. (d) Reflectors required or permitted in subdivisions (a) and (b) shall be so maintained as to be plainly visible at night from all distances within 600 feet to 100 feet from the vehicle when directly in front of lawful upper headlamp beams. (e) Area reflectorizing material may be used in lieu of the reflectors required or permitted in subdivisions (a) and (b), provided each installation is of sufficient size to meet the photometric requirement for such reflectors.


24609. (a) A vehicle may be equipped with white or amber reflectors that are mounted on the front of the vehicle at a height of 15 inches or more, but not more than 60 inches from the ground. (b) A schoolbus may be equipped with a set of two devices, with each device in the set consisting of an amber reflector integrated into the lens of an amber light that is otherwise permitted under this code, if the set is mounted with one device on the left side and one on the right side of the vehicle, and with each device at the same level.

24610. A reflector placed on vehicles under Section 24609 which is of the button or other multiple-unit type shall contain not less than seven units with a total of not less than three square inches of reflecting surface. The red reflectors required may be separate units or a part of the red taillamps, but in either event the reflector and taillamps shall comply with all of the requirements of Sections 24600, 24602, and 24609, and any reflector constituting an integral part of a taillamp shall comply with all photometric requirements applicable to a separate reflector.


24611. Trailers that are equipped with red and white reflective sheeting or reflectors on both the sides and rear and displayed in accordance with federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard regulations (49 C.F.R. 571.108) for trailers with a width of 80 inches or more and having a gross vehicle weight rating of over 10,000 pounds need not be equipped with the reflectors required by Section 24607 or 24608.


24612. (a) All trailers and semitrailers having an overall width of 80 inches or more and a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds, and manufactured on or after December 1, 1993, except those designed exclusively for living or office use, and all truck tractors manufactured on or after July 1, 1997, shall be equipped with the conspicuity system specified in federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108 (49 C.F.R. 571.108). The conspicuity system shall consist of either retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflectors, or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors, as specified in the federal standard applicable on the date of manufacture of the vehicle. (b) Any trailer, semitrailer, or motor truck having an overall width of 80 inches or more and manufactured prior to December 1, 1993, and any truck tractor manufactured prior to July 1, 1997, may be equipped with the conspicuity system described in subdivision (a).


24615. It is unlawful to operate upon a public highway any vehicle or combination of vehicles, which is designed to be and is operated at a speed of 25 miles per hour or less, unless the rearmost vehicle displays a "slow-moving vehicle emblem," except upon vehicles used by a utility, whether publicly or privately owned, for the construction, maintenance, or repair of its own facilities or upon vehicles used by highway authorities or bridge or highway districts in highway maintenance, inspection, survey, or construction work, while such vehicle is engaged in work at the jobsite upon a highway. Any other vehicle or combination of vehicles, when operated at a speed of 25 miles per hour or less, may display such emblem. The emblem shall be mounted on the rear of the vehicle, base down, and at a height of not less than three nor more than five feet from ground to base. Such emblem shall consist of a truncated equilateral triangle having a minimum height of 14 inches with a red reflective border not less than 1 3/4 inches in width and a fluorescent orange center. This emblem shall not be displayed except as permitted or required by this section.


24616. (a) A motor vehicle may be equipped with one or two rear-facing auxiliary lamps. For the purposes of this section, a rear-facing auxiliary lamp is a lamp that is mounted on the vehicle facing rearward. That lamp shall meet the photometric and performance requirements of the Society of Automotive Engineers Standard J1424 for cargo lamps. (b) A rear-facing auxiliary lamp may project only a white light, with the main cone of light projecting both rearward and downward. The main cone of light shall illuminate the road surface or ground immediately rearward of a line parallel to the rear of the vehicle for a distance not greater than 50 feet. The main cone of light may not project to the front or sides of the vehicle. (c) A rear-facing auxiliary lamp may be activated only when the vehicle is stopped. A vehicle equipped with a rear-facing auxiliary lamp shall also be equipped with a system that allows activation of the lamp only when the vehicle is in the "park" setting, if the vehicle is equipped with an automatic transmission, or in the "neutral" setting with the parking brake engaged, if the vehicle is equipped with a manual transmission. (d) A vehicle equipped with a rear-facing auxiliary lamp may have an activation switch accessible to the operator from the rear of the vehicle.


24617. (a) A transit bus may be authorized to be equipped with a yield right-of-way sign on the left rear of the bus. The yield right-of-way sign may flash simultaneously with the rear turn signal lamps, but is not required to do so. The sign shall be both of the following: (1) Designed to warn a person operating a motor vehicle approaching the rear of the bus that the bus is entering traffic. (2) Illuminated by a red flashing light when the bus is signaling in preparation for entering a traffic lane after having stopped to receive or discharge passengers. (b) This section does not require a transit agency to install the yield right-of-way sign described in subdivision (a). (c) This section does not relieve the driver of a transit bus from the duty to drive the bus with due regard for the safety of all persons and property. This section does not exempt the driver of a transit bus from Section 21804. (d) This section applies only to the Santa Cruz Metropolitan Transit District and the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority, if the governing board of the applicable entity approves a resolution, after a public hearing on the issue, requesting that this section be made applicable to it. (e) A participating transit agency shall undertake a public education program to encourage motorists to yield to a transit bus when the sign specified in subdivision (a) is activated.


Article 4. Parking Lamps

Ca Codes (veh:24800-24802) Vehicle Code Section 24800-24802



24800. No vehicle shall be driven at any time with the parking lamps lighted except when the lamps are being used as turn signal lamps or when the headlamps are also lighted.


24801. Parking lamps are those lamps permitted by Section 25106, or any lamps mounted on the front of a vehicle, designed to be displayed primarily when the vehicle is parked.


24802. No lights need be displayed upon a vehicle which is: (a) Parked off the roadway and not in a hazardous position on the highway; or (b) Parked with a wheel within 18 inches of a curb; or (c) Parked within a business or residence district with a wheel within 18 inches of a curb or edge of the roadway.


Article 5. Signal Lamps And Devices

Ca Codes (veh:24950-24953) Vehicle Code Section 24950-24953



24950. Whenever any motor vehicle is towing a trailer coach or a camp trailer the combination of vehicles shall be equipped with a lamp-type turn signal system.


24951. (a) Any vehicle may be equipped with a lamp-type turn signal system capable of clearly indicating any intention to turn either to the right or to the left. (b) The following vehicles shall be equipped with a lamp-type turn signal system meeting the requirements of this chapter. (1) Motortrucks, truck tractors, buses and passenger vehicles, other than motorcycles, manufactured and first registered on or after January 1, 1958. (2) Trailers and semitrailers manufactured and first registered between December 31, 1957, and January 1, 1969, having a gross weight of 6,000 pounds or more. (3) Trailers and semitrailers 80 or more inches in width manufactured on or after January 1, 1969. (4) Motorcycles manufactured and first registered on or after January 1, 1973, except motor-driven cycles whose speed attainable in one mile is 30 miles per hour or less. The requirements of this subdivision shall not apply to special mobile equipment, or auxiliary dollies. (c) Turn signal lamps on vehicles manufactured on or after January 1, 1969, shall be mounted not lower than 15 inches.


24952. A lamp-type turn signal shall be plainly visible and understandable in normal sunlight and at nighttime from a distance of at least 300 feet to the front and rear of the vehicle, except that turn signal lamps on vehicles of a size required to be equipped with clearance lamps shall be visible from a distance of 500 feet during such times.


24953. (a) Any turn signal system used to give a signal of intention to turn right or left shall project a flashing white or amber light visible to the front and a flashing red or amber light visible to the rear. (b) Side-mounted turn signal lamps projecting a flashing amber light to either side may be used to supplement the front and rear turn signals. Side-mounted turn signal lamps mounted to the rear of the center of the vehicle may project a flashing red light no part of which shall be visible from the front. (c) In addition to any required turn signal lamps, any vehicle may be equipped with supplemental rear turn signal lamps mounted to the rear of the rearmost portion of the driver's seat in its rearmost position. (d) In addition to any required or authorized turn signal lamps, any vehicle may be equipped with supplemental rear turn signal lamps that are mounted on, or are an integral portion of, the outside rearview mirrors, so long as the lamps flash simultaneously with the rear turn signal lamps, the light emitted from the lamps is projected only to the rear of the vehicle and is not visible to the driver under normal operating conditions, except for a visual indicator designed to allow monitoring of lamp operation, and the lamps do not project a glaring light.


Article 6. Side And Fender Lighting Equipment

Ca Codes (veh:25100-25110) Vehicle Code Section 25100-25110



25100. (a) Except as provided in subdivisions (b) and (d), every vehicle 80 inches or more in overall width shall be equipped during darkness as follows: (1) At least one amber clearance lamp on each side mounted on a forward-facing portion of the vehicle and visible from the front and at least one red clearance lamp on each side mounted on a rearward-facing portion of the vehicle and visible from the rear. (2) At least one amber side-marker lamp on each side near the front and at least one red side-marker lamp on each side near the rear. (3) At least one amber side-marker lamp on each side at or near the center on trailers and semitrailers 30 feet or more in length and which are manufactured and first registered after January 1, 1962. Any such vehicle manufactured and first registered prior to January 1, 1962, may be so equipped. (4) At least one amber side-marker lamp mounted at approximate midpoint of housecars, motortrucks, and buses 30 or more feet in length and manufactured on or after January 1, 1969. Any such vehicle manufactured prior to January 1, 1969, may be so equipped. (5) Combination clearance and side-marker lamps mounted as side-marker lamps and meeting the visibility requirements for both types of lamps may be used in lieu of required individual clearance or side-marker lamps. (b) The following vehicles when 80 inches or more in overall width and not equipped as provided in subdivision (a) shall be equipped during darkness as follows: (1) Truck tractors shall be equipped with at least one amber clearance lamp on each side on the front of the cab or sleeper and may be equipped with amber side-marker lamps on each side. (2) Truck tractors manufactured on or after January 1, 1969, shall be equipped with one amber side-marker lamp on each side near the front. (3) Pole or pipe dollies, or logging dollies, shall be equipped with at least one combination clearance and side-marker lamp on each side showing red to the front, side, and rear. (4) Vehicles, except truck tractors, which are 80 inches or more in width over a distance not exceeding three feet from front to rear shall be equipped with at least one amber combination clearance lamp and side-marker lamp on each side visible from the front, side, and rear if the projection is near the front of the vehicle and at least one red lamp if the projection is near the rear of the vehicle. (5) Towing motor vehicles engaged in driveaway-towaway operations shall be equipped with at least one amber clearance lamp at each side on the front and at least one amber side-marker lamp on each side near the front. (6) Towed motor vehicles engaged in driveaway-towaway operations shall be equipped with at least one amber side-marker lamp on each side of intermediate vehicles, and the rearmost vehicle shall be equipped with at least one red side-marker lamp on each side and at least one red clearance lamp on each side on the rear. (7) Trailers and semitrailers designed for transporting single boats in a cradle-type mounting and for launching the boat from the rear of the trailer need not be equipped with front and rear clearance lamps provided amber clearance lamps showing to the front and red clearance lamps showing to the rear are located on each side at or near the midpoint between the front and rear of the trailer to indicate the extreme width of the trailer. (c) Loads extending beyond the side of a vehicle where the overall width of the vehicle and load is 80 inches or more shall be equipped with an amber combination clearance and side-marker lamp on the side at the front and a red combination clearance and side-marker lamp on the side at the rear. In lieu of the foregoing requirement, projecting loads not exceeding three feet from front to rear at the extreme width shall be equipped with at least one amber combination clearance and side-marker lamp on the side visible from the front, side, and rear if the projection is near the front of the vehicle and at least one red lamp if the projection is near the rear of the vehicle. (d) Clearance and side-marker lamps are not required on auxiliary dollies or on passenger vehicles other than a housecar. (e) Clearance lamps shall be visible from all distances between 500 feet and 50 feet to the front or rear of the vehicle, and side-marker lamps shall be visible from all distances between 500 feet and 50 feet to the side of the vehicle. (f) Clearance lamps shall, so far as is practicable, be mounted to indicate the extreme width of the vehicle. Side-marker lamps shall be mounted not lower than 15 inches on vehicles manufactured on and after January 1, 1968. Combination clearance and side-marker lamps required on loads shall be mounted so the lenses project to the outer extremity of the vehicle or load.


25100.1. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this code, an ambulance may be equipped with clearance and side-marker lamps.


25102. In addition to the lamps otherwise permitted by this chapter, any motor vehicle may be equipped with lamps on the sides thereof, visible from the side of the vehicle but not from the front or rear thereof, which lamps, together with mountings or receptacles, shall be set into depressions or recesses in the body of the vehicle and shall not protrude beyond or outside the body of the vehicle. The light source in each of the lamps shall not exceed two candlepower and shall emit diffused light of any color, except that the color red is permitted only on authorized emergency vehicles.


25102.5. (a) A schoolbus may be equipped with lamps mounted so as to be visible from the sides of the bus which may be lighted, in addition to other required lights, when, and only when, atmospheric conditions such as fog, rain, snow, smoke, or dust, reduce the visibility of other vehicles to less than 500 feet. (b) The type and mounting requirements of such lamps shall be established by regulations adopted by the department. The regulations shall be adopted by January 1, 1980.


25103. Whenever the load upon any vehicle extends from the left side of the vehicle one foot or more, there shall be displayed at the extreme left side of the load during darkness: (a) An amber lamp plainly visible for 300 feet to the front and rear of the vehicle. (b) An amber lamp at the front visible for 300 feet to the front and a red lamp at the rear plainly visible for 300 feet to the rear of the vehicle if the projecting load exceeds 120 inches in length. The lamp shall not contain a bulb rated in excess of six candlepower.

25104. Any vehicle or equipment that requires a permit issued pursuant to Article 6 (commencing with Section 35780) of Chapter 5 of Division 15 because it is wider than permitted under Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 35100) of Division 15 shall display a solid red or fluorescent orange flag or cloth not less than 12 inches square at the extreme left front and left rear of the vehicle or equipment, if the vehicle or equipment is being operated other than during darkness.

25105. (a) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with running board or door-mounted courtesy lamps. The bulbs in the lamps shall not exceed six standard candlepower and shall emit either a green or white light without glare. The beams of the lamps shall not be visible to the front or rear of the vehicle. (b) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with inside door-mounted red lamps or red reflectorizing devices or material visible to the rear of the vehicle when the doors are open. The bulbs in the lamps shall not exceed six standard candlepower. (c) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with exterior lamps for the purpose of lighting the entrances and exits of the vehicles, which lamps may be lighted only when the vehicles are not in motion. The lamp source of the exterior lamps shall not exceed 32 standard candlepower, or 30 watts, nor project any glaring light into the eyes of an approaching driver.


25106. (a) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with lighted white or amber cowl or fender lamps on the front. Any vehicle may be equipped with not more than one amber side lamp on each side near the front, nor more than one red side lamp on each side near the rear. The light source of each such lamp shall not exceed four standard candlepower. (b) Lamps meeting requirements established by the department for side-marker or combination clearance and side-marker lamps may be installed on the sides of vehicles at any location, but any lamp installed within 24 inches of the rear of the vehicle shall be red, and any lamp installed at any other location shall be amber.


25107. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than two cornering lamps designed and of sufficient intensity for the purpose of revealing objects only in the direction of turn while the vehicle is turning or while the turn signal lamps are operating to signal an intention to turn. The lamps shall be designed so that no glaring light is projected into the eyes of an approaching driver.


25108. (a) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than two amber turn-signal pilot indicators mounted on the exterior. The light output from any indicator shall not exceed five candlepower unless a provision is made for operating the indicator at reduced intensity during darkness in which event the light output shall not exceed five candlepower during darkness or 15 candlepower at any other time. The center of the beam shall be projected toward the driver. (b) Any vehicle may be equipped with pilot indicators visible from the front to monitor the functioning or condition of parts essential to the operation of the vehicle or of equipment attached to the vehicle that is necessary for protection of the cargo or load. The pilot indicators shall be steady-burning, having a projected lighted lens area of not more than three-quarters of a square inch and have a light output of not more than five candlepower. The pilot indicator may be of any color except red. (c) Other exterior pilot indicators of any color may be used for monitoring exterior lighting devices, provided that the area of each indicator is less than 0.20 square inches, the intensity of each indicator does not exceed 0.10 candlepower, and the color red is not visible to the front. (d) Any towed vehicle may be equipped with an exterior-mounted indicator lamp used only to indicate the functional status of an antilock braking system providing that either of the following conditions are met: (1) The indicator lamp complies with the applicable requirements of the federal motor vehicle safety standards. (2) The indicator lamp is designed and located so that it will be readily visible, with the assistance of a rearview mirror if necessary, to the driver of the towing motor vehicle and the indicator lamp has a light source not exceeding five candlepower. The light shall not show to the sides or rear of the vehicle and the indicator lamp may emit any color except red. (e) (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than two exterior-lighted data monitors that transmit information to the driver of the vehicle regarding the efficient or safe operation, or both the efficient and safe operation, of the vehicle. (2) Data monitors shall comply with all of the following conditions: (A) Be mounted to the vehicle in a manner so that they are readily visible to the driver of the vehicle when the driver is seated in the normal driving position. Data monitors shall not be designed to convey information to any person other than the driver of the vehicle. (B) Be limited in size to not more than two square inches of lighted area each. (C) Not emit a light brighter than reasonably necessary to convey the intended information. (D) Not project a glaring light to the driver or, to other motorists, or to any other person. (3) Data monitors may incorporate flashing or changing elements only as necessary to convey the intended information. Data monitors shall not resemble any official traffic-control device or required lighting device or be combined with any required lighting device. (4) Data monitors may display any color, except that the color red shall not be visible to the front of the vehicle.


25109. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with two white or amber running lamps mounted on the front, one at each side, which shall not be lighted during darkness except while the motor vehicle is parked.


25110. (a) The following vehicles may be equipped with utility flood or loading lamps mounted on the rear, and sides, that project a white light illuminating an area to the side or rear of the vehicle for a distance not to exceed 75 feet at the level of the roadway: (1) Tow trucks that are used to tow disabled vehicles may display utility floodlights, but only during the period of preparation for towing at the location from which a disabled vehicle is to be towed. (2) Ambulances used to respond to emergency calls may display utility flood and loading lights, but only at the scene of an emergency or while loading or unloading patients. (3) Firefighting equipment designed and operated exclusively as such may display utility floodlamps only at the scene of an emergency. (4) Vehicles used by law enforcement agencies or organizations engaged in the detoxification of alcoholics may display utility flood or loading lights when loading or unloading persons under the influence of intoxicants for transportation to detoxification centers or places of incarceration. (5) Vehicles used by law enforcement agencies for mobile blood alcohol testing, drug evaluation, or field sobriety testing . (6) Vehicles used by publicly or privately owned public utilities may display utility flood or loading lights when engaged in emergency roadside repair of electric, gas, telephone, telegraph, water, or sewer facilities. (b) Lamps permitted under subdivision (a) shall not be lighted during darkness, except while the vehicle is parked, nor project any glaring light into the eyes of an approaching driver.


Article 7. Flashing And Colored Lights

Ca Codes (veh:25250-25282) Vehicle Code Section 25250-25282



25250. Flashing lights are prohibited on vehicles except as otherwise permitted.


25251. (a) Flashing lights are permitted on vehicles as follows: (1) To indicate an intention to turn or move to the right or left upon a roadway, turn signal lamps and turn signal exterior pilot indicator lamps and side lamps permitted under Section 25106 may be flashed on the side of a vehicle toward which the turn or movement is to be made. (2) When disabled or parked off the roadway but within 10 feet of the roadway, or when approaching, stopped at, or departing from, a railroad grade crossing, turn signal lamps may be flashed as warning lights if the front turn signal lamps at each side are being flashed simultaneously and the rear turn signal lamps at each side are being flashed simultaneously. (3) To warn other motorists of accidents or hazards on a roadway, turn signal lamps may be flashed as warning lights while the vehicle is approaching, overtaking, or passing the accident or hazard on the roadway if the front turn signal lamps at each side are being flashed simultaneously and the rear turn signal lamps at each side are being flashed simultaneously. (4) For use on authorized emergency vehicles. (5) To warn other motorists of a funeral procession, turn signal lamps may be flashed as warning lights on all vehicles actually engaged in a funeral procession, if the front turn signal lamps at each side are being flashed simultaneously and the rear turn signal lamps at each side are being flashed simultaneously. (b) Turn signal lamps shall be flashed as warning lights whenever a vehicle is disabled upon the roadway and the vehicle is equipped with a device to automatically activate the front turn signal lamps at each side to flash simultaneously and the rear turn signal lamps at each side to flash simultaneously, if the device and the turn signal lamps were not rendered inoperative by the event which caused the vehicle to be disabled. (c) Side lamps permitted under Section 25106 and used in conjunction with turn signal lamps may be flashed with the turn signal lamps as part of the warning light system, as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of subdivision (a). (d) Required or permitted lamps on a trailer or semitrailer may flash when the trailer or semitrailer has broken away from the towing vehicle and the connection between the vehicles is broken. (e) Hazard warning lights, as permitted by paragraphs (2) and (3) of subdivision (a) may be flashed in a repeating series of short and long flashes when the driver is in need of help.


25251.1. Any implement of husbandry displaying a slow moving vehicle emblem, as defined in Section 24615, and being operated at a speed of 25 miles per hour or less, may be equipped with double-faced amber turn signals which may be flashed simultaneously as warning lights.


25251.2. Any motorcycle may be equipped with a means of modulating the upper beam of the headlamp between a high and a lower brightness at a rate of 200 to 280 flashes per minute. Such headlamps shall not be so modulated during darkness.

25251.3. No civil liability shall attach to any person for the use or nonuse of turn signal lamps in the manner permitted by paragraph (3) or (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 25251, except for such civil liability as would attach for the use or nonuse of any other device required by this article or Article 8 (commencing with Section 25300).


25251.4. Any motor vehicle may also be equipped with a theft alarm system which flashes any of the lights required or permitted on the motor vehicle and which operates as specified in Article 13 (commencing with Section 28085) of Chapter 5 of this division.


25251.5. (a) Any motor vehicle may also be equipped with a system in which an amber light is center mounted on the rear of a vehicle to communicate a component of deceleration of the vehicle, and which light pulses in a controlled fashion at a rate which varies exponentially with a component of deceleration. (b) Any motor vehicle may be equipped with two amber lamps on the rear of the vehicle which operate simultaneously with not more than four flashes within four seconds after the accelerator pedal is in the deceleration position and which are not lighted at any other time. The lamps shall be mounted at the same height, with one lamp located on each side of the vertical centerline of the vehicle, not higher than the bottom of the rear window, or if the vehicle has no rear window, not higher than 60 inches. The light output from each of the lamps shall not exceed 200 candlepower at any angle horizontal or above. The amber lamps may be used either separately or in combination with another lamp. (c) Any stoplamp or supplemental stoplamp required or permitted by Section 24603 may be equipped so as to flash not more than four times within the first four seconds after actuation by application of the brakes.


25252. Every authorized emergency vehicle shall be equipped with at least one steady burning red warning lamp visible from at least 1,000 feet to the front of the vehicle to be used as provided in this code. In addition, authorized emergency vehicles may display revolving, flashing, or steady red warning lights to the front, sides or rear of the vehicles.


25252.5. (a) Every authorized emergency vehicle may be equipped with a system which flashes the upper-beam headlamps of the vehicle with the flashes occurring alternately from the front headlamp on one side of the vehicle to the front headlamp on the other side of the vehicle. The flashing of the headlamps shall consist only of upper-beam flashing, and not the flashing of any other light beam. (b) "Upper-beam headlamp," as used in this section, means a headlamp or that part of a headlamp which projects a distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed and of such intensity as to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 350 feet ahead for all conditions of loading. (c) The system provided for in subdivision (a) shall only be used when an authorized emergency vehicle is being operated pursuant to Section 21055.


25253. (a) Tow trucks used to tow disabled vehicles shall be equipped with flashing amber warning lamps. This subdivision does not apply to a tractor-trailer combination. (b) Tow trucks may display flashing amber warning lamps while providing service to a disabled vehicle. A flashing amber warning lamp upon a tow truck may be displayed to the rear when the tow truck is towing a vehicle and moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic. (c) A tow truck shall not display flashing amber warning lamps on a freeway except when an unusual traffic hazard or extreme hazard exists.


25253.1. An automobile dismantler's tow vehicle used to tow a disabled vehicle may be equipped with flashing amber warning lamps. A flashing amber warning lamp upon an automobile dismantler's tow vehicle may be displayed to the rear when the automobile dismantler's tow vehicle is towing a vehicle and moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic.


25254. In any county with a population of 250,000 or more persons, publicly owned vehicles operated by peace officer personnel of a marshal's department, when actually being used in the enforcement of the orders of any court, including, but not limited to, the transportation of prisoners, may display flashing amber warning lights to the rear when such vehicles are necessarily parked upon a roadway and such parking constitutes a hazard to other motorists.


25256. Vehicles used by highway authorities or bridge and highway districts, and vehicles of duly authorized representatives thereof, used in highway maintenance, inspection, survey or construction work may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides or rear when such vehicles are parked or working on the highway.


25257. (a) Every schoolbus, when operated for the transportation of schoolchildren, shall be equipped with a flashing red light signal system. (b) (1) Every schoolbus manufactured on or after September 1, 1992, shall also be equipped with a stop signal arm. Any schoolbus manufactured before September 1, 1992, may be equipped with a stop signal arm. (2) Any schoolbus manufactured on or after July 1, 1993, shall also be equipped with an amber warning light system, in addition to the flashing red light signal system. Any schoolbus manufactured before July 1, 1993, may be equipped with an amber warning light system. (3) On or before September 1, 1992, the department shall adopt regulations governing the specifications, installation, and use of stop signal arms, to comply with federal standards. (4) A "stop signal arm" is a device that can be extended outward from the side of a schoolbus to provide a signal to other motorists not to pass the bus because it has stopped to load or unload passengers, that is manufactured pursuant to the specifications of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 131, issued on April 25, 1991.


25257.2. If a schoolbus is used for the transportation of persons of any age who are developmentally disabled, as defined by the Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act (Division 4.5 (commencing with Section 4500) of the Welfare and Institutions Code), the amber light signal system, flashing red light signal system, and stop signal arm shall not be used other than as required by Sections 22112 and 22454.


25257.5. To warn other motorists or pedestrians on a roadway during a backing maneuver, the operator of a schoolbus may flash turn signal lamps if the front turn signal lamps at each side are flashed simultaneously and the rear signal lamps at each side are flashed simultaneously.


25257.7. (a) A schoolbus may be equipped with a white strobe light mounted so as to be visible from the front, sides, or rear of the bus. The strobe light may only be lighted when visibility is reduced to 500 feet or less due to atmospheric conditions including, but not limited to, fog, rain, snow, smoke, or dust. Reduced visibility due to atmospheric conditions does not include the time of darkness from one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise. (b) The type and mounting requirements of strobe lights authorized by subdivision (a) shall be established by regulations adopted by the department by April 1, 1991. No schoolbus shall be equipped with a strobe light until the regulations are adopted.


25258. (a) An authorized emergency vehicle operating under the conditions specified in Section 21055 may display a flashing white light from a gaseous discharge lamp designed and used for the purpose of controlling official traffic control signals. (b) An authorized emergency vehicle used by a peace officer, as defined in Section 830.1 of, subdivision (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), or (i) of Section 830.2 of, subdivision (n) of Section 830.3 of, subdivision (b) of Section 830.31 of, subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 830.32 of, Section 830.33 of, subdivision (a) of Section 830.36 of, subdivision (a) of Section 830.4 of, or Section 830.6 of, the Penal Code, in the performance of the peace officer's duties, may, in addition, display a steady or flashing blue warning light visible from the front, sides, or rear of the vehicle. (c) Except as provided in subdivision (a), a vehicle shall not be equipped with a device that emits any illumination or radiation that is designed or used for the purpose of controlling official traffic control signals.


25259. (a) Any authorized emergency vehicle may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear. (b) A vehicle operated by a police or traffic officer while in the actual performance of his or her duties may display steady burning or flashing white lights to either side mounted above the roofline of the vehicle. (c) Any authorized emergency vehicle may display not more than two flashing white warning lights to the front mounted above the roofline of the vehicle and not more than two flashing white warning lights to the front mounted below the roofline of the vehicle. These lamps may be in addition to the flashing headlamps permitted under Section 25252.5.

25259.1. (a) Any vehicle operated by a disaster service worker who has received training in accordance with subdivision (b) and used by that worker in the performance of emergency or disaster services ordered by lawful authority during a state of war emergency, a state of emergency, or a local emergency, as those terms are defined in Section 8558 of the Government Code, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear while at the scene of the emergency or disaster. (b) Any disaster service worker operating a vehicle that displays flashing amber warning lights shall receive a training course from the public agency, disaster council, or emergency organization described in Section 3101 of the Government Code concerning the safe operation of the use of flashing amber warning lights prior to operating a vehicle that displays flashing amber warning lights. (c) A person operating a vehicle that is authorized to display flashing amber warning lights under this section shall either completely cover or remove those lights when the lights are not in use.

25259.5. An emergency response or disaster service vehicle owned or leased and operated by the American National Red Cross, or any chapter or branch thereof, and equipped and clearly marked as a Red Cross emergency service or disaster service vehicle, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear of the vehicle while at the scene of an emergency or disaster operation. Vehicles not used on emergency response shall not be included.


25260. (a) Public utility vehicles, and vehicles of duly authorized representatives of a public utility, actually engaged in the construction, removal, maintenance, or inspection of public utility facilities, including the cutting or trimming of trees immediately adjacent thereto, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear when necessarily parked on a highway or when moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic. (b) Vehicles owned by public transit operators which provide assistance to a disabled district bus may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear when necessarily parked on a highway.


25260.1. Vehicles actually engaged in the construction, removal, maintenance, or inspection of any oil or gas pipeline may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear when necessarily parked on a highway or when necessarily moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic and only in accordance with Section 25268.


25260.3. Any vehicle having personnel aerial lift equipment, actually engaged in the construction, removal, maintenance or inspection of any building, structure, or appurtenances thereto, including the cutting or trimming of trees immediately adjacent thereto, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear when necessarily parked on a highway or when moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of the traffic.


25260.4. Any hazardous substance spill response vehicle, under contract to the Department of Transportation for the cleanup of hazardous substance spills, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear of the vehicle while it is engaged in the actual cleanup of the spill. The warning lights shall be removed or covered with opaque material whenever the vehicle is not actually engaged in the cleanup of a hazardous substance at the scene of the spill.

25261. Vehicles used by a county or county department of agriculture and vehicles of duly authorized representatives thereof, actually engaged in weed control or pest detection, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear when necessarily parked on a highway or when moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic.


25262. An armored car may be equipped with red lights which may be used while resisting armed robbery. At all other times the red lights shall not be lighted. The authority to use red lights granted by this section does not constitute an armored car an authorized emergency vehicle, and all other provisions of this code applicable to drivers of vehicles apply to drivers of armored cars.


25263. Trucks actually engaged in the towing of houses or buildings upon any highway may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides or rear on the vehicle or load.


25264. Any motor vehicle operated by a coroner, or by a deputy coroner, and which is at the scene of any violent highway death, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front or rear.


25265. Repair vehicles of sanitary districts or county sanitation districts necessarily parked other than adjacent to the curb in a highway for purposes of repairing district facilities, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides or rear, but these lights shall not be lighted when the vehicle is in motion.


25266. Vehicles owned by the state and operated by officers or employees of the state who are actually engaged in aqueduct or levee construction, maintenance, patrol, or inspection, or in stream measurement work, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides and rear when parked on the traveled roadway so as to partially obstruct the free flow of traffic, or when moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic.


25267. Vehicles used by mosquito abatement districts or pest abatement districts when dispersing insecticides may display flashing amber warning lights to the front or rear while the vehicles are parked or working on the highway.

25268. No person shall display a flashing amber warning light on a vehicle as permitted by this code except when an unusual traffic hazard exists.

25269. No person shall display a flashing or steady burning red warning light on a vehicle except as permitted by Section 21055 or when an extreme hazard exists.


25270. Any pilot car required by the permit referred to in Section 35780 or 35790, or any vehicle or combination of vehicles subject to the permit if specified in the permit, shall be equipped with flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides or rear. The pilot car and any vehicles required by the permit to have flashing amber warning lights, shall display the flashing amber warning lights while actually engaged in the movement described in the permit. The warning lamps shall be removed or covered with opaque material whenever the pilot car is not escorting the movement described in the permit.

25270.5. Any motor vehicle engaged in, or aiding in, the herding of livestock along or across a public roadway may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear of the vehicle while it is stopped in the roadway near the livestock or is proceeding with the livestock along the roadway.


25271. Any publicly owned vehicle or any vehicle operated by a corporation incorporated under Part 4 (commencing with Section 10400) of Division 2 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code for the purpose of the prevention of cruelty to animals, when used for removing dead animals, injured animals, or loose livestock, may, display flashing amber warning lights to the front or rear when necessarily parked on the roadway or when moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic.


25271.5. Any publicly owned vehicle used for the enforcement of animal control laws contained in a statute, local ordinance, or regulation may display flashing or revolving amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear of the vehicle when actually engaged in the enforcement of those laws and when necessarily parked on a roadway or moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic.


25272. A motor vehicle used by a rural mail carrier may display flashing amber warning lights to the front and rear of the vehicle while the vehicle is necessarily stopped or stopping upon a roadway for the delivery of United States mail.


25273. Any motor vehicle owned and operated by a school district with an average daily attendance in excess of 400,000 while being used to measure the distance from school to a school pupil's residence may display a flashing amber warning light to the rear of the vehicle when moving at a speed substantially slower than the normal flow of traffic.


25274. Any vehicle owned by a cable television company and operated by employees, or duly authorized representatives, of a cable television company, when actually engaged in the construction, removal, maintenance or inspection of cable television facilities, including but not limited to, the cutting or trimming of trees immediately adjacent thereto, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear when necessarily parked on a highway or when moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic. For the purposes of this section, "cable television company" means any person engaged in the business of transmitting television programs by cable to subscribers for a fee.


25275. Any truck or truck tractor which is primarily used in the transportation of loads specified in subdivision (a) of Section 35414, may be equipped with a flashing amber warning lamp. Such lamp may be displayed to the front, sides, or rear of the combination only when its length exceeds 75 feet and when an unusual traffic hazard exists.


25275.5. Any bus operated either by a public agency or under the authority of a certificate of public convenience and necessity issued by the Public Utilities Commission may be equipped with a system of crime alarm lights. The system of crime alarm lights shall consist of the installation of additional lamp sources, not exceeding 32 standard candlepower or 30 watts, in the front and rear clearance lamps required or permitted by Section 25100. Such lamps shall be operated by a flasher unit or units that are not audible inside the bus. When actuated, both rear crime alarm lights shall flash simultaneously and both front crime alarm lights shall flash simultaneously. Crime alarm lights shall be actuated only when a crime is in progress on board the bus or has recently been committed on board the bus.


25276. (a) A motor vehicle designed for carrying more than eight persons, including the driver, owned by a private, nonprofit organization that provides training or other activities for persons who are mentally retarded or physically disabled, or both, and that is certified by the Department of Rehabilitation or licensed by the State Department of Health, with respect to the providing of this training or other activities, may be equipped with a flashing amber light signal system. (b) A motor vehicle, described in subdivision (a), may, while actually engaged in the transportation of persons described in subdivision (a) to or from a training or activity center operated by the organization, display the flashing amber lights of the system when necessarily parked upon a highway and in the process of loading or unloading persons. (c) Subdivisions (a) and (b) apply to a motor vehicle that is rented, leased, or chartered by the organization.


25277. Any vehicle used by any police department, sheriff's office, or other governmental agency for the purpose of enforcing parking laws contained in the Vehicle Code or in a local ordinance or regulation may display flashing or revolving amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear of the vehicle when actually engaged in the enforcement of such laws and when either necessarily stopped on a street, or when moving at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic.

25278. Any vehicle owned or operated by a land surveyor or civil engineer licensed to practice in this state may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear, if the vehicle is engaged in any phase of a project that requires surveying or surveying related activities to be performed on a highway, or in the vicinity of a highway, and the vehicle is parked on the highway or moving at a speed lower than the normal flow of traffic. The use of, or absence of, amber warning lights as authorized in this section shall not serve as the basis for any civil action, a defense to a civil action, or establish negligence as a matter of law or negligence per se for comparative fault purposes.


25279. (a) Vehicles owned and operated by private security agencies and utilized exclusively on privately owned and maintained roads to which this code is made applicable by local ordinance or resolution, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear, while being operated in response to emergency calls for the immediate preservation of life or property. (b) (1) Vehicles owned by a private security agency and operated by personnel who are registered with the Department of Consumer Affairs under Article 3 (commencing with Section 7582) of Chapter 11.5 of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code may be equipped with a flashing amber warning light system while the vehicle is operated on a highway, if the vehicle is in compliance with Section 27605 and is distinctively marked with the words "PRIVATE SECURITY" or "SECURITY PATROL" on the rear and both sides of the vehicle in a size that is legible from a distance of not less than 50 feet. (2) The flashing amber warning light system authorized under paragraph (1) shall not be activated while the vehicle is on the highway, unless otherwise directed by a peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code. (c) A peace officer may order that the flashing amber warning light system of a vehicle that is found to be in violation of this section be immediately removed at the place of business of the vehicle's owner or a garage. (d) A flashing amber warning light system shall not be installed on a vehicle that has been found to be in violation of this section, unless written authorization is obtained from the Commissioner of the California Highway Patrol.


25280. Vehicles operated by a local public entity, or pursuant to a permit, license, contract, or franchise with a local public entity, and used to collect and transport garbage, rubbish, or refuse may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear while stopped upon a street and actually engaged in the collection of garbage, rubbish, or refuse, or while moving between stops at a speed not greater than 10 miles per hour.


25281. A privately owned or operated water tender vehicle, when used exclusively for contract emergency services provided to any public agency, may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear of the vehicle when necessarily parked on a highway or other public road, blocking or partially blocking a highway or other public road, traveling at a speed slower than the normal flow of traffic, or crossing or entering a highway or other public road. The flashing amber lights shall not be displayed when the water tender vehicle is traveling to or from an emergency at the normal speed and flow of traffic, except when the vehicle is traveling in escort with a fire engine or other authorized emergency vehicle. The lights shall be covered with an opaque material when not being displayed.


25282. Any vehicle owned or operated by a contractor or a construction company licensed to operate in this state pursuant to the Business and Professions Code may display flashing amber warning lights to the front, sides, or rear, if the vehicle is engaged in any phase of a construction project performed on a highway, or in the vicinity of a highway, and the vehicle is parked on the highway or moving at a speed lower than the normal flow of traffic. The use of, or absence of, amber warning lights as authorized in this section shall not serve as the basis for any civil action, a defense to civil action, or establish negligence as a matter of law or negligence per se for comparative fault purposes.


Article 8. Warning Lights And Devices

Ca Codes (veh:25300-25305) Vehicle Code Section 25300-25305



25300. (a) Every vehicle which, if operated during darkness, would be subject to the provisions of Section 25100, and every truck tractor, irrespective of width, shall at all times be equipped with at least three red emergency reflectors. The reflectors need be carried by only one vehicle in a combination. All reflectors shall be maintained in good working condition. (b) When any such vehicle is disabled on the roadway during darkness, reflectors of the type specified in subdivision (a) shall be immediately placed as follows: (1) One at the traffic side of the disabled vehicle, not more than 10 feet to the front or rear thereof; (2) One at a distance of approximately 100 feet to the rear of the disabled vehicle in the center of the traffic lane occupied by such vehicle; and (3) One at a distance of approximately 100 feet to the front of the disabled vehicle in the center of the traffic lane occupied by such vehicle. (4) If disablement of any such vehicle occurs within 500 feet of a curve, crest of a hill, or other obstruction to view, the driver shall so place the reflectors in that direction as to afford ample warning to other users of the highway, but in no case less than 100 nor more than 500 feet from the disabled vehicle. (5) If disablement of the vehicle occurs upon any roadway of a divided or one-way highway, the driver shall place one reflector at a distance of approximately 200 feet and one such reflector at a distance of approximately 100 feet to the rear of the vehicle in the center of the lane occupied by the stopped vehicle, and one such reflector at the traffic side of the vehicle not more than 10 feet to the rear of the vehicle. (c) When any such vehicle is disabled or parked off the roadway but within 10 feet thereof during darkness, warning reflectors of the type specified in subdivision (a) shall be immediately placed by the driver as follows: one at a distance of approximately 200 feet and one at a distance of approximately 100 feet to the rear of the vehicle, and one at the traffic side of the vehicle not more than 10 feet to the rear of the vehicle. The reflectors shall, if possible, be placed between the edge of the roadway and the vehicle, but in no event less than two feet to the left of the widest portion of the vehicle or load thereon. (d) Until the reflectors required by this section can be placed properly, the requirements of this section may be complied with temporarily by either placing lighted red fusees in the required locations or by use of turn signal lamps, but only if front turn signal lamps at each side are being flashed simultaneously and rear turn signal lamps at each side are being flashed simultaneously. (e) The reflectors shall be displayed continuously during darkness while the vehicle remains disabled upon the roadway or parked or disabled within 10 feet thereof. (f) Subdivisions (b), (c), (d), and (e) do not apply to a vehicle under either of the following circumstances: (1) Parked in a legal position within the corporate limits of any city. (2) Parked in a legal position upon a roadway bounded by adjacent curbs. (g) In addition to the reflectors specified in subdivision (a), an emergency warning sign or banner may be attached to a vehicle which is disabled upon the roadway or which is parked or disabled within 10 feet of a roadway.


25301. When utility or public utility vehicles are parked, stopped or standing at the site of work as described in Section 22512, warning devices shall be displayed as follows: (a) During daylight warning devices shall consist of either: A warning flag or barricade striping on the front and rear of the vehicle. A warning flag, sign, or barrier on the highway not more than 50 feet in advance of the vehicle and not more than 50 feet to the rear thereof, except that in zones where the speed limit is in excess of 25 miles per hour the 50-foot distance may be increased up to 500 feet from the vehicle as circumstances may warrant. (b) During darkness the warning devices shall consist of either: One or more flashing amber warning lights on the vehicle giving warning to approaching traffic from each direction. A warning light, flare, fusee, or reflector on the highway not more than 50 feet in advance of the vehicle and not more than 50 feet to the rear thereof, except that in zones where the speed limit is in excess of 25 miles per hour the 50-foot distance may be increased up to 500 feet from the vehicle where circumstances may warrant. (c) The provisions of subdivision (a) or (b) do not prevent the display of both types of the warning devices during daylight or darkness. (d) During either daylight or darkness, no warning device is necessary if the vehicle is equipped with the flashing warning lights visible to approaching traffic from each direction as provided in subdivision (b).


25305. (a) No person shall place, deposit, or display upon or adjacent to any highway any lighted fusee, except as a warning to approaching vehicular traffic or railroad trains, or both, of an existing hazard upon or adjacent to the highway or highway-railroad crossing. (b) It is unlawful to use any fusee which produces other than a red light. The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to any railroad, as defined in Section 229 of the Public Utilities Code.


Article 9. Commercial And Common Carrier Vehicles

Ca Codes (veh:25350-25353) Vehicle Code Section 25350-25353



25350. Any passenger common carrier motor vehicle manufactured prior to January 1, 1968, may be equipped with green identification lamps. Any bus may be equipped with an illuminated termini sign, an illuminated identification sign, or any combination thereof, which shall not project any glaring light. Internally illuminated termini signs, identification signs, or any combination thereof, meeting the requirements of Section 25400 may be mounted inside a bus. Any commercial vehicle, other than a passenger common carrier motor vehicle, may be equipped with an illuminated identification sign upon the front thereof which shall not exceed 24 inches in length or 8 inches in width and which emits diffused white light without glare.


25351. (a) A commercial vehicle and, except as provided in subdivision (d), any other vehicle 80 or more inches in width may be equipped with identification lamps mounted on the front or rear. No part of any such lamps or their mountings on the front of a motor vehicle shall extend below the top of the windshield. (b) Identification lamps on such vehicles manufactured prior to January 1, 1968, may exhibit either amber, green, or white light to the front and red light to the rear. (c) Identification lamps on such vehicles manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, may exhibit only amber light to the front and red light to the rear. (d) Identification lamps are not permitted on passenger vehicles, except housecars and ambulances, regardless of width.


25352. Any bus operated by a publicly owned transit system on regularly scheduled service may be equipped with a device capable of sending a signal that interrupts or changes the sequence patterns of an official traffic control signal, under the following conditions: (a) If such a device is a flashing gaseous discharge lamp, such lamp shall not emit a visible light exceeding an average of 0.0003 candela per flash of any color measured at a distance of 10 feet. (b) Such device shall not be installed or used unless and until authorized on specific routes by either the Department of Transportation pursuant to Section 21350 or local authorities pursuant to Section 21351. (c) Any bus or system operating under the conditions specified herein shall allow emergency vehicles operating pursuant to Section 25258 or 21055 to have priority in changing the sequence patterns of an official traffic control signal.


25353. (a) Notwithstanding Sections 25400 and 25950, a bus operated by a publicly owned transit system on regularly scheduled service may be equipped with illuminated signs that include destination signs, route-number signs, run-number signs, public service announcement signs, or a combination thereof, visible from any direction of the vehicle, that emit any light color, other than the color red emitted from forward-facing signs, pursuant to the following conditions: (1) Each illuminated sign shall emit diffused nonglaring light. (2) Each illuminated sign shall be limited in size to a display area of not greater than 720 square inches. (3) Each illuminated sign shall not resemble nor be installed in a position that interferes with the visibility or effectiveness of a required lamp, reflector, or other device upon the vehicle. (4) Each illuminated sign shall display information directly related to public transit service, including, but not limited to, route number, destination description, run number, and public service announcements. (5) The mixing of individually colored light emitting diode elements, including red, is allowed as long as the emitted color formed by the combination of light emitting diode elements is not red. (b) (1) An illuminated sign may be operated as a dynamic message sign in a paging or streaming mode. (2) The following definitions shall govern the construction of paragraph (1): (A) "Paging," meaning character elements or other information presented for a period of time and then disappearing all at once before the same or new elements are presented, is permitted if the display time of each message is between 2.7 and 10 seconds. Blanking times between each message shall be between 0.5 and 25 seconds. (B) "Streaming," meaning character elements or other information moving smoothly and continuously across the display, is permitted if the character movement time, from one end of the display to the other, is at least 2.7 seconds, and the movement time of the entire message does not exceed 10 seconds. (c) A regulation adopted pursuant to this section shall comply with applicable federal law, including, but not limited to, the federal Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. Sec. 12101 et seq.).


Article 10. Diffused Lights

Ca Codes (veh:25400-25401) Vehicle Code Section 25400-25401



25400. (a) Any vehicle may be equipped with a lamp or device on the exterior of the vehicle that emits a diffused nonglaring light of not more than 0.05 candela per square inch of area. (b) Any diffused nonglaring light shall not display red to the front, but may display other colors. A diffused nonglaring light shall not resemble nor be installed within 12 inches or in such position as to interfere with the visibility or effectiveness of any required lamp, reflector, or other device upon the vehicle. (c) A diffused nonglaring lamp or device, other than a display sign authorized by subdivision (d), shall be limited in size to an area of 720 square inches and where any lease, rental, or donation is involved the installation of the lamp or device shall be limited to those vehicles operated either primarily within business or residential districts or municipalities, or between business districts, residential districts, and municipalities in close proximity. (d) An internally illuminated sign emitting not more than 0.25 candela per square inch and possessing copy which does not contain a white background may be displayed on each side, but not on the front or rear, of a trolley coach or of a bus being operated in urban or suburban service as described in Section 35107 of this code.


25401. No diffused nonglaring light on a vehicle shall resemble any official traffic control device.


Article 11. Acetylene Lamps

Ca Codes (veh:25450-25452) Vehicle Code Section 25450-25452



25450. Any motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, equipped with lighted acetylene headlamps complies with the provisions of this code concerning lighted headlamps when it has two lighted acetylene headlamps of approximately equal candlepower mounted upon the front of the motor vehicle and fitted with clear plane glass fronts and bright six-inch spherical mirrors and standard acetylene five-eighths or three-quarters foot burners, not more and not less, projecting sufficient light ahead to reveal any vehicle, person or substantial object upon the roadway within 200 feet.


25451. Any motorcycle equipped with one lighted acetylene headlamp complies with the provisions of this code concerning lighted headlamps on motorcycles when the acetylene headlamp is fitted with a clear plane glass front and a bright six-inch spherical mirror and a standard acetylene one-half or five-eighths foot burner, projecting sufficient light ahead to reveal any vehicle, person, or substantial object upon the roadway within a distance of 115 feet.


25452. No acetylene lamp shall emit any glaring light.


Article 12. Reflectorizing Material

Ca Codes (veh:25500) Vehicle Code Section 25500



25500. (a) Area reflectorizing material may be displayed on any vehicle, provided: the color red is not displayed on the front; designs do not tend to distort the length or width of the vehicle; and designs do not resemble official traffic control devices, except that alternate striping resembling a barricade pattern may be used. No vehicle shall be equipped with area reflectorizing material contrary to these provisions. (b) The provisions of this section shall not apply to license plate stickers or tabs affixed to license plates as authorized by the Department of Motor Vehicles.


Article 13. Headlamps On Motorcycles And Motor-driven Cycles 25650-25651

Ca Codes (veh:25650-25651) Vehicle Code Section 25650-25651



25650. Every motorcycle during darkness shall be equipped with at least one and not more than two lighted headlamps which shall conform to the requirements and limitations of this division.


25650.5. Every motorcycle manufactured and first registered on and after January 1, 1978, shall be equipped with at least one and not more than two headlamps which automatically turn on when the engine of the motorcycle is started and which remain lighted as long as the engine is running. This section does not preclude equipping motorcycles used as authorized emergency vehicles with a switch to be used to turn off the headlamp during emergency situations or when the light would interfere with law enforcement, if the switch is removed prior to resale of the motorcycle.


25651. The headlamp upon a motor-driven cycle may be of the single-beam or multiple-beam type, but in either event, when the vehicle is operated during darkness, the headlamp shall comply with the requirements and limitations as follows: (a) The headlamp shall be of sufficient intensity to reveal a person or a vehicle at a distance of not less than 100 feet when the motor-driven cycle is operated at any speed less than 25 miles per hour and at a distance of not less than 200 feet when operated at a speed of 25 to not exceeding 35 miles per hour, and at a distance of 300 feet when operated at a speed greater than 35 miles per hour. (b) In the event the motor-driven cycle is equipped with a multiple-beam headlamp, the upper beam shall meet the minimum requirements set forth above and the lowermost beam shall meet the requirements applicable to a lowermost distribution of light as set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 24407. (c) In the event the motor-driven cycle is equipped with a single-beam lamp, it shall be so aimed that when the vehicle is loaded none of the high intensity portion of light, at a distance of 25 feet ahead, shall project higher than the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes.


Article 14. Vehicles Exempted

Ca Codes (veh:25800-25806) Vehicle Code Section 25800-25806



25800. The provisions of Sections 24012, 24250, 24251, 24400 to 24404, inclusive, and Articles 3 (commencing with Section 24600), 4 (commencing with Section 24800), 5 (commencing with Section 24950), 6 (commencing with Section 25100), 9 (commencing with Section 25350), 11 (commencing with Section 25450), and 13 (commencing with Section 25650), shall not apply to special mobile equipment. Such equipment shall be subject to the provisions of Sections 24254, 25803, and 25950, and Article 12 (commencing with Section 25500) .


25801. The provisions of Sections 24012, 24250, 24251, 24254, 24400 to 24404, inclusive, 24600 to 24604, inclusive, 24606 to 24610, inclusive, Section 25950, and Articles 4 (commencing with Section 24800), 5 (commencing with Section 24950), 6 (commencing with Section 25100), 9 (commencing with Section 25350), 11 (commencing with Section 25450), 12 (commencing with Section 25500), and 13 (commencing with Section 25650) and shall not apply to special construction or maintenance equipment, nor to motortrucks equipped with snow removal or sanding devices, but shall apply to motortrucks and automobiles used independently of such equipment. The provisions of Section 25803 shall be applicable to such equipment.

25802. Sections 24002, 24005, 24012, 24250, 24251, 24400 to 24404, inclusive, 24600 to 24604, inclusive, 24606 to 24610, inclusive, Article 4 (commencing with Section 24800), Article 5 (commencing with Section 24950), Article 6 (commencing with Section 25100), Article 9 (commencing with Section 25350), Article 11 (commencing with Section 25450), and Article 13 (commencing with Section 25650) of Chapter 2 of this division, Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 26301), Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 26700), and Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 27000) of this division, and Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 29200), Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 29800), Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 30800), and Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 31301) of Division 13 do not apply to logging vehicles or any vehicle of a type subject to registration under this code that is not designed, used, or maintained for the transportation of persons or property and that is operated or moved over a highway only incidentally ; but any such vehicle shall be subject to Sections 2800, 2806, 24004, 25260, 25803, 25950, 25952, 26457, 27454, 27602, 31500, and 40150, and to Article 12 (commencing with Section 25500) of Chapter 2 of this division.


25803. (a) All vehicles not otherwise required to be equipped with headlamps, rear lights, or reflectors by this chapter shall, if operated on a highway during darkness, be equipped with a lamp exhibiting a red light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the rear of the vehicle. In addition, all of these vehicles operated alone or as the first vehicle in a combination of vehicles, shall be equipped with at least one lighted lamp exhibiting a white light visible from a distance of 500 feet to the front of the vehicle. (b) A vehicle shall also be equipped with an amber reflector on the front near the left side and a red reflector on the rear near the left side. The reflectors shall be mounted on the vehicle not lower than 16 inches nor higher than 60 inches above the ground and so designed and maintained as to be visible during darkness from all distances within 500 feet from the vehicle when directly in front of a motor vehicle displaying lawful lighted headlamps undimmed. (c) In addition, if a vehicle described in subdivision (a) or the load thereon has a total outside width in excess of 100 inches there shall be displayed during darkness at the left outer extremity at least one amber light visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of 500 feet to the front, sides, and rear. At all other times there shall be displayed at the left outer extremity a solid red or fluorescent orange flag or cloth not less than 12 inches square.


25804. Notwithstanding any other provision of this code, original lighting equipment installed on a vehicle manufactured prior to January 1, 1946, need not meet the requirements established by the department when the vehicle is used primarily for the purpose of historical exhibition.


25805. Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, a forklift truck which is towed upon the highway at the end of a combination of vehicles shall at all times be equipped with at least one stop lamp mounted upon the rear of the vehicle and shall be equipped with lamp-type turn signals. Such vehicle shall, during the hours of darkness, be equipped with at least one taillamp and one red reflector mounted upon the rear of the vehicle and shall be equipped with clearance lamps if the vehicle is 80 or more inches in width.


25806. Sections 24003 and 27002 shall not apply to the installation of warning lamps and sirens on ambulances or firetrucks which are used solely for demonstration purposes in the sales work of a licensed dealer, distributor, or vehicle manufacturer and shall not apply to ambulances or firetrucks being operated on a highway solely for the purpose of delivery from the licensee to a purchaser. Warning lamps shall be removed or covered with opaque material and the siren controls disabled whenever the vehicle is upon a highway.


Article 15. Light Restrictions And Mounting

Ca Codes (veh:25950-25952) Vehicle Code Section 25950-25952



25950. This section applies to the color of lamps and to any reflector exhibiting or reflecting perceptible light of 0.05 candela or more per foot-candle of incident illumination. Unless provided otherwise, the color of lamps and reflectors upon a vehicle shall be as follows: (a) The emitted light from all lamps and the reflected light from all reflectors, visible from in front of a vehicle, shall be white or yellow, except as follows: (1) Rear side marker lamps required by Section 25100 may show red to the front. (2) The color of foglamps described in Section 24403 may be in the color spectrum from white to yellow. (3) An illuminating device, as permitted under Section 24255, shall emit radiation predominantly in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Any incidental visible light projecting to the front of the vehicle shall be predominantly yellow to white. Any incidental visible light projecting to the rear of the vehicle shall be predominantly red. Any incidental visible light from an illuminating device, as permitted under Section 24255, shall not resemble any other required or permitted lighting device or official traffic control device. (b) The emitted light from all lamps and the reflected light from all reflectors, visible from the rear of a vehicle, shall be red except as follows: (1) Stoplamps on vehicles manufactured before January 1, 1979, may show yellow to the rear. (2) Turn signal lamps may show yellow to the rear. (3) Front side marker lamps required by Section 25100 may show yellow to the rear. (4) Backup lamps shall show white to the rear. (5) The rearward facing portion of a front-mounted double-faced turn signal lamp may show amber to the rear while the headlamps or parking lamps are lighted, if the intensity of the light emitted is not greater than the parking lamps and the turn signal function is not impaired. (6) A reflector meeting the requirements of, and installed in accordance with, Section 24611 shall be red or white, or both. (c) All lamps and reflectors visible from the front, sides, or rear of a vehicle, except headlamps, may have any unlighted color, provided the emitted light from all lamps or reflected light from all reflectors complies with the required color. Except for backup lamps, the entire effective projected luminous area of lamps visible from the rear or mounted on the sides near the rear of a vehicle shall be covered by an inner lens of the required color when the unlighted color differs from the required emitted light color. Taillamps, stoplamps, and turn signal lamps that are visible to the rear may be white when unlighted on vehicles manufactured before January 1, 1974.

25951. Any lighted lamp or device upon a motor vehicle other than headlamps, spotlamps, signal lamps, or auxiliary driving lamps, warning lamps which projects a beam of light of an intensity greater than 300 candlepower shall be so directed that no part of the beam will strike the level of the roadway at a distance of more than 75 feet from the vehicle.


25952. (a) Lamps, reflectors, and area reflectorizing material of a type required or permitted on a vehicle may be mounted on a load carried by the vehicle in lieu of, or in addition to, such equipment on the vehicle. Such equipment shall be mounted on the load in a manner that would comply with the requirements of this code and regulations adopted pursuant to this code if the load were an integral part of the vehicle. (b) Lamps on vehicles carried as a load shall not be lighted unless such lamps are mounted in accordance with subdivision (a).


Article 16. Equipment Testing

Ca Codes (veh:26100-26106) Vehicle Code Section 26100-26106



26100. (a) A person shall not sell or offer for sale for use upon or as part of the equipment of a vehicle any lighting equipment, safety glazing material, or other device that does not meet the provisions of Section 26104. (b) A person shall not use upon a vehicle, and a person shall not drive a vehicle upon a highway that is equipped with, any lighting equipment, safety glazing material, or other device that is not in compliance with Section 26104. (c) This section does not apply to a taillamp or stop lamp in use on or prior to December 1, 1935.


26101. (a) A person shall not sell or offer for sale for use upon or as part of the equipment of a vehicle any device that is intended to modify the original design or performance of any lighting equipment, safety glazing material, or other device, unless the modifying device meets the provisions of Section 26104. (b) A person shall not use upon a vehicle, and a person shall not drive a vehicle upon a highway that has installed a device that is intended to modify the original design or performance of a lighting, safety glazing material, or other device, unless the modifying device complies with Section 26104. (c) This section does not apply to a taillamp or stop lamp in use on or prior to December 1, 1935, or to lamps installed on authorized emergency vehicles.

26102. In the event any equipment in actual use meets the requirements of this code or a department regulation adopted pursuant to this code, a subsequent regulation shall not require the replacement of the equipment and shall be applicable only to equipment installed after the effective date of the regulation.


26103. (a) The department may adopt and enforce regulations establishing standards and specifications for lighting equipment listed in Section 375 and for safety belts, safety glazing material, safety helmets, sirens, tire traction devices, bunk stakes, and synthetic binders. The standards and specifications may include installation and aiming requirements. (b) If there exists a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard adopted pursuant to the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.) covering the same aspect of performance of a device, the provisions of that standard shall prevail over provisions of this code or regulations adopted pursuant to this code. Lamps, devices, and equipment certified by the manufacturer to meet applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards as original equipment on new vehicles and the identical replacements for those items need not be certified to the department.


26104. (a) Every manufacturer who sells, offers for sale, or manufactures for use upon a vehicle devices subject to requirements established by the department shall, before the device is offered for sale, have laboratory test data showing compliance with such requirements. Tests may be conducted by the manufacturer. (b) The department may at any time request from the manufacturer a copy of the test data showing proof of compliance of any device with the requirements established by the department and additional evidence that due care was exercised in maintaining compliance during production. If the manufacturer fails to provide such proof of compliance within 30 days of notice from the department, the department may prohibit the sale of the device in this state until acceptable proof of compliance is received by the department.


26105. The department may purchase any equipment sold for use on vehicles and test or retest the same as to conformance with the requirements of this code and department regulations adopted pursuant to this code and any expense incurred in such purchase and test shall be a legal charge against the Motor Vehicle Fund.


26106. The department may issue a permit for the use of equipment for experimental purposes. The use of such equipment under the permit is not a violation of this code.


Chapter 3. Brakes

Article 1. Brake Requirements

Ca Codes (veh:26301-26311) Vehicle Code Section 26301-26311



26301. Any motor vehicle first registered in this state after January 1, 1940, shall be equipped with power brakes if its gross weight exceeds 14,000 pounds, except that any such vehicle having a gross weight of less than 18,000 pounds may, in lieu of power brakes, be equipped with two-stage hydraulic actuators of a type designed to increase braking effect of its brakes.


26301.5. Every passenger vehicle manufactured and first registered after January 1, 1973, except motorcycles, shall be equipped with an emergency brake system so constructed that rupture or leakage-type failure of any single pressure component of the service brake system, except structural failures of the brake master cylinder body or effectiveness indicator body, shall not result in complete loss of function of the vehicle's brakes when force on the brake pedal is continued.


26302. (a) Every trailer or semitrailer, manufactured and first registered after January 1, 1940, and having a gross weight of 6,000 pounds or more and which is operated at a speed of 20 miles per hour or over shall be equipped with brakes. (b) Every trailer or semitrailer manufactured and first registered after January 1, 1966, and having a gross weight of 3,000 pounds or more shall be equipped with brakes on at least two wheels. (c) Every trailer or semitrailer manufactured after January 1, 1982, and equipped with air brakes shall be equipped with brakes on all wheels. (d) Brakes required on trailers or semitrailers shall be adequate, supplemental to the brakes on the towing vehicle, to enable the combination of vehicles to comply with the stopping distance requirements of Section 26454. (e) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any vehicle being used to support the boom or mast attached to a mobile crane or shovel.

26303. Every trailer coach and every camp trailer having a gross weight of 1,500 pounds or more, but exclusive of passengers, shall be equipped with brakes on at least two wheels which are adequate, supplemental to the brakes on the towing vehicle, to enable the combination of vehicles to comply with the stopping distance requirements of Section 26454.


26304. (a) Power brakes on any trailer or semitrailer manufactured after December 31, 1955, operated over public highways and required to be equipped with brakes shall be designed to be automatically applied upon breakaway from the towing vehicle and shall be capable of stopping and holding such vehicle stationary for not less than 15 minutes. (b) Every new truck or truck tractor manufactured after December 31, 1955, operated over public highways and used in towing a vehicle shall be equipped with service brakes capable of stopping the truck or truck tractor in the event of breakaway of the towed vehicle.


26305. Any auxiliary dolly or tow dolly may be equipped with brakes.

26307. No forklift truck manufactured after January 1, 1970, shall be towed behind another vehicle unless it is equipped with brakes on the wheels of the rearmost axle when the forklift truck is in the towing position, which brakes shall be adequate, supplemental to the brakes on the towing vehicle, to enable the combination of vehicles to comply with the stopping distance requirements of Section 26454.


26311. (a) Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with service brakes on all wheels, except as follows: (1) Trucks and truck tractors manufactured before January 1, 1982, having three or more axles need not have brakes on the front wheels, except when such vehicles are equipped with at least two steerable axles, the wheels of one such axle need not be equipped with brakes. (2) Any vehicle being towed in a driveaway-towaway operation. (3) Any vehicle manufactured prior to 1930. (4) Any two-axle truck tractor manufactured prior to 1964. (5) Any sidecar attached to a motorcycle. (6) Any motorcycle manufactured prior to 1966. Such motorcycle shall be equipped with brakes on at least one wheel. (b) Any bus, truck, or truck tractor may be equipped with a manual or automatic means for reducing the braking effort on the front wheels. The manual means shall be used only when operating under adverse road conditions, such as wet, snowy, or icy roads. (c) Vehicles and combinations of vehicles exempted in subdivisions (a) and (b) from the requirements of brakes on all wheels shall comply with the stopping distance requirements of Section 26454.


Article 2. Operation Of Brakes

Ca Codes (veh:26450-26458.5) Vehicle Code Section 26450-26458.5



26450. Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a service brake system and every motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, shall be equipped with a parking brake system. Both the service brake and parking brake shall be separately applied. If the two systems are connected in any way, they shall be so constructed that failure of any one part, except failure in the drums, brakeshoes, or other mechanical parts of the wheel brake assemblies, shall not leave the motor vehicle without operative brakes.


26451. The parking brake system of every motor vehicle shall comply with the following requirements: (a) The parking brake shall be adequate to hold the vehicle or combination of vehicles stationary on any grade on which it is operated under all conditions of loading on a surface free from snow, ice or loose material. In any event the parking brake shall be capable of locking the braked wheels to the limit of traction. (b) The parking brake shall be applied either by the driver's muscular efforts, by spring action, or by other energy which is isolated and used exclusively for the operation of the parking brake or the combination parking brake and emergency stopping system. (c) The parking brake shall be held in the applied position solely by mechanical means.

26452. All motor vehicles shall be so equipped as to permit application of the brakes at least once for the purpose of bringing the vehicle to a stop within the legal stopping distance after the engine has become inoperative.

26453. All brakes and component parts thereof shall be maintained in good condition and in good working order. The brakes shall be so adjusted as to operate as equally as practicable with respect to the wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle.


26454. (a) The service brakes of every motor vehicle or combination of vehicles shall be adequate to control the movement of and to stop and hold such vehicle or combination of vehicles under all conditions of loading on any grade on which it is operated. (b) Every motor vehicle or combination of vehicles, at any time and under all conditions of loading, shall, upon application of the service brake, be capable of stopping from an initial speed of 20 miles per hour according to the following requirements: Maximum Stopping Distance (feet) (1) Any passenger vehicle ....... 25 (2) Any single motor vehicle with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of less than 10,000 lbs. ................ 30 (3) Any combination of vehicles consisting of a passenger vehicle or any motor vehicle with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of less than 10,000 lbs. in combination with any trailer, semitrailer or trailer coach ........................... 40 (4) Any single motor vehicle with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 lbs. or more or any bus ......................... 40 (5) All other combinations of vehicles ........................ 50


26455. In respect to any motor vehicle designed, used or maintained primarily for the transportation of property which is not equipped with a plate or marker showing the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating, for purposes of stopping distance requirements, the weight of a vehicle shall be determined as follows: (a) Any motor vehicle having less than six wheels is the equivalent of a vehicle having a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of less than 10,000 pounds. (b) Any motor vehicle having six wheels or more is the equivalent of a vehicle having a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or more.


26456. Stopping distance requirement tests shall be conducted on a substantially level, dry, smooth, hard-surfaced road that is free from loose material and where the grade does not exceed plus or minus 1 percent. Stopping distance shall be measured from the instant brake controls are moved and from an initial speed of approximately 20 miles per hour. No test of brake performance shall be made upon a highway at a speed in excess of 25 miles per hour.


26457. Special mobile equipment, logging vehicles, equipment operated under special permit, and any chassis without body or load are not subject to stopping distance requirements, but if any such vehicle or equipment cannot be stopped within 32 feet from an initial speed of 15 miles per hour, it shall not be operated at a speed in excess of that permitting a stop in 32 feet.


26458. (a) The braking system on every motor vehicle used to tow another vehicle shall be so arranged that one control on the towing vehicle shall, when applied, operate all the service brakes on the power unit and combination of vehicles when either or both of the following conditions exist: (1) The towing vehicle is required to be equipped with power brakes. (2) The towed vehicle is required to be equipped with brakes and is equipped with power brakes. (b) Subdivision (a) shall not be construed to prohibit motor vehicles from being equipped with an additional control to be used to operate the brakes on the trailer or trailers. (c) Subdivision (a) does not apply to any of the following combinations of vehicles, if the combination of vehicles meets the stopping distance requirements of Section 26454: (1) Vehicles engaged in driveaway-towaway operations. (2) Disabled vehicles, while being towed. (3) Towed motor vehicles. (4) Trailers equipped with inertially controlled brakes which are designed to be applied automatically upon breakaway from the towing vehicle and which are capable of stopping and holding the trailer stationary for not less than 15 minutes.


26458.5. Pursuant to Section 26458, whenever a motor vehicle is equipped with an additional control to operate the brakes on a trailer, that control shall not be used in lieu of the service brake control, except in the case of failure of the service brake system.


Article 3. Airbrakes

Ca Codes (veh:26502-26508) Vehicle Code Section 26502-26508



26502. (a) Airbrakes of every motor vehicle and combination of vehicles shall be so adjusted and maintained as to be capable of providing full service brake application at all times except as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 26311. A full service brake application shall deliver to all brake chambers not less than 90 percent of the air reservoir pressure remaining with the brakes applied. (b) The department may by regulation authorize the use of special devices or systems to automatically reduce the maximum air pressure delivered to the brake chambers in order to compensate for load variation and to obtain balanced braking. Permitted systems shall be of the fail safe type and shall not increase the vehicle stopping distance.


26503. Every motor vehicle equipped with airbrakes or equipped to operate airbrakes on towed vehicles shall be equipped with a standard type safety valve which shall be installed so as to have an uninterrupted connection with the air reservoir or tank. It shall be adjusted and maintained so that it will open and discharge the air system under any condition at a pressure of not to exceed 150 pounds per square inch and close and reseat itself at a point above the maximum air governor setting. The department may by regulation prescribe a higher maximum opening pressure for air pressure systems designed for, and capable of safely operating with, pressure safety valves with a higher opening pressure.


26504. The air governor cut-in and cut-out pressures of every motor vehicle equipped with airbrakes or equipped to operate airbrakes on towed vehicles shall be adjusted so that the maximum pressure in the air system and the minimum cut-in pressure shall be within limits prescribed by the department. In adopting regulations specifying such pressures the department shall consider the safe operating capacities of the various airbrake systems which are now or may be used on motor vehicles and shall be guided by the designed capabilities of those systems.

26505. A motor vehicle equipped with airbrakes or equipped to operate airbrakes on towed vehicles shall be equipped with a pressure gauge of reliable and satisfactory construction and maintained in an efficient working condition, accurate within 10 percent of the actual air reservoir pressure, and visible and legible to a person when seated in the driving position.


26506. (a) Every motor vehicle airbrake system used to operate the brakes on a motor vehicle or on a towed vehicle shall be equipped with a low air pressure warning device that complies with either the requirements set forth in the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards in effect at the time of manufacture or the requirements of subdivision (b). (b) The device shall be readily visible or audible to the driver and shall give a satisfactory continuous warning when the air supply pressure drops below a fixed pressure, which shall be not more than 75 pounds per square inch nor less than 55 pounds per square inch with the engine running. A gauge indicating pressure shall not satisfy this requirement.

26507. A check valve shall be installed and properly maintained in the air supply piping of every motor vehicle equipped with airbrakes, either between the air compressor and the first reservoir or tank immediately adjacent to the air intake of said reservoir, or between No. 1 reservoir (wet tank) and No. 2 reservoir (dry tank) immediately adjacent to the air intake of the No. 2 reservoir; provided, that the air supply for the brakes is not drawn from the No. 1 reservoir and that the No. 1 and No. 2 reservoirs are connected by only one pipeline.

26508. Every vehicle or combination of vehicles using compressed air at the wheels for applying the service brakes shall be equipped with an emergency stopping system meeting the requirements of this section and capable of stopping the vehicle or combination of vehicles in the event of failure in the service brake air system as follows: (a) Every motor vehicle operated either singly or in a combination of vehicles and every towed vehicle shall be equipped with an emergency stopping system. (b) Motor vehicles used to tow vehicles which use compressed air at the wheels for applying the service brakes shall be equipped with a device or devices with both a manual and automatic means of actuating the emergency stopping system on the towed vehicle as follows: (1) The automatic device shall operate automatically in the event of reduction of the service brake air supply of the towing vehicle to a fixed pressure which shall be not lower than 20 pounds per square inch nor higher than 45 pounds per square inch. (2) The manual device shall be readily operable by a person seated in the driver's seat, with its emergency position or method of operation clearly indicated. In no instance may the manual means be so arranged as to permit its use to prevent operation of the automatic means. (c) Motor vehicles manufactured prior to 1964 shall be deemed to be in compliance with subdivisions (e) and (f) when equipped with axle-by-axle protected airbrakes using a separate air tank system for each of at least two axles, provided that each system independently meets all other requirements of this section. Each system shall be capable of being manually applied, released, and reapplied from the driver's seat but shall not be capable of being released from the driver's seat after any reapplication unless there is available a means which can be applied from the driver's seat to stop and hold the vehicle or combination of vehicles. (d) Towed vehicles shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section when: (1) The towed vehicle is equipped with a no-bleed-back relay-emergency valve or equivalent device, so designed that the supply reservoir used to provide air for the brakes is safeguarded against backflow of air from the reservoir through the supply line, (2) The brakes are applied automatically and promptly upon breakaway from the towing vehicle and maintain application for at least 15 minutes, and (3) The combination of vehicles is capable of stopping within the distance and under the conditions specified in subdivisions (k) and (l). (e) If the service brake system and the emergency stopping system are connected in any way, they shall be so constructed that a failure or malfunction in any one part of either system, including brake chamber diaphragm failure but not including failure in the drums, brakeshoes, or other mechanical parts of the wheel brake assemblies, shall not leave the vehicle without one operative stopping system capable of complying with the performance requirements in subdivision (k). (f) Every emergency stopping system shall be designed so that it is capable of being manually applied, released, and reapplied by a person seated in the driver's seat. The system shall be designed so that it cannot be released from the driver's seat after any reapplication unless immediate further application can be made from the driver's seat to stop and hold the vehicle or combination of vehicles. The emergency stopping system may also be applied automatically. (g) No vehicle or combination of vehicles upon failure of the service brake air system shall be driven on a highway under its own power except to the extent necessary to move the vehicles off the roadway to the nearest place of safety. (h) No vehicle or combination of vehicles shall be equipped with an emergency stopping system that creates a hazard on the highway, or increases the service brake stopping distance of a vehicle or combination of vehicles, or interferes in any way with the application of the service brakes on any vehicle or combination of vehicles. (i) Any energy-storing device which is a part of the emergency stopping system shall be designed so that it is recharged or reset from the course of compressed air or other energy produced by the vehicle, except that energy to release the emergency stopping system may be produced by the driver's muscular effort from the driver's seat. No device shall be used which can be set to prevent automatic delivery of air to protected air supply reservoirs of motor vehicle emergency stopping systems when air is available in the service brake air supply system. (j) Any vehicle manufactured on or after January 1, 1964, which uses axle-by-axle protected airbrakes as the emergency stopping system shall use a separate air tank system for each axle, except that motor vehicles equipped with a dual or tandem treadle valve system need have no more than two protected air tanks in such system, one for each valve. (k) Every motor vehicle or combination of vehicles, at all times and under all conditions of loading, upon application of the emergency stopping system, shall be capable of: (1) Developing a stopping force that is not less than the percentage of its gross weight tabulated herein for its classification. (2) Decelerating in a stop from 20 miles per hour at not less than the feet per second per second tabulated herein for its classification, and (3) Stopping from a speed of 20 miles per hour in not more than the distance tabulated herein for its classification, such distance to be measured from the point at which movement of the emergency stopping system control begins. EMERGENCY STOPPING SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS EMERGENCY STOPPING SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Stopping force as a Classification percentage of vehicle of gross Deceleration and vehicle or in feet per Stopping combination combination second per distance of vehicles weight second in feet A Single-motor vehicles ..... 16.7 5.5 90 B Combination of vehicles .. 19.0 6.0 90 C Single-motor vehicle with 3 or more axles manufactured prior to 1964 .............. 12.1 4.0 120 (l) Tests for deceleration and stopping distance shall be made on a substantially level, dry, smooth, hard surface that is free from loose material and where the grade does not exceed plus or minus 1 percent. No test of emergency stopping system performance shall be made upon a highway at a speed in excess of 25 miles per hour. (m) The provisions of this section shall not apply to: (1) Auxiliary dollies, special mobile equipment, or special construction equipment. (2) Motor vehicles which are operated in a driveaway-towaway operation and not registered in this state. (3) Disabled vehicles when being towed. (4) Vehicles which are operated under a one-trip permit as provided in Section 4003. (5) Vehicles which because of unladen width, length, height or weight may not be moved upon the highway without the permit specified in Section 35780. (n) The emergency stopping system requirements specified in subdivision (k) shall not apply to a vehicle or combination of vehicles being operated under a special weight permit nor to any overweight authorized emergency vehicle operated under the provisions of Section 35002. (o) Every owner or lessee shall instruct and require that the driver be thoroughly familiar with the requirements of this section. The driver of a vehicle or combination of vehicles required to comply with the requirements of this section shall be able to demonstrate the application and release of the emergency system on the vehicle and each vehicle in the combination.


Article 4. Vacuum Brakes

Ca Codes (veh:26520-26522) Vehicle Code Section 26520-26522



26520. Motor vehicles required to be equipped with power brakes and which are equipped with vacuum or vacuum-assisted brakes shall be equipped with a properly maintained vacuum gauge of reliable and satisfactory construction, accurate within 10 percent of the actual vacuum in the supply reservoir, and visible and legible to the driver at all times. This section shall not apply to a two-axle motor truck operated singly.


26521. Motor vehicles required to be equipped with power brakes and equipped with vacuum or vacuum-assisted brakes and motor vehicles used to tow vehicles equipped with vacuum brakes or vacuum-assisted brakes shall be equipped with either an audible or visible warning signal to indicate readily to the driver when the vacuum drops to eight inches of mercury and less. A vacuum gauge shall not be deemed to meet this requirement. This section shall not apply to a two-axle motor truck operated singly nor to any motor vehicle manufactured prior to 1964.


26522. Vehicles required to be equipped with power brakes and equipped with vacuum or vacuum-assisted brakes shall have a check valve installed and properly maintained in the vacuum system between the source of vacuum and the vacuum reserve.


Chapter 4. Windshields And Mirrors

Ca Codes (veh:26700-26712) Vehicle Code Section 26700-26712



26700. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), a passenger vehicle, other than a motorcycle, and every bus, motortruck or truck tractor, and every firetruck, fire engine or other fire apparatus, whether publicly or privately owned, shall be equipped with an adequate windshield. (b) Subdivision (a) does not apply to any vehicle issued identification plates pursuant to Section 5004 which was not required to be equipped with a windshield at the time it was first sold or registered under the laws of this state, another state, or foreign jurisdiction.


26701. (a) No person shall sell, offer for sale, or operate any motor vehicle, except a motorcycle, manufactured after January 1, 1936, unless it is equipped with safety glazing material wherever glazing materials are used in interior partitions, doors, windows, windshields, auxiliary wind deflectors or openings in the roof. (b) No person shall sell or offer for sale any camper manufactured after January 1, 1968, nor shall any person operate a motor vehicle registered in this state which is equipped with that camper, unless the camper is equipped with safety glazing materials wherever glazing materials are used in outside windows and doors, interior partitions, and openings in the roof. (c) No person shall operate a motorcycle manufactured after January 1, 1969, equipped with a windshield containing glazing material unless it is safety glazing material. (d) No person shall sell, offer for sale, or operate any motor vehicle equipped with red, blue, or amber translucent aftermarket material in any partitions, windows, windshields, or wind deflectors. (e) No person shall sell, offer for sale, or operate any trailer coach manufactured after January 1, 1977, that is capable of being towed with a fifth-wheel device unless the trailer coach is equipped with safety glazing materials wherever glazing materials are used in windows or doors, interior partitions, and openings in the roof.


26703. (a) No person shall replace any glazing materials used in interior partitions, doors, windows, or openings in the roof in any motor vehicle, in the outside windows, doors, interior partitions, or openings in the roof of any camper, or in windows, doors, interior partitions, or openings in the roof of any camper, or in windows, doors, interior partitions, or openings in the roof of a trailer coach capable of being towed with a fifth-wheel device, with any glazing material other than safety glazing material. (b) No person shall replace any glazing material used in the windshield, rear window, auxiliary wind deflectors, or windows to the left and right of the driver with any material other than safety glazing material.


26704. Wherever the term "safety glazing material" is used in this article, it means safety glazing material of a type meeting requirements established by the department.


26705. On or after January 1, 1969, no person shall sell or offer for sale for use upon or as part of the equipment of a motorcycle any motorcycle windshield unless the glazing material used therein is safety glazing material.

26706. (a) Every motor vehicle, except motorcycles, equipped with a windshield shall also be equipped with a self-operating windshield wiper. (b) Every new motor vehicle first registered after December 31, 1949, except motorcycles, shall be equipped with two such windshield wipers, one mounted on the right half and one on the left half of the windshield, except that any motor vehicle may be equipped with a single wiper so long as it meets the wiped area requirements in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Governing Windshield Wiping and Washing Systems. (c) This section does not apply to snow removal equipment equipped with adequate manually operated windshield wipers.


26707. Windshield wipers required by this code shall be maintained in good operating condition and shall provide clear vision through the windshield for the driver. Wipers shall be operated under conditions of fog, snow, or rain and shall be capable of effectively clearing the windshield under all ordinary storm or load conditions while the vehicle is in operation.


26708. (a) (1) A person shall not drive any motor vehicle with any object or material placed, displayed, installed, affixed, or applied upon the windshield or side or rear windows. (2) A person shall not drive any motor vehicle with any object or material placed, displayed, installed, affixed, or applied in or upon the vehicle that obstructs or reduces the driver's clear view through the windshield or side windows. (3) This subdivision applies to a person driving a motor vehicle with the driver's clear vision through the windshield, or side or rear windows, obstructed by snow or ice. (b) This section does not apply to any of the following: (1) Rearview mirrors. (2) Adjustable nontransparent sunvisors that are mounted forward of the side windows and are not attached to the glass. (3) Signs, stickers, or other materials that are displayed in a seven-inch square in the lower corner of the windshield farthest removed from the driver, signs, stickers, or other materials that are displayed in a seven-inch square in the lower corner of the rear window farthest removed from the driver, or signs, stickers, or other materials that are displayed in a five-inch square in the lower corner of the windshield nearest the driver. (4) Side windows that are to the rear of the driver. (5) Direction, destination, or terminus signs upon a passenger common carrier motor vehicle or a schoolbus, if those signs do not interfere with the driver's clear view of approaching traffic. (6) Rear window wiper motor. (7) Rear trunk lid handle or hinges. (8) The rear window or windows, if the motor vehicle is equipped with outside mirrors on both the left- and right-hand sides of the vehicle that are so located as to reflect to the driver a view of the highway through each mirror for a distance of at least 200 feet to the rear of the vehicle. (9) A clear, transparent lens affixed to the side window opposite the driver on a vehicle greater than 80 inches in width and that occupies an area not exceeding 50 square inches of the lowest corner toward the rear of that window and that provides the driver with a wide-angle view through the lens. (10) Sun screening devices meeting the requirements of Section 26708.2 installed on the side windows on either side of the vehicle's front seat, if the driver or a passenger in the front seat has in his or her possession a letter or other document signed by a licensed physician and surgeon certifying that the person must be shaded from the sun due to a medical condition, or has in his or her possession a letter or other document signed by a licensed optometrist certifying that the person must be shaded from the sun due to a visual condition. The devices authorized by this paragraph shall not be used during darkness. (11) An electronic communication device affixed to the center uppermost portion of the interior of a windshield within an area that is not greater than five inches square, if the device provides either of the following: (A) The capability for enforcement facilities of the Department of the California Highway Patrol to communicate with a vehicle equipped with the device. (B) The capability for electronic toll and traffic management on public or private roads or facilities. (12) A portable Global Positioning System (GPS), which may be mounted in a seven-inch square in the lower corner of the windshield farthest removed from the driver or in a five-inch square in the lower corner of the windshield nearest to the driver and outside of an airbag deployment zone, if the system is used only for door-to-door navigation while the motor vehicle is being operated. (13) (A) A video event recorder with the capability of monitoring driver performance to improve driver safety, which may be mounted in a seven-inch square in the lower corner of the windshield farthest removed from the driver, in a five-inch square in the lower corner of the windshield nearest to the driver and outside of an airbag deployment zone, or in a five-inch square mounted to the center uppermost portion of the interior of the windshield. As used in this section, "video event recorder" means a video recorder that continuously records in a digital loop, recording audio, video, and G-force levels, but saves video only when triggered by an unusual motion or crash or when operated by the driver to monitor driver performance. (B) A vehicle equipped with a video event recorder shall have a notice posted in a visible location which states that a passenger's conversation may be recorded. (C) Video event recorders shall store no more than 30 seconds before and after a triggering event. (D) The registered owner or lessee of the vehicle may disable the device. (E) The data recorded to the device is the property of the registered owner or lessee of the vehicle. (F) When a person is driving for hire as an employee in a vehicle with a video event recorder, the person's employer shall provide unedited copies of the recordings upon the request of the employee or the employee's representative. These copies shall be provided free of charge to the employee and within five days of the request. (c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), transparent material may be installed, affixed, or applied to the topmost portion of the windshield if the following conditions apply: (1) The bottom edge of the material is at least 29 inches above the undepressed driver's seat when measured from a point five inches in front of the bottom of the backrest with the driver's seat in its rearmost and lowermost position with the vehicle on a level surface. (2) The material is not red or amber in color. (3) There is no opaque lettering on the material and any other lettering does not affect primary colors or distort vision through the windshield. (4) The material does not reflect sunlight or headlight glare into the eyes of occupants of oncoming or following vehicles to any greater extent than the windshield without the material. (d) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), clear, colorless, and transparent material may be installed, affixed, or applied to the front side windows, located to the immediate left and right of the front seat if the following conditions are met: (1) The material has a minimum visible light transmittance of 88 percent. (2) The window glazing with the material applied meets all requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 205 (49 C.F.R. 571.205), including the specified minimum light transmittance of 70 percent and the abrasion resistance of AS-14 glazing, as specified in that federal standard. (3) The material is designed and manufactured to enhance the ability of the existing window glass to block the sun's harmful ultraviolet A rays. (4) The driver has in his or her possession, or within the vehicle, a certificate signed by the installing company certifying that the windows with the material installed meet the requirements of this subdivision and the certificate identifies the installing company and the material's manufacturer by full name and street address, or, if the material was installed by the vehicle owner, a certificate signed by the material's manufacturer certifying that the windows with the material installed according to manufacturer's instructions meet the requirements of this subdivision and the certificate identifies the material's manufacturer by full name and street address. (5) If the material described in this subdivision tears or bubbles, or is otherwise worn to prohibit clear vision, it shall be removed or replaced.


26708.2. Sun screening devices permitted by paragraph (10) of subdivision (b) of Section 26708 shall meet the following requirements: (a) The devices shall be held in place by means allowing ready removal from the window area, such as a frame, a rigid material with temporary fasteners, or a flexible roller shade. (b) Devices utilizing transparent material shall be green, gray, or a neutral smoke in color and shall have a luminous transmittance of not less than 35 percent. (c) Devices utilizing nontransparent louvers or other alternating patterns of opaque and open sections shall have an essentially uniform pattern over the entire surface, except for framing and supports. At least 35 percent of the device area shall be open and no individual louver or opaque section shall have a projected vertical dimension exceeding 3/16 inch. (d) The devices shall not have a reflective quality exceeding 35 percent on either the inner or outer surface.


26708.5. (a) No person shall place, install, affix, or apply any transparent material upon the windshield, or side or rear windows, of any motor vehicle if the material alters the color or reduces the light transmittance of the windshield or side or rear windows, except as provided in subdivision (b), (c), or (d) of Section 26708. (b) Tinted safety glass may be installed in a vehicle if (1) the glass complies with motor vehicle safety standards of the United States Department of Transportation for safety glazing materials, and (2) the glass is installed in a location permitted by those standards for the particular type of glass used.


26709. (a) Every motor vehicle registered in a foreign jurisdiction and every motorcycle subject to registration in this state shall be equipped with a mirror so located as to reflect to the driver a view of the highway for a distance of at least 200 feet to the rear of such vehicle. Every motor vehicle subject to registration in this state, except a motorcycle, shall be equipped with not less than two such mirrors, including one affixed to the left-hand side. (b) The following described types of motor vehicles, of a type subject to registration, shall be equipped with mirrors on both the left- and right-hand sides of the vehicle so located as to reflect to the driver a view of the highway through each mirror for a distance of at least 200 feet to the rear of such vehicle: (1) A motor vehicle so constructed or loaded as to obstruct the driver's view to the rear. (2) A motor vehicle towing a vehicle and the towed vehicle or load thereon obstructs the driver's view to the rear. (3) A bus or trolley coach. (c) The provisions of subdivision (b) shall not apply to a passenger vehicle when the load obstructing the driver's view consists of passengers.

26710. It is unlawful to operate any motor vehicle upon a highway when the windshield or rear window is in such a defective condition as to impair the driver's vision either to the front or rear. In the event any windshield or rear window fails to comply with this code the officer making the inspection shall direct the driver to make the windshield and rear window conform to the requirements of this code within 48 hours. The officer may also arrest the driver and give him notice to appear and further require the driver or the owner of the vehicle to produce in court satisfactory evidence that the windshield or rear window has been made to conform to the requirements of this code.


26711. Every bus or trolley coach, except those first registered prior to January 1, 1960, and engaged in urban and suburban service as defined in Section 35107, shall be equipped with movable eyeshades of sufficient size to shade the eyes of the operator of a bus or trolley coach while it is being driven facing the sun.


26712. Every passenger vehicle used or maintained for the transportation of persons for hire, compensation, or profit shall be equipped with a defrosting device which is adequate to remove snow, ice, frost, fog, or internal moisture from the windshield.


Chapter 5. Other Equipment

Article 1. Horns, Sirens And Amplification Devices

Ca Codes (veh:27000-27007) Vehicle Code Section 27000-27007



27000. (a) A motor vehicle, when operated upon a highway, shall be equipped with a horn in good working order and capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than 200 feet, but no horn shall emit an unreasonably loud or harsh sound. An authorized emergency vehicle may be equipped with, and use in conjunction with the siren on that vehicle, an air horn that emits sounds that do not comply with the requirements of this section. (b) A refuse or garbage truck shall be equipped with an automatic backup audible alarm that sounds on backing and is capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than 100 feet or shall be equipped with an automatic backup device that is in good working order, located at the rear of the vehicle and that immediately applies the service brake of the vehicle on contact by the vehicle with any obstruction to the rear. The backup device or alarm shall also be capable of operating automatically when the vehicle is in neutral or a forward gear but rolls backward. (c) A refuse or garbage truck, except a vehicle, known as a rolloff vehicle, that is used for the express purpose of transporting waste containers such as open boxes or compactors, purchased after January 1, 2010, shall also be equipped with a functioning camera providing a video display for the driver that enhances or supplements the drivers' view behind the truck for the purpose of safely maneuvering the truck.

27001. (a) The driver of a motor vehicle when reasonably necessary to insure safe operation shall give audible warning with his horn. (b) The horn shall not otherwise be used, except as a theft alarm system which operates as specified in Article 13 (commencing with Section 28085) of this chapter.


27002. No vehicle, except an authorized emergency vehicle, shall be equipped with, nor shall any person use upon a vehicle any siren except that an authorized emergency vehicle shall be equipped with a siren meeting requirements established by the department.


27003. An armored car may be equipped with a siren which may be used while resisting armed robbery. At all other times, the siren shall not be sounded. The authority to use a siren granted by this section does not constitute an armored car an authorized emergency vehicle, and all other provisions of this code applicable to drivers of vehicles apply to drivers of armored cars.


27007. No driver of a vehicle shall operate, or permit the operation of, any sound amplification system which can be heard outside the vehicle from 50 or more feet when the vehicle is being operated upon a highway, unless that system is being operated to request assistance or warn of a hazardous situation. This section does not apply to authorized emergency vehicles or vehicles operated by gas, electric, communications, or water utilities. This section does not apply to the sound systems of vehicles used for advertising, or in parades, political or other special events, except that the use of sound systems on those vehicles may be prohibited by a local authority by ordinance or resolution.


Article 2. Exhaust Systems

Ca Codes (veh:27150-27159) Vehicle Code Section 27150-27159



27150. (a) Every motor vehicle subject to registration shall at all times be equipped with an adequate muffler in constant operation and properly maintained to prevent any excessive or unusual noise, and no muffler or exhaust system shall be equipped with a cutout, bypass, or similar device. (b) Except as provided in Division 16.5 (commencing with Section 38000) with respect to off-highway motor vehicles subject to identification, every passenger vehicle operated off the highways shall at all times be equipped with an adequate muffler in constant operation and properly maintained so as to meet the requirements of Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 27200), and no muffler or exhaust system shall be equipped with a cutout, bypass, or similar device. (c) The provisions of subdivision (b) shall not be applicable to passenger vehicles being operated off the highways in an organized racing or competitive event conducted under the auspices of a recognized sanctioning body or by permit issued by the local governmental authority having jurisdiction.


27150.1. No person engaged in a business that involves the selling of motor vehicle exhaust systems, or parts thereof, including, but not limited to, mufflers, shall offer for sale, sell, or install, a motor vehicle exhaust system, or part thereof, including, but not limited to, a muffler, unless it meets the regulations and standards applicable pursuant to this article. Motor vehicle exhaust systems or parts thereof include, but are not limited to, nonoriginal exhaust equipment. A violation of this section is a misdemeanor.


27150.2. (a) Stations providing referee functions pursuant to Section 44036 of the Health and Safety Code shall provide for the testing of vehicular exhaust systems and the issuance of certificates of compliance only for those vehicles that have received a citation for a violation of Section 27150 or 27151. (b) A certificate of compliance for a vehicular exhaust system shall be issued pursuant to subdivision (a) if the vehicle complies with Sections 27150 and 27151. Exhaust systems installed on motor vehicles, other than motorcycles, with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of less than 6,000 pounds comply with Sections 27150 and 27151 if they emit no more than 95 dbA when tested in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers Standard J1169 May 1998. (c) An exhaust system certificate of compliance issued pursuant to subdivision (a) shall identify, to the extent possible, the make, model, year, license number, and vehicle identification number of the vehicle tested, and the make and model of the exhaust system installed on the vehicle. (d) The station shall charge a fee for the exhaust system certificate of compliance issued pursuant to subdivision (a). The fee charged shall be calculated to recover the costs incurred by the Department of Consumer Affairs to implement this section. The fees charged by the station shall be deposited in the Vehicle Inspection and Repair Fund established by Section 44062 of the Health and Safety Code. (e) Vehicular exhaust systems are exempt from the requirements of Sections 27150 and 27151 if compliance with those sections, or the regulations adopted pursuant thereto, would cause an unreasonable hardship without resulting in a sufficient corresponding benefit with respect to noise level control.


27150.3. (a) A person may not modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle with a whistle-tip. (b) A person may not operate a motor vehicle if that vehicle's exhaust system is modified in violation of subdivision (a). (c) A person may not engage in the business of installing a whistle-tip onto a motor vehicle's exhaust system. (d) For purposes of subdivisions (a) and (c), a "whistle-tip" is a device that is applied to, or is a modification of, a motor vehicle' s exhaust pipe for the sole purpose of creating a high-pitched or shrieking noise when the motor vehicle is operated.


27150.5. Any person holding a retail seller's permit who sells or installs an exhaust system, or part thereof, including, but not limited to, a muffler, in violation of Section 27150.1 or 27150.2 or the regulations adopted pursuant thereto, shall thereafter be required to install an exhaust system, or part thereof, including, but not limited to, a muffler, which is in compliance with such regulations upon demand of the purchaser or registered owner of the vehicle concerned, or to reimburse the purchaser or registered owner for the expense of replacement and installation of an exhaust system, or part thereof, including, but not limited to, a muffler, which is in compliance, at the election of such purchaser or registered owner.


27150.7. A court may dismiss any action in which a person is prosecuted for operating a vehicle in violation of Section 27150 or 27151 if a certificate of compliance has been issued by a station pursuant to Section 27150.2, or if the defendant had reasonable grounds to believe that the exhaust system was in good working order and had reasonable grounds to believe that the vehicle was not operated in violation of Section 27150 or 27151.


27151. (a) No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle in a manner which will amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor of the vehicle so that the vehicle is not in compliance with the provisions of Section 27150 or exceeds the noise limits established for the type of vehicle in Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 27200). No person shall operate a motor vehicle with an exhaust system so modified. (b) For the purposes of exhaust systems installed on motor vehicles with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of less than 6,000 pounds, other than motorcycles, a sound level of 95 dbA or less, when tested in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers Standard J1169 May 1998, complies with this section. Motor vehicle exhaust systems or parts thereof include, but are not limited to, nonoriginal exhaust equipment.


27152. The exhaust gases from a motor vehicle shall not be directed to the side of the vehicle between 2 feet and 11 feet above the ground.

27153. No motor vehicle shall be operated in a manner resulting in the escape of excessive smoke, flame, gas, oil, or fuel residue. The provisions of this section apply to motor vehicles of the United States or its agencies, to the extent authorized by federal law.


27153.5. (a) No motor vehicle first sold or registered as a new motor vehicle on or after January 1, 1971, shall discharge into the atmosphere at elevation of less than 4,000 feet any air contaminant for a period of more than 10 seconds which is: (1) As dark or darker in shade as that designated as No. 1 on the Ringelmann Chart, as published by the United States Bureau of Mines, or (2) Of such opacity as to obscure an observer's view to a degree equal to or greater than does smoke described in paragraph (1) of this subdivision. (b) No motor vehicle first sold or registered prior to January 1, 1971, shall discharge into the atmosphere at elevation of less than 4,000 feet any air contaminant for a period of more than 10 seconds which is: (1) As dark or darker in shade than that designated as No. 2 on the Ringelmann Chart, as published by the United States Bureau of Mines, or (2) Of such opacity as to obscure an observer's view to a degree equal to or greater than does smoke described in paragraph (1) of this subdivision. (c) The provisions of this section apply to motor vehicles of the United States or its agencies, to the extent authorized by federal law.

27154. The cab of any motor vehicle shall be reasonably tight against the penetration of gases and fumes from the engine or exhaust system. The exhaust system, including the manifold, muffler, and exhaust pipes shall be so constructed as to be capable of being maintained and shall be maintained in a reasonably gastight condition.


27155. No motor vehicle shall be operated or parked upon any highway unless the filling spout for the fuel tank is closed by a cap or cover of noncombustible material.


27156. (a) No person shall operate or leave standing upon a highway a motor vehicle that is a gross polluter, as defined in Section 39032.5 of the Health and Safety Code. (b) No person shall operate or leave standing upon a highway a motor vehicle that is required to be equipped with a motor vehicle pollution control device under Part 5 (commencing with Section 43000) of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code or any other certified motor vehicle pollution control device required by any other state law or any rule or regulation adopted pursuant to that law, or required to be equipped with a motor vehicle pollution control device pursuant to the National Emission Standards Act (42 U.S.C. Secs. 7521 to 7550, inclusive) and the standards and regulations adopted pursuant to that federal act, unless the motor vehicle is equipped with the required motor vehicle pollution control device that is correctly installed and in operating condition. No person shall disconnect, modify, or alter any such required device. (c) No person shall install, sell, offer for sale, or advertise any device, apparatus, or mechanism intended for use with, or as a part of, a required motor vehicle pollution control device or system that alters or modifies the original design or performance of the motor vehicle pollution control device or system. (d) If the court finds that a person has willfully violated this section, the court shall impose the maximum fine that may be imposed in the case, and no part of the fine may be suspended. (e) "Willfully," as used in this section, has the same meaning as the meaning of that word prescribed in Section 7 of the Penal Code. (f) No person shall operate a vehicle after notice by a traffic officer that the vehicle is not equipped with the required certified motor vehicle pollution control device correctly installed in operating condition, except as may be necessary to return the vehicle to the residence or place of business of the owner or driver or to a garage, until the vehicle has been properly equipped with such a device. (g) The notice to appear issued or complaint filed for a violation of this section shall require that the person to whom the notice to appear is issued, or against whom the complaint is filed, produce proof of correction pursuant to Section 40150 or proof of exemption pursuant to Section 4000.1 or 4000.2. (h) This section shall not apply to an alteration, modification, or modifying device, apparatus, or mechanism found by resolution of the State Air Resources Board to do either of the following: (1) Not to reduce the effectiveness of a required motor vehicle pollution control device. (2) To result in emissions from the modified or altered vehicle that are at levels that comply with existing state or federal standards for that model-year of the vehicle being modified or converted. (i) Aftermarket and performance parts with valid State Air Resources Board Executive Orders may be sold and installed concurrent with a motorcycle's transfer to an ultimate purchaser. (j) This section applies to motor vehicles of the United States or its agencies, to the extent authorized by federal law.


27156.1. The installation, prior to January 1, 1974, of an auxiliary gasoline fuel tank for use on a 1973 or earlier model year motor vehicle, which vehicle is required, pursuant to Part 5 (commencing with Section 43000) of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code or the National Emission Standards Act (42 U.S.C., Secs. 1857f-1 to 1857f-7, inclusive), to be equipped with a fuel system evaporative loss control device, shall not be deemed a violation of Section 27156 of this code. As used in this section, the term "auxiliary gasoline fuel tank," has the same meaning as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 43834 of the Health and Safety Code.


27156.2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any publicly owned authorized emergency vehicle operated by a peace officer, as defined in Section 830 of the Penal Code, any authorized emergency vehicle, as defined in Section 165 and used for fighting fires or responding to emergency fire calls pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) or pursuant to subdivision (c) or (d) of that section, and any publicly owned authorized emergency vehicle used by an emergency medical technician-paramedic, as defined in Section 1797.84 of the Health and Safety Code, is exempt from requirements imposed pursuant to California law and the regulations adopted pursuant thereto for motor vehicle pollution control devices.


27156.3. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any motor vehicle of mosquito abatement, vector control, or pest abatement districts or agencies, any authorized emergency vehicle as defined in Section 165, except subdivision (f) thereof, and any ambulance used by a private entity under contract with a public agency, is exempt from requirements imposed pursuant to California law and the regulations adopted pursuant thereto for motor vehicle pollution control devices.

27157. The State Air Resources Board, after consultation with, and pursuant to the recommendations of, the commissioner, shall adopt such reasonable regulations as it determines are necessary for the public health and safety regarding the maximum allowable emissions of pollutants from vehicles upon a highway. Such regulations shall apply only to vehicles required by Part 5 (commencing with Section 43000) of Division 26 of the Health and Safety Code or any federal law or regulation to be equipped with devices or systems to control emission of pollutants from the exhaust and shall not be stricter than the emission standards required of that model year motor vehicle when first manufactured.

27157.5. The State Air Resources Board, after consultation with, and pursuant to the recommendations of, the commissioner, shall adopt such reasonable standards as it determines are necessary for the public health and safety for the emission of air pollutants from the exhaust of motor vehicles of 1955 through 1965 model years. These standards shall be based on the normal emissions of such cars when the timing and carburetor are in proper adjustment and the spark plugs are in proper operating condition.


27158. After notice by a traffic officer that a vehicle does not comply with any regulation adopted pursuant to Section 27157, no person shall operate, and no owner shall permit the operation of, such vehicle for more than 30 days thereafter unless a certificate of compliance has been issued for such vehicle in accordance with the provisions of Section 9889.18 of the Business and Professions Code or unless the department has checked the vehicle and determined that the vehicle has been made to comply with such regulation adopted pursuant to Section 27157. A certificate of compliance issued for such vehicle shall, for a period of one year from date of issue, constitute proof of compliance with any regulations adopted pursuant to Section 27157 provided that no required pollution control device has been disconnected, modified, or altered or has been adjusted by other than a licensed installer in a licensed motor vehicle pollution control device installation and inspection station subsequent to the issuance of the certificate of compliance. The provisions of this section shall apply to the United States and its agencies to the extent authorized by federal law.


27158.5. After notice by a traffic officer that a motor vehicle does not comply with any standard adopted pursuant to Section 27157.5, no person shall operate, and no owner shall permit the operation of, such motor vehicle for more than 30 days thereafter unless a certificate of compliance has been issued for such vehicle in accordance with the provisions of Section 9889.18 of the Business and Professions Code or unless the department has checked the vehicle and determined that the vehicle has been made to comply with such standard adopted pursuant to Section 27157.5. A certificate of compliance issued for such vehicle shall, for a period of one year from date of issue, constitute proof of compliance with the standards determined pursuant to Section 27157.5.


27159. Any uniformed member of the California Highway Patrol may order a vehicle stored when it is located within the territorial limits in which the member may act if requested by a representative of the State Air Resources Board to remove the vehicle from service pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 44011.6 of the Health and Safety Code. All towing and storage fees for a vehicle removed under this section shall be paid by the owner.


Article 2.5. Noise Limits

Ca Codes (veh:27200-27207) Vehicle Code Section 27200-27207



27200. (a) The Department of Motor Vehicles shall not register on a dealer's report of sale a new motor vehicle, except an off-highway motor vehicle subject to identification as provided in Division 16.5 (commencing with Section 38000), which produces a maximum noise exceeding the applicable noise limit at a distance of 50 feet from the centerline of travel under test procedures established by the Department of the California Highway Patrol. (b) The Department of Motor Vehicles may accept a dealer's certificate as proof of compliance with this article. (c) Test procedures for compliance with this article shall be established by the Department of the California Highway Patrol, taking into consideration the test procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers. (d) No person shall sell or offer for sale a new motor vehicle, except an off-highway motor vehicle subject to identification as provided in Division 16.5 (commencing with Section 38000), which produces a maximum noise exceeding the applicable noise limit specified in this article, and for which noise emission standards or regulations have not been adopted by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to the Noise Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-574). (e) No person shall sell or offer for sale a new motor vehicle, except an off-highway motor vehicle subject to identification as provided in Division 16.5 (commencing with Section 38000), which produces noise that exceeds or in any way violates the noise emission standards or regulations adopted for such a motor vehicle by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency pursuant to the Noise Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-574). (f) As used in this section, the term "register" is equivalent to the term "licensing" as used in Section 6(e)(2) of the Noise Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-574; Title 42, United States Code, Section 4905 (e)(2)).

27201. For the purposes of Section 27200, the noise limit of 92 dbA shall apply to any motorcycle manufactured before 1970.


27202. For the purposes of Section 27200, the following noise limits shall apply to any motorcycle, other than a motor-driven cycle, manufactured: (1) After 1969, and before 1973 ...... 88 dbA (2) After 1972, and before 1975 ...... 86 dbA (3) After 1974, and before 1986 ...... 83 dbA (4) After 1985 ....................... 80 dbA


27202.1. (a) Notwithstanding any other law, a person shall not park, use, or operate a motorcycle, registered in the State of California, that does not bear the required applicable federal Environmental Protection Agency exhaust system label pursuant to Subparts D (commencing with Section 205.150) and E (commencing with Section 205.164) of Part 205 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. A violation of this section shall be considered a mechanical violation and a peace officer shall not stop a motorcycle solely on a suspicion of a violation of this section. A peace officer shall cite a violation of this section as a secondary infraction. (b) A violation of this section is punishable as follows: (1) For a first conviction, by a fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50), nor more than one hundred dollars ($100). (2) For a second or subsequent conviction, by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100), nor more than two hundred fifty dollars ($250). (c) (1) The notice to appear issued or complaint filed for a violation of this section shall require that the person to whom the notice to appear is issued, or against whom the complaint is filed, produce proof of correction pursuant to Section 40150. (2) Upon producing proof of correction to the satisfaction of the court, the court may dismiss the penalty imposed pursuant to subdivision (b) for a first violation of this section. (d) (1) This section is applicable to a person operating a motorcycle that is manufactured on or after January 1, 2013, or a motorcycle with aftermarket exhaust system equipment that is manufactured on or after January 1, 2013. (2) Penalties imposed pursuant to this section are in addition to penalties imposed pursuant to any other applicable laws or regulations. (3) This section does not supersede, negate, or otherwise alter any other applicable laws or regulations.


27203. For the purposes of Section 27200, the noise limit of 82 dbA shall apply to any snowmobile manufactured after 1972.


27204. For the purposes of Section 27200, the following noise limits shall apply to any motor vehicle within the specified manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating and date of manufacture: Date Noise of GVWR--Pounds Manufacture Limit--dbA Over 6,000 after 1967 and before 1973 88 Over 6,000 after 1972 and before 1975 86 Over 6,000 after 1974 and before 1978 83 Over 8,500 after 1977 and before 1982 83 Over 6,000 but not after 1977 over 8,500 80 Over 8,500 but not after 1981 over 10,000 80 Over 10,000 after 1981 and before 1988 83 Over 10,000 after 1987 80


27206. For the purposes of Section 27200, the following noise limits shall apply to any other motor vehicle, not specified in this article, manufactured: (1) After 1967, and before 1973 ...... 88 dbA (2) After 1972, and before 1975 ...... 86 dbA (3) After 1974, and before 1978 ...... 83 dbA


27207. No motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds and equipped with an engine speed governor shall produce a sound level exceeding 88 dbA, measured on an open site at a distance of 50 feet from the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle, when its engine is accelerated from idle with wide open throttle to governed speed with the vehicle stationary, transmission in neutral, and clutch, if any, engaged. Test procedures for compliance with this section shall be established by the department, taking into consideration the procedures of the United States Department of Transportation. The procedures may provide for measuring at other distances, in which case the measurement shall be corrected so as to provide for measurements equivalent to the noise limit established by this section measured at 50 feet.


Article 3. Safety Belts And Inflatable Restraint Systems

Ca Codes (veh:27302-27317) Vehicle Code Section 27302-27317



27302. No person shall sell or offer for sale any seatbelt or attachments thereto for use in a vehicle unless it complies with requirements established by the department.


27304. All vehicles owned and utilized in driver training by a driver training school licensed under the provisions of Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 11100) of Division 5 or in a course in automobile driver training in any secondary school maintained under the Education Code shall be equipped with a seatbelt for the driver and each passenger. Such seatbelt shall comply with requirements established by the department. It shall be unlawful for any driver or passenger to operate or ride in such a vehicle while it is being operated for the purposes of driver training, unless such person is utilizing an installed seatbelt in the proper manner.


27305. All publicly owned firefighting vehicles designed for and used in responding to emergency fire calls and in combating fires shall be equipped with seatbelts for each seat utilized by personnel when such vehicles are being operated. Such seatbelts shall comply with requirements established by the department.


27314. (a) No dealer shall sell or offer for sale any used passenger vehicle that was manufactured on or after January 1, 1962, other than a motorcycle, unless it is equipped with at least two seatbelts which are installed for the use of persons in the front seat of the vehicle. (b) No dealer shall sell or offer for sale any used passenger vehicle manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, other than a motorcycle, unless it is equipped with seatbelts for each seating position. (c) Seatbelts required in subdivisions (a) and (b) shall comply with regulations established by the department. (d) The requirements of this section shall not apply to sales to dealers, automobile dismantlers, or junk dealers.


27314.5. (a) (1) Subject to paragraph (3), no dealer shall sell or offer for sale any used passenger vehicle of a model year of 1972 to 1990, inclusive, unless there is affixed to the window of the left front door or, if there is no window, to another suitable location so that it may be seen and read by a person standing outside the vehicle at that location, a notice, printed in 14-point type, which reads as follows: "WARNING: While use of all seat belts reduces the chance of ejection, failure to install and use shoulder harnesses with lap belts can result in serious or fatal injuries in some crashes. Lap-only belts increase the chance of head and neck injury by allowing the upper torso to move unrestrained in a crash and increase the chance of spinal column and abdominal injuries by concentrating excessive force on the lower torso. Because children carry a disproportionate amount of body weight above the waist, they are more likely to sustain those injuries. Shoulder harnesses may be available that can be retrofitted in this vehicle. For more information call the Auto Safety Hotline at 1-800-424-9393." (2) The notice shall remain affixed to the vehicle pursuant to paragraph (1) at all times that the vehicle is for sale. (3) The notice is not required to be affixed to any vehicle equipped with both a lap belt and a shoulder harness for the driver and one passenger in the front seat of the vehicle and for at least two passengers in the rear seat of the vehicle. (b) (1) In addition to the requirements of subdivision (a), and subject to paragraph (3) and subdivision (c), the dealer shall affix, to one rear seat lap belt buckle of every used passenger vehicle of a model year of 1972 to 1990, inclusive, that has a rear seat, a notice, printed in 10-point type, that reads as follows: "WARNING: While use of all seat belts reduces the chance of ejection, failure to install and use shoulder harnesses with lap belts can result in serious or fatal injuries in some crashes. Shoulder harnesses may be available that can be retrofitted in this vehicle. For more information, call the Auto Safety Hotline at 1-800-424-9393." (2) The notice shall remain affixed to the vehicle pursuant to paragraph (1) at all times that the vehicle is for sale. (3) The message is not required to be affixed to any vehicle either equipped with both a lap belt and a shoulder harness for at least two passengers in the rear seat or having no rear seat lap belts. (c) A dealer is not in violation of subdivision (b) unless a private nonprofit entity has furnished a supply of the appropriate notices suitable for affixing as required free of charge or, having requested a resupply of notices, has not received the resupply. (d) The department shall furnish, to a nonprofit private entity for purposes of this section, for a fee not to exceed its costs in so furnishing, at least once every six months, a list of all licensed dealers who sell used passenger vehicles.


27315. (a) The Legislature finds that a mandatory seatbelt law will contribute to reducing highway deaths and injuries by encouraging greater usage of existing manual seatbelts, that automatic crash protection systems which require no action by vehicle occupants offer the best hope of reducing deaths and injuries, and that encouraging the use of manual safety belts is only a partial remedy for addressing this major cause of death and injury. The Legislature declares that the enactment of this section is intended to be compatible with support for federal safety standards requiring automatic crash protection systems and should not be used in any manner to rescind federal requirements for installation of automatic restraints in new cars. (b) This section shall be known and may be cited as the Motor Vehicle Safety Act. (c) (1) As used in this section, "motor vehicle" means a passenger vehicle, a motortruck, or a truck tractor, but does not include a motorcycle. (2) For purposes of this section, a "motor vehicle" also means a farm labor vehicle, regardless of the date of certification under Section 31401. (d) (1) A person shall not operate a motor vehicle on a highway unless that person and all passengers 16 years of age or over are properly restrained by a safety belt. This paragraph does not apply to the operator of a taxicab, as defined in Section 27908, when the taxicab is driven on a city street and is engaged in the transportation of a fare-paying passenger. The safety belt requirement established by this paragraph is the minimum safety standard applicable to employees being transported in a motor vehicle. This paragraph does not preempt more stringent or restrictive standards imposed by the Labor Code or another state or federal regulation regarding the transportation of employees in a motor vehicle. (2) The operator of a limousine for hire or the operator of an authorized emergency vehicle, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 165, shall not operate the limousine for hire or authorized emergency vehicle unless the operator and any passengers six years of age or over or weighing 60 pounds or more in the front seat are properly restrained by a safety belt. (3) The operator of a taxicab shall not operate the taxicab unless any passengers six years of age or over or weighing 60 pounds or more in the front seat are properly restrained by a safety belt. (e) A person 16 years of age or over shall not be a passenger in a motor vehicle on a highway unless that person is properly restrained by a safety belt. This subdivision does not apply to a passenger in a sleeper berth, as defined in subdivision (x) of Section 1201 of Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations. (f) An owner of a motor vehicle, including an owner or operator of a taxicab, as defined in Section 27908, or a limousine for hire, operated on a highway shall maintain safety belts in good working order for the use of occupants of the vehicle. The safety belts shall conform to motor vehicle safety standards established by the United States Department of Transportation. This subdivision, however, does not require installation or maintenance of safety belts if not required by the laws of the United States applicable to the vehicle at the time of its initial sale. (g) This section does not apply to a passenger or operator with a physically disabling condition or medical condition that would prevent appropriate restraint in a safety belt, if the condition is duly certified by a licensed physician and surgeon or by a licensed chiropractor who shall state the nature of the condition, as well as the reason the restraint is inappropriate. This section also does not apply to a public employee, when in an authorized emergency vehicle as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 165, or to a passenger in a seat behind the front seat of an authorized emergency vehicle as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 165 operated by the public employee, unless required by the agency employing the public employee. (h) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of Section 42001, a violation of subdivision (d), (e), or (f) is an infraction punishable by a fine of not more than twenty dollars ($20) for a first offense, and a fine of not more than fifty dollars ($50) for each subsequent offense. In lieu of the fine and any penalty assessment or court costs, the court, pursuant to Section 42005, may order that a person convicted of a first offense attend a school for traffic violators or another court-approved program in which the proper use of safety belts is demonstrated. (i) In a civil action, a violation of subdivision (d), (e), or (f) or information of a violation of subdivision (h) does not establish negligence as a matter of law or negligence per se for comparative fault purposes, but negligence may be proven as a fact without regard to the violation. (j) If the United States Secretary of Transportation fails to adopt safety standards for manual safety belt systems by September 1, 1989, a motor vehicle manufactured after that date for sale or sold in this state shall not be registered unless it contains a manual safety belt system that meets the performance standards applicable to automatic crash protection devices adopted by the United States Secretary of Transportation pursuant to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 (49 C.F.R. 571.208) as in effect on January 1, 1985. (k) A motor vehicle offered for original sale in this state which has been manufactured on or after September 1, 1989, shall comply with the automatic restraint requirements of Section S4.1.2.1 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 (49 C.F.R. 571.208), as published in Volume 49 of the Federal Register, No. 138, page 29009. An automobile manufacturer that sells or delivers a motor vehicle subject to this subdivision, and fails to comply with this subdivision, shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500) for each sale or delivery of a noncomplying motor vehicle. (l) Compliance with subdivision (j) or (k) by a manufacturer shall be made by self-certification in the same manner as self-certification is accomplished under federal law. (m) This section does not apply to a person actually engaged in delivery of newspapers to customers along the person's route if the person is properly restrained by a safety belt prior to commencing and subsequent to completing delivery on the route. (n) This section does not apply to a person actually engaged in collection and delivery activities as a rural delivery carrier for the United States Postal Service if the person is properly restrained by a safety belt prior to stopping at the first box and subsequent to stopping at the last box on the route. (o) This section does not apply to a driver actually engaged in the collection of solid waste or recyclable materials along that driver's collection route if the driver is properly restrained by a safety belt prior to commencing and subsequent to completing the collection route. (p) Subdivisions (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) shall become inoperative immediately upon the date that the United States Secretary of Transportation, or his or her delegate, determines to rescind the portion of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 (49 C.F.R. 571.208) which requires the installation of automatic restraints in new motor vehicles, except that those subdivisions shall not become inoperative if the secretary's decision to rescind that Standard No. 208 is not based, in any respect, on the enactment or continued operation of those subdivisions.


27315.1. Section 27315 applies to any person in a fully enclosed three-wheeled motor vehicle that is not less than seven feet in length and not less than four feet in width, and has an unladen weight of 900 pounds or more.

27315.3. (a) As used in this section, "passenger motor vehicle" means any passenger vehicle as defined in Section 465 and any motortruck as defined in Section 410 of less than 6,001 pounds unladen weight, but does not include a motorcycle as defined in Section 400. (b) Every sheriff's department and city police department and the Department of the California Highway Patrol shall maintain safety belts in good working order for the use of occupants of any vehicle which it operates on a highway for the purpose of patrol. The safety belts shall conform to motor vehicle safety standards established by the United States Department of Transportation. This subdivision does not, however, require installation or maintenance of safety belts where not required by the laws of the United States applicable to the vehicle at the time of its initial sale. (c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of Section 42001, any violation of subdivision (b) is an infraction punishable by a fine, including all penalty assessments and court costs imposed on the convicted department, of not more than twenty dollars ($20) for a first offense, and a fine, including all penalty assessments and court costs imposed on the convicted department, of not more than fifty dollars ($50) for each subsequent offense. (d) (1) For any violation of subdivision (b), in addition to the fines provided for pursuant to subdivision (c) and the penalty assessments provided for pursuant to Section 1464 of the Penal Code, an additional penalty assessment of two dollars ($2) shall be levied for any first offense, and an additional penalty assessment of five dollars ($5) shall be levied for any subsequent offense. (2) All money collected pursuant to this subdivision shall be utilized in accordance with Section 1464 of the Penal Code. (e) In any civil action, a violation of subdivision (b) or information of a violation of subdivision (c) shall not establish negligence as a matter of law or negligence per se for comparative fault purposes, but negligence may be proven as a fact without regard to the violation. (f) Subdivisions (b) and (c) shall become inoperative immediately upon the date that the Secretary of the United States Department of Transportation, or his or her delegate, determines to rescind the portion of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 (49 C.F.R. 571.208) which requires the installation of automatic restraints in new passenger motor vehicles, except that those subdivisions shall not become inoperative if the secretary's decision to rescind Standard No. 208 is not based, in any respect, on the enactment or continued operation of those subdivisions or subdivisions (d) to (h), inclusive, of Section 27315.


27315.5. All law enforcement agencies shall, not later than January 1, 1991, establish a policy and issue an order, in writing, which states whether or not their officers are required to wear seat belts. When a law enforcement agency is developing a safety belt policy, the agency shall consider the officer's safety, comfort, and convenience.


27316. (a) Unless specifically prohibited by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, all schoolbuses purchased or leased for use in California shall be equipped at all designated seating positions with a combination pelvic and upper torso passenger restraint system, if the schoolbus is either of the following: (1) Type 1, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 1201 of Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations, and is manufactured on or after July 1, 2005. (2) Type 2, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 1201 of Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations, and is manufactured on or after July 1, 2004. (b) For purposes of this section, a "passenger restraint system" means any of the following: (1) A restraint system that is in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 209, for a type 2 seatbelt assembly, and with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 210, as those standards were in effect on the date the schoolbus was manufactured. (2) A restraint system certified by the schoolbus manufacturer that is in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 222 and incorporates a type 2 lap/shoulder restraint system. (c) No person, school district, or organization, with respect to a schoolbus equipped with passenger restraint systems pursuant to this section, may be charged for a violation of this code or any regulation adopted thereunder requiring a passenger to use a passenger restraint system, if a passenger on the schoolbus fails to use or improperly uses the passenger restraint system. (d) It is the intent of the Legislature, in implementing this section, that school pupil transportation providers work to prioritize the allocation of schoolbuses purchased, leased, or contracted for on or after July 1, 2004, for type 2 schoolbuses, or on or after July 1, 2005, for type 1 schoolbuses, to ensure that elementary level schoolbus passengers receive first priority for new schoolbuses whenever feasible.


27316.5. (a) Unless specifically prohibited by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, all type 2 school pupil activity buses, manufactured on or after July 1, 2004, purchased or leased for use in California shall be equipped at all designated seating positions with a combination pelvic and upper torso passenger restraint system. (b) For purposes of this section, a "passenger restraint system" is either of the following: (1) A restraint system that is in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 209, for a type 2 seatbelt assembly, and with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 210, as those standards were in effect on the date that the school pupil activity bus was manufactured. (2) A restraint system certified by the school pupil activity bus manufacturer that is in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 222 and incorporates a type 2 lap-shoulder restraint system. (c) No person, school district, or organization, with respect to a type 2 school pupil activity bus equipped with passenger restraint systems pursuant to this section, may be charged for a violation of this code or any regulation adopted thereunder requiring a passenger to use a passenger restraint system, if a passenger on the school pupil activity bus fails to use or improperly uses the passenger restraint system.

27317. Any person who installs or reinstalls for compensation, or who distributes or sells any previously deployed air bag that is part of an inflatable restraint system, if the person knows that the air bag has been previously deployed, is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of five thousand dollars ($5,000) or by confinement in the county jail for one year or by both that fine and confinement.


Article 3.3. Child Safety Belt And Passenger Restraint Requirements

Ca Codes (veh:27360-27368) Vehicle Code Section 27360-27368



27360. (a) A parent or legal guardian, when present in a motor vehicle, as defined in Section 27315, may not permit his or her child or ward to be transported upon a highway in the motor vehicle without properly securing the child or ward in a rear seat in a child passenger restraint system meeting applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards, unless the child or ward is one of the following: (1) Six years of age or older. (2) Sixty pounds or more. (b) (1) A driver may not transport on a highway a child in a motor vehicle, as defined in Section 27315, without properly securing the child in a rear seat in a child passenger restraint system meeting applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards, unless the child is one of the following: (A) Six years of age or older. (B) Sixty pounds or more. (2) This subdivision does not apply to a driver if the parent or legal guardian of the child is also present in the vehicle and is not the driver. (c) (1) For purposes of subdivisions (a) and (b), and except as provided in paragraph (2), a child or ward under the age of six years who weighs less than 60 pounds may ride in the front seat of a motor vehicle, if properly secured in a child passenger restraint system that meets applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards, under any of the following circumstances: (A) There is no rear seat. (B) The rear seats are side-facing jump seats. (C) The rear seats are rear-facing seats. (D) The child passenger restraint system cannot be installed properly in the rear seat. (E) All rear seats are already occupied by children under the age of 12 years. (F) Medical reasons necessitate that the child or ward not ride in the rear seat. The court may require satisfactory proof of the child' s medical condition. (2) A child or ward may not ride in the front seat of a motor vehicle with an active passenger airbag if the child or ward is one of the following: (A) Under one year of age. (B) Less than 20 pounds. (C) Riding in a rear-facing child passenger restraint system. (d) (1) (A) A first offense under this section is punishable by a fine of one hundred dollars ($100), except that the court may reduce or waive the fine if the defendant establishes to the satisfaction of the court that he or she is economically disadvantaged, and the court, instead, refers the defendant to a community education program that includes, but is not limited to, education on the proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system for children of all ages, and provides certification to the court of completion of that program. Upon completion of the program, the defendant shall provide proof of participation in the program. If an education program on the proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system is not available within 50 miles of the residence of the defendant, the requirement to participate in that program shall be waived. If the fine is paid, waived, or reduced, the court shall report the conviction to the department pursuant to Section 1803. (B) The court may require a defendant described under this section to attend an education program that includes demonstration of proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system and provides certification to the court that the defendant has presented for inspection a child passenger restraint system that meets applicable federal safety standards. (2) (A) A second or subsequent offense under this section is punishable by a fine of two hundred fifty dollars ($250), no part of which may be waived by the court, except that the court may reduce or waive the fine if the defendant establishes to the satisfaction of the court that he or she is economically disadvantaged, and the court, instead, refers the defendant to a community education program that includes, but is not limited to, education on the proper installation and use of child passenger restraint systems for children of all ages, and provides certification to the court of completion of that program. Upon completion of the program, the defendant shall provide proof of participation in the program. If an education program on the proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system is not available within 50 miles of the residence of the defendant, the requirement to participate in that program shall be waived. If the fine is paid, waived, or reduced, the court shall report the conviction to the department pursuant to Section 1803. (B) The court may require a defendant described under this section to attend an education program that includes demonstration of proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system and provides certification to the court that the defendant has presented for inspection a child passenger restraint system that meets applicable federal safety standards. (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the fines collected for a violation of this section shall be allocated as follows: (1) (A) Sixty percent to health departments of local jurisdictions where the violation occurred, to be used for a community education program that includes, but is not limited to, demonstration of the installation of a child passenger restraint system for children of all ages and also assists an economically disadvantaged family in obtaining a restraint system through a low-cost purchase or loan. The county or city health department shall designate a coordinator to facilitate the creation of a special account and to develop a relationship with the court system to facilitate the transfer of funds to the program. The county or city may contract for the implementation of the program. Prior to obtaining possession of a child passenger restraint system pursuant to this section, a person shall attend an education program that includes demonstration of proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system. (B) As the proceeds from fines become available, county or city health departments shall prepare and maintain a listing of all child passenger restraint low-cost purchase or loaner programs in their counties, including a semiannual verification that all programs listed are in existence. Each county or city shall forward the listing to the Office of Traffic Safety in the Business, Transportation and Housing Agency and the courts, birthing centers, community child health and disability prevention programs, county clinics, prenatal clinics, women, infants, and children programs, and county hospitals in that county, who shall make the listing available to the public. The Office of Traffic Safety shall maintain a listing of all of the programs in the state. (2) Twenty-five percent to the county or city for the administration of the program. (3) Fifteen percent to the city, to be deposited in its general fund except that, if the violation occurred in an unincorporated area, this amount shall be allocated to the county for purposes of paragraph (1).

27360.5. (a) No parent or legal guardian, when present in a motor vehicle, as defined in Section 27315, may permit his or her child or ward who is six years of age or older, but less than 16 years of age, or who is less than six years of age and weighs 60 pounds or more to be transported upon a highway in the motor vehicle without properly securing the child or ward in an appropriate child passenger restraint system or safety belt meeting applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards. (b) No driver may transport on a highway any child who is six years of age or older, but less than 16 years of age, or who is less than six years of age and weighs 60 pounds or more in a motor vehicle, as defined in Section 27315, without properly securing the child in a child passenger restraint system or safety belt meeting applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards. This subdivision does not apply to a driver if the parent or legal guardian of the child is also present in the vehicle and is not the driver. (c) (1) A first offense under this section is punishable by a fine of one hundred dollars ($100), except that the court may reduce or waive the fine if the defendant establishes to the satisfaction of the court that he or she is economically disadvantaged, and the court, instead, refers the defendant to a child restraint education program that includes, but is not limited to, demonstration of the proper installation and use of child passenger restraint systems for children of all ages, and provides economically disadvantaged families with a child passenger restraint low-cost purchase or loaner program. Upon completion of the program, the defendant shall provide proof of participation in the program that includes an inspection of a child passenger restraint system that meets applicable federal safety standards. If an education program on the proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system is not available within 50 miles of the residence of the defendant, the requirement to participate in that program shall be waived. If the fine is paid, waived, or reduced, the court shall report the conviction to the department pursuant to Section 1803. The court may, at its discretion, require any defendant described under this section to attend an education program that includes demonstration of proper installation and use of child passenger restraint systems and provides certification to the court that the defendant has presented for inspection a child passenger restraint system that meets applicable federal safety standards. (2) A second or subsequent offense under this section is punishable by a fine of two hundred fifty dollars ($250), no part of which may be waived by the court, except that the court may reduce or waive the fine if the defendant establishes to the satisfaction of the court that he or she is economically disadvantaged, and the court, instead refers the defendant to a community education program that includes, but is not limited to, education on the proper installation and use of child passenger restraint systems for children of all ages, and provides certification to the court of completion of that program. Upon completion of the program, the defendant shall provide proof of participation in the program. If an education program on the proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system is not available within 50 miles of the residence of the defendant, the requirement to participate in that program shall be waived. If the fine is paid, waived, or reduced, the court shall report the conviction to the department pursuant to Section 1803. The court may at its discretion, require any defendant described under this section to attend an education program that includes demonstration of proper installation and use of child passenger restraint systems and provides certification to the court that the defendant has presented for inspection a child passenger restraint system that meets applicable federal safety standards. (d) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the fines collected for a violation of this section shall be allocated as follows: (1) Sixty percent to county or city health departments where the violation occurred, to be used for an education program that includes, but is not limited to, the demonstration of proper installation and use of child passenger restraint systems for children of all ages and provides child restraints for loan or low-cost purchase. (2) Twenty-five percent to the county or city for the administration of the program. (3) Fifteen percent to the city, to be deposited in its general fund except that, if the violation occurred in an unincorporated area, this amount shall be allocated to the county for purposes of paragraph (1).


27361. A law enforcement officer reasonably suspecting a violation of Section 27360 or 27360.5, or both of those sections, may stop a vehicle transporting a child appearing to the officer to be within the age or weight specified in Section 27360 or 27360.5. The officer may issue a notice to appear for a violation of Section 27360 or 27360.5.


27362. (a) A manufacturer, wholesaler, or retailer shall not sell, offer for sale, or install in a motor vehicle, a child passenger restraint system that does not conform to all applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards on the date of manufacture. Responsibility for compliance with this section shall rest with the individual selling the system, offering the system for sale, or installing the system. A person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished as follows: (1) Upon a first conviction, by a fine not exceeding four hundred dollars ($400), or by imprisonment in a county jail for a period of not more than 90 days, or both. (2) Upon a second or subsequent conviction, by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by imprisonment in a county jail for a period of not more than 180 days, or both. (b) The fines collected for a violation of this section shall be allocated as follows: (1) (A) Sixty percent to the county or city health department where the violation occurred, to be used for a child passenger restraint low-cost purchase or loaner program which shall include, but not be limited to, education on the proper installation and use of a child passenger restraint system. The county health department shall designate a coordinator to facilitate the creation of a special account and to develop a relationship with the superior court to facilitate the transfer of funds to the program. The county may contract for the implementation of the program. Prior to obtaining possession of a child passenger restraint system pursuant to this section, a person shall receive information relating to the importance of utilizing that system. (B) As the proceeds from fines become available, county health departments shall prepare and maintain a listing of all child passenger restraint low-cost purchase or loaner programs in their counties, including a semiannual verification that all programs listed are in existence. Each county shall forward the listing to the Office of Traffic Safety in the Business, Transportation and Housing Agency and the courts, birthing centers, community child health and disability prevention programs, and county hospitals in that county, who shall make the listing available to the public. The Office of Traffic Safety shall maintain a listing of all of the programs in the state. (2) Twenty-five percent to the county for the administration of the program. (3) Fifteen percent to the city, to be deposited in its general fund except that, if the violation occurred in an unincorporated area, this amount shall be allocated to the county for purposes of paragraph (1).


27362.1. (a) No individual may sell or offer for sale a child passenger restraint system that was in use by a child during an accident involving a motor vehicle. (b) A violation of this section shall be punished by a fine of one hundred dollars ($100).


27363. (a) The court may exempt from the requirements of this article any class of child by age, weight, or size if it is determined that the use of a child passenger restraint system would be impractical by reason of physical unfitness, medical condition, or size. The court may require satisfactory proof of the child's physical unfitness, medical condition, or size and that an appropriate special needs child passenger restraint system is not available. (b) In case of a life-threatening emergency, or when a child is being transported in an authorized emergency vehicle, if there is no child passenger restraint system available, a child may be transported without the use of that system, but the child shall be secured by a seatbelt. (c) A child weighing more than 40 pounds may be transported in the backseat of a vehicle while wearing only a lap safety belt when the backseat of the vehicle is not equipped with a combination lap and shoulder safety belt. (d) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2002.


27363.5. (a) Every public or private hospital, clinic, or birthing center, shall, at the time of the discharge of a child provide and discuss information on the current law requiring child passenger restraint systems to the parents or the person to whom the child is released when at least one of the following conditions is met: (1) The child is less than six years of age. (2) The child weighs less than 60 pounds. (b) A public or private hospital, clinic, or birthing center shall not be responsible for the failure of the parent or person to whom the child is released to use a child passenger restraint system. (c) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2002.


27364. (a) It is the intent of the Legislature, in enacting this article, to insure that children, who are, because of their tender years, helpless dependent passengers, are provided with the safest transportation possible. (b) It is the further intent of the Legislature to stress and communicate to all drivers in this state the importance of using child passenger restraint systems. (c) Nothing in this article shall be construed to extend application of these provisions to a class of children other than the class of children herein specified.

27365. (a) (1) Every car rental agency in California shall inform each of its customers of Section 27360 by posting, in a place conspicuous to the public in each established place of business of the agency, a notice not smaller than 15 by 20 inches which states the following: "CALIFORNIA LAW REQUIRES ALL CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS OF AGE WHO WEIGH LESS THAN 60 POUNDS TO BE TRANSPORTED IN THE BACK SEAT OF THE VEHICLE IN A CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM. THIS AGENCY IS REQUIRED TO PROVIDE FOR RENTAL A CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM YOURSELF." (2) The posted notice specified in paragraph (1) is not required if the car rental agency's place of business is located in a hotel that has a business policy prohibiting the posting of signs or notices in any area of the hotel. In that case, a car rental agency shall furnish a written notice to each customer that contains the same information as required for the posted notice. (b) Every car rental agency in California shall have available for, and shall, upon request, provide for rental to, adults traveling with children under six years of age, child passenger restraint systems that are certified by the manufacturer to meet applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards for use by children weighing 60 pounds or less, are in good and safe condition, with no missing original parts, and are not older than five years. (c) A violation of this section is an infraction punishable by a fine of one hundred dollars ($100).

27366. (a) The department shall do the following: (1) Prepare and disseminate materials for the purpose of educating the public about the importance of using passenger restraints for infants and children under 15 years of age. These materials shall include, but are not limited to, audiovisual aids and written materials that explain the effects of motor vehicle accidents on infants and children and the reduction in risk of injury or death as a result of the utilization of passenger restraints for infants and children. (2) As funding is available, produce and administer a billboard campaign stressing the importance of utilizing child passenger restraint systems and instructing the public on where to obtain those systems. (b) The department, the Office of Traffic Safety, and the State Department of Health Services shall meet annually to coordinate, share information about, and outline the programs that each organization is pursuing in the area of child passenger restraint systems.

27368. This article applies to child passengers in a fully enclosed three-wheeled motor vehicle that is not less than seven feet in length and not less than four feet in width, and has an unladen weight of 900 pounds or more.


Article 3.5. Headsets And Earplugs

Ca Codes (veh:27400) Vehicle Code Section 27400



27400. A person operating a motor vehicle or bicycle may not wear a headset covering, or earplugs in, both ears. This prohibition does not apply to any of the following: (a) A person operating authorized emergency vehicles, as defined in Section 165. (b) A person engaged in the operation of either special construction equipment or equipment for use in the maintenance of any highway. (c) A person engaged in the operation of refuse collection equipment who is wearing a safety headset or safety earplugs. (d) A person wearing personal hearing protectors in the form of earplugs or molds that are specifically designed to attenuate injurious noise levels. The plugs or molds shall be designed in a manner so as to not inhibit the wearer's ability to hear a siren or horn from an emergency vehicle or a horn from another motor vehicle. (e) A person using a prosthetic device that aids the hard of hearing.


Article 4. Tires

Ca Codes (veh:27450-27503) Vehicle Code Section 27450-27503



27450. When any vehicle is equipped with any solid tire, the solid tire shall have a minimum thickness of resilient rubber as follows: (a) If the width of the tire is three inches but less than six inches, one inch thick. (b) If the width of the tire is six inches but not more than nine inches, 1 1/4 inches thick. (c) If the width of the tire is more than nine inches, 1 1/2 inches thick.


27451. The rubber of a solid tire shall be measured between the surface of the roadway and the nearest metal part of the base flange to which the tire is attached at the point where the concentrated weight of the vehicle bears upon the surface of the roadway.


27452. The required thickness of rubber shall extend evenly around the entire periphery of the tire. The entire solid tire shall be securely attached to the channel base and shall be without flat spots or bumpy rubber.

27453. There shall not be an average difference greater than 1/8 inch between the outside diameters of each single tire composing a dual solid rubber tire.

27454. A tire on a vehicle upon a highway shall not have on its periphery any block, stud, flange, cleat, ridge, bead, or any other protuberance of metal or wood that projects beyond the tread of the traction surface of the tire. This section does not apply to any of the following: (a) Tire traction devices of reasonable size used to prevent skidding when upon wet surfaces or when upon snow or ice. (b) Pneumatic tires that have embedded therein wire not to exceed 0.075 of an inch in diameter and that are constructed so that under no conditions will the percentage of metal in contact with the roadway exceed 5 percent of the total tire area in contact with the roadway, except that during the first 1,000 miles of use or operation of the tire, the metal in contact with the roadway may exceed 5 percent of the tire area in contact with the roadway, but shall in no event exceed 20 percent of the area. (c) Vehicles operated upon unimproved roadways when necessary in the construction or repair of highways. (d) Traction engines or tractors when operated under the conditions of a permit first obtained from the Department of Transportation. (e) (1) Pneumatic tires containing metal-type studs of tungsten carbide or other suitable material that are inserted or constructed so that under no condition will the number of studs or the percentage of metal in contact with the roadway exceed 3 percent of the total tire area in contact with the roadway, between November 1 and April 30 of each year. A vehicle may be equipped year-round with tires that have studs that retract pneumatically or mechanically when not in use, if the studs are retracted between May 1 and October 31 of each year. A tire on a vehicle shall not be worn to a point at which the studs protrude beyond the tire tread when retracted. (2) The commissioner, after consultation with the Department of Transportation, may extend the period during which the studded pneumatic tires may be used with studs deployed or inserted in areas of the state for the protection of the public because of adverse weather conditions. (f) Pneumatic tires used on an authorized emergency vehicle, as defined in Section 165, containing metal-type studs of tungsten carbide or other suitable material, if the studs are inserted or constructed so that under no conditions will the number of studs or the percentage of metal in contact with the roadway exceed 3 percent of the total tire area in contact with the roadway. Notwithstanding subdivision (e), authorized emergency vehicles are permitted the unrestricted use of studded pneumatic tires throughout the year.


27455. (a) On and after January 1, 1975, no person shall sell or offer for sale an inner tube for use in a radial tire unless, at the time of manufacture, the tube valve stem is colored red or is distinctly marked in accordance with rules and regulations adopted by the department, taking into consideration the recommendations of manufacturers of inner tubes. (b) No person shall install an inner tube in a radial tire unless the inner tube is designed for use in a radial tire.


27459. No person shall operate any motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer upon any portion of a highway without tire traction devices when that portion of the highway is signed for the requirement of tire traction devices. In any case where a passenger vehicle or motortruck having an unladen weight of 6,000 pounds or less may be required by the Department of Transportation or local authorities to be equipped with tire traction devices, the devices shall be placed on at least two drive wheels, or the department or local authorities may provide, in the alternative, that the vehicle may be equipped with snow-tread tires on at least two drive wheels when the weather and surface conditions at the time are such that the stopping, tractive, and cornering abilities of the snow-tread tires are adequate. The snow-tread tires shall be of a type and design manufactured for use on snow as a replacement for tire chains or tire traction devices, shall be in good condition, and shall bear the marking of M-S, M/S, or other marking indicating that the tire was manufactured for use on snow, or, in the case of tires purchased before January 1, 1987, shall either bear the markings or, in the opinion of the inspecting officer, comply with the tread pattern requirements of Section 558.


27459.5. (a) No person shall sell, offer for sale, lease, install, or replace on a vehicle for use on a highway, any tire traction devices which are not in compliance with requirements specified in Section 605. (b) Every manufacturer who sells, offers for sale, or manufactures for use upon a vehicle, tire traction devices subject to the requirements of Section 605 shall, before the device is offered for sale, have laboratory test data showing compliance with those requirements. Tests may be conducted by the manufacturer.


27460. Any passenger vehicle or motortruck having an unladen weight of 6,500 pounds or less and operated and equipped with four-wheel drive and with snow-tread tires on all four drive wheels may be operated upon any portion of a highway without tire traction devices, notwithstanding the fact that the highway is signed for the requirement of those devices and provided that tire traction devices for at least one set of drive wheels are carried in or upon the vehicle. The snow-tread tires shall meet the requirements specified in Section 27459, and the vehicle shall not, when so operated, tow another vehicle except as may be necessary to move a disabled vehicle from the roadway. No person shall use those tires on four-wheel drive vehicles in place of tire traction devices whenever weather and roadway conditions at the time are such that the stopping, tractive, and cornering abilities of the tires are not adequate or whenever the Department of Transportation or local authorities, in their respective jurisdictions, place signs prohibiting their operation unless equipped with tire traction devices.


27460.5. No person shall knowingly sell or offer or expose for sale any motor vehicle tire except a commercial vehicle tire, or any motor vehicle equipped with any tire except a commercial vehicle tire, which has been recut or regrooved. For purposes of this section a recut or regrooved tire is an unretreaded or unrecapped tire into which new grooves have been cut or burned.


27461. No person shall cause or permit the operation of and no driver shall knowingly operate any motor vehicle except a commercial vehicle, on any street or highway, which is equipped with one or more recut or regrooved tires. For purposes of this section a recut or regrooved tire is an unretreaded or unrecapped tire into which new grooves have been cut or burned.


27465. (a) No dealer or person holding a retail seller's permit shall sell, offer for sale, expose for sale, or install on a vehicle axle for use on a highway, a pneumatic tire when the tire has less than the tread depth specified in subdivision (b). This subdivision does not apply to any person who installs on a vehicle, as part of an emergency service rendered to a disabled vehicle upon a highway, a spare tire with which the disabled vehicle was equipped. (b) No person shall use on a highway a pneumatic tire on a vehicle axle when the tire has less than the following tread depth, except when temporarily installed on a disabled vehicle as specified in subdivision (a): (1) One thirty-second ( 1/32) of an inch tread depth in any two adjacent grooves at any location of the tire, except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3). (2) Four thirty-second ( 4/32) of an inch tread depth at all points in all major grooves on a tire on the steering axle of any motor vehicle specified in Section 34500, and two thirty-second ( 2/32) of an inch tread depth at all points in all major grooves on all other tires on the axles of these vehicles. (3) Six thirty-second ( 6/32) of an inch tread depth at all points in all major grooves on snow tires used in lieu of tire traction devices in posted tire traction device control areas. (c) The measurement of tread depth shall not be made where tie bars, humps, or fillets are located. (d) The requirements of this section shall not apply to implements of husbandry. (e) The department, if it determines that such action is appropriate and in keeping with reasonable safety requirements, may adopt regulations establishing more stringent tread depth requirements than those specified in this section for those vehicles defined in Sections 322 and 545, and may adopt regulations establishing tread depth requirements different from those specified in this section for those vehicles listed in Section 34500.


27500. (a) The department may adopt regulations relating to standards for pneumatic tires of a vehicle type as it determines necessary to provide for public safety. (b) In adopting these regulations, the department shall consider as evidence of generally accepted standards, the rules and regulations which have been adopted by the Federal Highway Administration and Rubber Manufacturers Assocation.


27501. (a) No dealer or person holding a retail seller's permit shall sell, offer for sale, expose for sale, or install on a vehicle for use on a highway, a pneumatic tire which is not in compliance with regulations adopted pursuant to Section 27500. This subdivision shall not apply to any person who installs on a vehicle, as part of an emergency service rendered to a vehicle upon a highway, a spare tire with which such disabled vehicle was equipped. (b) No person shall use on a highway a pneumatic tire which is not in conformance with such regulations.


27502. No dealer or person holding a retail seller's permit shall sell, offer for sale, expose for sale, or install on a vehicle for use on a highway, a tire which is not in compliance with regulations adopted pursuant to Section 27503.

27503. (a) The commissioner, after public hearings, shall adopt regulations setting noise standards for pneumatic tires. Such standards shall be the lowest level of noise consistent with economic and technological feasibility and with public safety as stated in the regulations adopted pursuant to Section 27500. Such standards may be adopted for each tire-vehicle type combination. The regulations may require the manufacturer to prove to the commissioner that the tire meets the standards, subject to such inspection as the commissioner prescribes. The regulations shall be filed with the Legislature eight months after the federal study on tire noise is available, and shall become operative one year after such filing. (b) It is the intent of the Legislature in enacting this section that the commissioner shall consider recommendations of the United States Department of Transportation before developing independent standards for tire noise.


Article 5. Fenders, Ornaments, And Television

Ca Codes (veh:27600-27607) Vehicle Code Section 27600-27607



27600. No person shall operate any motor vehicle having three or more wheels, any trailer, or semitrailer unless equipped with fenders, covers, or devices, including flaps or splash aprons, or unless the body of the vehicle or attachments thereto afford adequate protection to effectively minimize the spray or splash of water or mud to the rear of the vehicle and all such equipment or such body or attachments thereto shall be at least as wide as the tire tread. This section does not apply to those vehicles exempt from registration, trailers and semitrailers having an unladen weight of under 1,500 pounds, or any vehicles manufactured and first registered prior to January 1, 1971, having an unladen weight of under 1,500 pounds.


27602. (a) A person shall not drive a motor vehicle if a television receiver, a video monitor, or a television or video screen, or any other similar means of visually displaying a television broadcast or video signal that produces entertainment or business applications, is operating and is located in the motor vehicle at a point forward of the back of the driver's seat, or is operating and the monitor, screen, or display is visible to the driver while driving the motor vehicle. (b) Subdivision (a) does not apply to the following equipment when installed in a vehicle: (1) A vehicle information display. (2) A global positioning display. (3) A mapping display. (4) A visual display used to enhance or supplement the driver's view forward, behind, or to the sides of a motor vehicle for the purpose of maneuvering the vehicle. (5) A television receiver, video monitor, television or video screen, or any other similar means of visually displaying a television broadcast or video signal, if that equipment satisfies one of the following requirements: (A) The equipment has an interlock device that, when the motor vehicle is driven, disables the equipment for all uses except as a visual display as described in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive. (B) The equipment is designed, operated, and configured in a manner that prevents the driver of the motor vehicle from viewing the television broadcast or video signal while operating the vehicle in a safe and reasonable manner. (6) A mobile digital terminal that is fitted with an opaque covering that does not allow the driver to view any part of the display while driving, even though the terminal may be operating, installed in a vehicle that is owned or operated by any of the following: (A) An electrical corporation, as defined in Section 218 of the Public Utilities Code. (B) A gas corporation, as defined in Section 222 of the Public Utilities Code. (C) A sewer system corporation, as defined in Section 230.6 of the Public Utilities Code. (D) A telephone corporation, as defined in Section 234 of the Public Utilities Code. (E) A water corporation, as defined in Section 241 of the Public Utilities Code. (F) A local publicly owned electric utility, as defined in Section 224.3 of the Public Utilities Code. (G) A city, joint powers agency, or special district, if that local entity uses the vehicle solely in the provision of sewer service, gas service, water service, or wastewater service. (c) Subdivision (a) does not apply to a mobile digital terminal installed in an authorized emergency vehicle or to a motor vehicle providing emergency road service or roadside assistance. (d) Subdivision (a) does not apply to a mobile digital terminal installed in a vehicle when the vehicle is deployed in an emergency to respond to an interruption or impending interruption of electrical, natural gas, telephone, sewer, water, or wastewater service, and the vehicle is owned or operated by any of the following: (1) An electrical corporation, as defined in Section 218 of the Public Utilities Code. (2) A gas corporation, as defined in Section 222 of the Public Utilities Code. (3) A sewer system corporation, as defined in Section 230.6 of the Public Utilities Code. (4) A telephone corporation, as defined in Section 234 of the Public Utilities Code. (5) A water corporation, as defined in Section 241 of the Public Utilities Code. (6) A local publicly owned electric utility, as defined in Section 224.3 of the Public Utilities Code. (7) A city, joint powers agency, or special district, if that local entity uses the vehicle solely in the provision of sewer service, gas service, water service, or wastewater service.


27603. When a motor vehicle formerly used as a schoolbus is sold to any person and is used exclusively for purposes other than the transportation of pupils pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 39830) of Chapter 5 of Part 23 of the Education Code, it shall be painted by the purchaser a color different than that prescribed by the Department of the California Highway Patrol for schoolbuses before it is operated on any street or highway other than to have the vehicle painted or moved to a place of storage. The provisions of this section shall not apply where the ownership of a schoolbus is transferred to a nonprofit organization under a contractual arrangement under which the ownership is required to be retransferred to the original owner within 90 days of the date of the original transfer.


27604. When a motor vehicle, painted, as required by Section 40800, and formerly used in the enforcement of the provisions of Division 10 (commencing with Section 20000) or 11 (commencing with Section 21000), is sold to any person and is used for purposes other than law enforcement, the vehicle shall be painted or partially painted by the seller or agency formerly using such vehicle so that it will no longer resemble a vehicle complying with Section 40800 and any insignia or other marking of the vehicle identifying it as a traffic law enforcement vehicle shall be removed by the seller or agency formerly using such vehicle before it shall be operated on any street or highway, other than to have the vehicle moved to be painted or to a place of storage. The provisions of this section do not apply to former law enforcement vehicles, without insignia, which are painted one solid color, or which are used exclusively for movie or television production and display signs stating "movie car" prominently on the doors, or which are motorcycles, as defined in Section 400, without insignia.

27605. No person shall own or operate a motor vehicle painted in the manner described in Section 40800 to resemble a motor vehicle used by a peace officer or traffic officer on duty for the primary purpose of enforcing the provisions of Division 10 (commencing with Section 20000) or Division 11 (commencing with Section 21000) pursuant to Section 40800. The provisions of this section shall not apply to vehicles which are painted one solid color or to vehicles first registered on or before January 1, 1979. These provisions shall not apply to vehicles which are any of the following: (a) Owned by vehicle manufacturers or dealers. (b) Used by law enforcement agencies in the enforcement of the provisions of Division 10 (commencing with Section 20000) or Division 11 (commencing with Section 21000). (c) Owned by persons or companies who use the vehicles exclusively for movie or television production and display signs stating "movie car" prominently on the doors. (d) Owned by persons or companies who use the vehicles exclusively for funeral escort purposes. (e) Motorcycles, as defined in Section 400, without insignia.


27606. (a) No person shall own or operate a motor vehicle which is equipped with a light bar, or facsimile thereof, to resemble a motor vehicle used by a peace officer or traffic officer while on duty within that jurisdiction for the primary purpose of enforcing Division 10 (commencing with Section 20000) or Division 11 (commencing with Section 21000) pursuant to Section 40800. (b) For purposes of this section the following definitions apply: (1) A "light bar" means any light or device affixed to or mounted upon the roof of a vehicle and extending the width of the roof, or a substantial portion thereof, which emits amber, red, or blue, or any combination of those lights. (2) A "facsimile of a light bar" is any device designed or contrived to resemble a light bar regardless of the degree of light emission or lack thereof.


27607. (a) Section 27606 does not apply to vehicles owned or used by persons licensed pursuant to Article 3.1 (commencing with Section 7540) or Article 3.2 (commencing with Section 7544) of Chapter 11.5 of, or Chapter 11.6 (commencing with Section 7590) of, Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code in the performance of their duties under those provisions. (b) This section does not authorize those persons described in subdivision (a) to equip a vehicle with a light bar if prohibited by other provisions of existing law or regulation.


Article 6. Tow Trucks

Ca Codes (veh:27700) Vehicle Code Section 27700



27700. (a) Tow trucks shall be equipped with and carry all of the following: (1) One or more brooms, and the driver of the tow truck engaged to remove a disabled vehicle from the scene of an accident shall remove all glass and debris deposited upon the roadway by the disabled vehicle which is to be towed. (2) One or more shovels, and whenever practical the tow truck driver engaged to remove any disabled vehicle shall spread dirt upon that portion of the roadway where oil or grease has been deposited by the disabled vehicle. (3) One or more fire extinguishers of the dry chemical or carbon dioxide type with an aggregate rating of at least 4-B, C units and bearing the approval of a laboratory nationally recognized as properly equipped to make the approval. (b) A person licensed as a repossession agency pursuant to Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 7500) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code is exempt from this section.


Article 7. Motorcycles

Ca Codes (veh:27800-27803) Vehicle Code Section 27800-27803



27800. It is unlawful for a driver of a motorcycle or a motorized bicycle to carry any other person thereon, except on a seat securely fastened to the machine at the rear of the driver and provided with footrests, or in a sidecar attached to a motorcycle and designed for the purpose of carrying a passenger. Every passenger on a motorcycle or a motorized bicycle shall keep his feet on the footrests while such vehicle is in motion.


27801. A person shall not drive a two-wheel motorcycle that is equipped with either of the following: (a) A seat so positioned that the driver, when sitting astride the seat, cannot reach the ground with his or her feet. (b) Handlebars so positioned that the hands of the driver, when upon the grips, are more than six inches above his or her shoulder height when sitting astride the seat.

27802. (a) The department may adopt reasonable regulations establishing specifications and standards for safety helmets offered for sale, or sold, for use by drivers and passengers of motorcycles and motorized bicycles as it determines are necessary for the safety of those drivers and passengers. The regulations shall include, but are not limited to, the requirements imposed by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 218 (49 C.F.R. Sec. 571.218) and may include compliance with that federal standard by incorporation of its requirements by reference. Each helmet sold or offered for sale for use by drivers and passengers of motorcycles and motorized bicycles shall be conspicuously labeled in accordance with the federal standard which shall constitute the manufacturer's certification that the helmet conforms to the applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards. (b) No person shall sell, or offer for sale, for use by a driver or passenger of a motorcycle or motorized bicycle any safety helmet which is not of a type meeting requirements established by the department.

27803. (a) A driver and any passenger shall wear a safety helmet meeting requirements established pursuant to Section 27802 when riding on a motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, or motorized bicycle. (b) It is unlawful to operate a motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, or motorized bicycle if the driver or any passenger is not wearing a safety helmet as required by subdivision (a). (c) It is unlawful to ride as a passenger on a motorcycle, motor-driven cycles, or motorized bicycle if the driver or any passenger is not wearing a safety helmet as required by subdivision (a). (d) This section applies to persons who are riding on motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, or motorized bicycles operated on the highways. (e) For the purposes of this section, "wear a safety helmet" or "wearing a safety helmet" means having a safety helmet meeting the requirements of Section 27802 on the person's head that is fastened with the helmet straps and that is of a size that fits the wearing person's head securely without excessive lateral or vertical movement. (f) This section does not apply to a person operating, or riding as a passenger in, a fully enclosed three-wheeled motor vehicle that is not less than seven feet in length and not less than four feet in width, and has an unladen weight of 900 pounds or more, if the vehicle meets or exceeds all of the requirements of this code, the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, and the rules and regulations adopted by the United States Department of Transportation and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (g) In enacting this section, it is the intent of the Legislature to ensure that all persons are provided with an additional safety benefit while operating or riding a motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, or motorized bicycle.


Article 8. Signs

Ca Codes (veh:27900-27910) Vehicle Code Section 27900-27910



27900. (a) Every motor vehicle or combination of vehicles used to carry the property of others for hire or used to carry passengers for hire, any truck or truck tractor having three or more axles or any truck tractor with a semitrailer, and all commercial motor vehicles, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 34601, shall have displayed on both sides of each vehicle or on both sides of one of the vehicles in each combination of vehicles the name or trademark of the person under whose authority the vehicle or combination of vehicles is being operated. (b) A vehicle or combination of vehicles listed in subdivision (a) that is operated under a rental agreement with a term of not more than 30 calendar days shall meet all of the following requirements: (1) Have displayed on both sides of each vehicle or on both sides of one of the vehicles in each combination of vehicles the name or trademark of the lessor. (2) Have displayed on both sides of each vehicle or on both sides of one of the vehicles in each combination of vehicles any of the following numbers issued to the lessor: (A) The carrier identification number issued by the United States Department of Transportation. (B) A valid operating authority number. (C) A valid motor carrier of property number. (3) (A) Have in the vehicle or combination of vehicles a copy of the rental agreement entered into by the lessor and the vehicle operator. (B) The rental agreement shall be available for inspection immediately upon the request of any authorized employee of the department or any regularly employed and salaried police officer or deputy sheriff, or any reserve police officer or reserve deputy sheriff listed in Section 830.6 of the Penal Code. (C) If the rented vehicle or combination of vehicles is operated in conjunction with a commercial enterprise, the rental agreement shall include the operator's carrier identification number or motor carrier of property permit number. (c) A vehicle or combination of vehicles that is in compliance with Section 390.21 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations shall be deemed to be in compliance with subdivision (b). (d) All names, trademarks, and other identifiers for companies no longer in business, no longer operating with the same name, or no longer operating under the same operating authority, shall be removed from or covered over on every motor vehicle or combination of vehicles listed in subdivision (a), within 60 days from the change of company ownership or operation. Those vehicles or combinations of vehicles shall be remarked pursuant to subdivision (a) before they may be operated on the highways.


27901. The display of the name or trademark shall be in letters in sharp contrast to the background and shall be of such size, shape, and color as to be readily legible during daylight hours from a distance of 50 feet. This section does not prohibit additional displays not inconsistent with this article.

27902. Section 27900 does not apply to any motor vehicle having an unladen weight of 6,000 pounds or less or to any vehicle towed by such motor vehicles, or to any motor vehicle operating under manufacturers, dealers, or transporters special plates, or to any motor vehicle operated by a passenger stage corporation subject to the jurisdiction of the Public Utilities Commission.


27903. (a) Subject to Section 114765 of the Health and Safety Code, any vehicle transporting any explosive, blasting agent, flammable liquid, flammable solid, oxidizing material, corrosive, compressed gas, poison, radioactive material, or other hazardous materials, of the type and in quantities that require the display of placards or markings on the vehicle exterior by the United States Department of Transportation regulations (49 C.F.R., Parts 172, 173, and 177), shall display the placards and markings in the manner and under conditions prescribed by those regulations of the United States Department of Transportation. (b) This section does not apply to the following: (1) Any vehicle transporting not more than 20 pounds of smokeless powder or not more than five pounds of black sporting powder or any combination thereof. (2) An authorized emergency vehicle as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 165, operated by a peace officer as defined in Sections 830.1 and 830.2 of the Penal Code, when transportation is required within the scope and course of law enforcement explosives detection or removal duties, provided one of the following conditions applies: (A) The law enforcement agency operating the vehicle complies with regulations adopted by the California Highway Patrol pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 34501, notwithstanding Section 34500 and subdivision (a) of Section 34501. (B) The peace officer possesses an exemption issued by the commissioner, who may require additional transportation restrictions as deemed appropriate.

27904. There shall be displayed in a conspicuous place on both the right and left sides of a pilot car a sign showing the name of the company which owns or operates the pilot car. The name shall contrast with the background and shall be of a size, shape, and color as to be readily legible during daylight hours from a distance of 50 feet. Additional markings which do not interfere with the legibility of the name may also be displayed.


27904.5. Subject to Section 35783.5, a pilot car shall display neat, clean, and legible signs containing the word "OVERSIZE." The words "OVERSIZE LOAD," "WIDE LOAD," or "LONG LOAD" may be substituted as applicable. The sign shall be a minimum of 48 inches above the ground and shall be legible at 45 degrees from either side when read from the front or rear. The sign shall have a bright yellow background with a minimum projected area of 440 square inches. The lettering shall be black with a 1-inch minimum brush stroke width and a 6-inch minimum letter height.


27905. It is unlawful to display on a vehicle any sign with the words "fire" or "fire department" thereon, except on vehicles owned and operated by a regularly organized fire department, fire district, forestry service, or the State Fire Marshal's Office, and on the privately owned vehicles of any regular member of any such fire departments.


27906. (a) Every schoolbus, while being used for the transportation of school pupils at or below the 12th-grade level shall bear upon the front and rear of the bus a plainly visible sign containing the word "schoolbus" in letters not less than eight inches in height. The letters on schoolbus signs shall be of proportionate width. Except as provided in subdivision (b), no other vehicle shall display a sign containing the word "schoolbus." (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a schoolbus which is also used to transport persons of any age who are developmentally disabled, as defined by the Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act (Division 4.5 (commencing with Section 4500) of the Welfare and Institutions Code), may display a sign containing the word "schoolbus" while transporting those persons to or from vocational, prevocational, or work training centers sponsored by the State Department of Developmental Services. (c) Every schoolbus, when operated for the transportation of school pupils at or below the 12th-grade level, shall bear upon the rear of the bus, below the rear windows, a plainly visible sign containing the words "Stop When Red Lights Flash" in letters not less than six inches in height. The letters on schoolbus signs shall be of proportionate width.


27906.5. Every youth bus, when operated for the transportation of school pupils, shall bear, upon the front and rear of the youth bus, a plainly visible sign containing the words "YOUTH BUS" in letters not less than eight inches in height. The letters on youth bus signs shall be of proportionate width and the letters shall be in sharp contrast to the background.


27907. There shall be displayed in a conspicuous place on both the right and left side of a tow truck, a repossessor's tow vehicle, or an automobile dismantler's tow vehicle used to tow or carry vehicles a sign showing the name of the company or the owner or operator of the tow truck or tow vehicle. The sign shall also contain the business address and telephone number of the owner or driver. The letters and numbers of the sign shall not be less than 2 inches in height and shall be in contrast to the color of the background upon which they are placed. A person licensed as a repossession agency pursuant to Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 7500) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code, or a registrant of the agency, may use the license number issued to the agency by the Department of Consumer Affairs in lieu of a name, business address, and telephone number.


27908. (a) In every taxicab operated in this state there shall be a sign of heavy material, not smaller than 6 inches by 4 inches, or such other size as the agency regulating the operation of the taxicab provides for other notices or signs required to be in every taxicab, securely attached and clearly displayed in view of the passenger at all times, providing in letters as large as the size of the sign will reasonably allow, all of the following information: (1) The name, address, and telephone number of the agency regulating the operation of the taxicab. (2) The name, address, and telephone number of the firm licensed or controlled by the agency regulating the operation of the taxicab. (b) In the event more than one local regulatory agency has jurisdiction over the operation of the taxicab, the notice required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) shall provide the name, address, and telephone number of the agency having jurisdiction in the area where the taxicab operator conducts its greatest volume of business; or, if this cannot readily be ascertained, the agency having jurisdiction in the area where the taxicab operator maintains its offices or primary place of business, provided that the operator conducts a substantial volume of business in such area; or, if neither of the foregoing provisions apply, any agency having jurisdiction of an area where the taxicab operator conducts a substantial volume of business. (c) As used in this section, "taxicab" means a passenger vehicle designed for carrying not more than eight persons, excluding the driver, and used to carry passengers for hire. "Taxicab" shall not include a charter-party carrier of passengers within the meaning of the Passenger Charter-party Carriers' Act, Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 5351) of Division 2 of the Public Utilities Code.


27909. Any vehicle which carries liquefied petroleum gas fuel or natural gas, in a tank attached to a vehicle, in any concealed area, including trunks, compartments, or under the vehicle, shall display on the exterior of the vehicle the letters "CNG," "LNG," or "LPG," whichever type fuel is utilized, in block letters at least one inch high. The letters shall be of contrasting color and shall be placed as near as possible to the area of the location of the tank. Any vehicle fueled by liquefied petroleum gas fuel or by natural gas may also comply with this section by displaying on each side of the vehicle words or letters at least 0.25 inch high indicating that the vehicle is fueled by liquefied petroleum gas or natural gas. It is unlawful to dispense liquefied petroleum gas fuel or natural gas into any tank in a concealed area of any vehicle registered in California, unless the vehicle complies with the requirements of this section.

27910. The Department of the California Highway Patrol shall initiate a 12-month study to determine an effective means to enforce the provisions of the Commercial Vehicle Registration Act of 2001. The Department of the California Highway Patrol, after consultation with representatives from the Department of Transportation, the Board of Equalization, the Department of Motor Vehicles, and the commercial vehicle industry, shall provide, on or before July 1, 2003, recommendations to the Legislature for actions to be taken to ensure compliance with that act.


Article 9. Refrigeration Equipment

Ca Codes (veh:28000) Vehicle Code Section 28000



28000. Every refrigerator van equipped with one or more doors designed to lock automatically upon closure shall have at least one door which can be opened from inside the van as an emergency means of exit. For the purposes of this article, "refrigerator van" means any motor truck, semitrailer, or trailer, with a fully enclosed cargo body having an enclosed volume of 15 cubic feet or more, which utilizes a mechanical refrigeration system to reduce the temperature within the enclosed portion of the vehicle to 32 degrees Fahrenheit or less, or which provides refrigeration by the use of dry ice.


Article 10. Odometers

Ca Codes (veh:28050-28053) Vehicle Code Section 28050-28053



28050. It is unlawful for any person to advertise for sale, to sell, to use, or to install on any part of a motor vehicle or on an odometer in a motor vehicle any device which causes the odometer to register any mileage other than the true mileage driven. For the purposes of this section the true mileage driven is that mileage driven by the car as registered by the odometer within the manufacturer's designed tolerance.


28050.5. It is unlawful for any person with the intent to defraud to operate a motor vehicle on any street or highway knowing that the odometer of such vehicle is disconnected or nonfunctional.


28051. It is unlawful for any person to disconnect, turn back, advance, or reset the odometer of any motor vehicle with the intent to alter the number of miles indicated on the odometer gauge.


28051.5. It is unlawful for any person to advertise for sale, to sell, or to use, any device designed primarily for the purpose of turning back or resetting the odometer of any motor vehicle to reduce the number of miles indicated on the odometer gauge.


28052. If a manufacturer, distributor, or dealer of a new motor vehicle makes any warranty to the purchaser of, and with respect to, a new motor vehicle which is based on the amount of miles that the motor vehicle is driven, only those miles which the motor vehicle has been driven on and after the date that the motor vehicle has first been sold as new to the purchaser shall be considered for purposes of the warranty. The mileage indicated upon the odometer of the motor vehicle on the date that the motor vehicle is first sold as new to the purchaser shall, for purposes of the warranty, be the mileage upon which the warranty shall commence. Nothing in this section shall be construed to relieve any person of any criminal punishment to which he would otherwise be subject under Section 28051. The provisions of this section shall apply only to motor vehicles which are sold on or after the effective date of this section.


28053. (a) Nothing in this article prevents the service, repair, or replacement of an odometer, if the mileage indicated thereon remains the same as before the service, repair, or replacement. If the odometer is incapable of registering the same mileage as before the service, repair, or replacement, the odometer shall be adjusted to read zero and a notice in writing shall be attached to the left doorframe of the vehicle by the person performing the service, repair, or replacement specifying the mileage prior to the service, repair or replacement of the odometer and the date on which it was serviced, repaired, or replaced. (b) No person shall fail to adjust an odometer or affix a notice regarding the adjustment as required by subdivision (a). (c) No person shall, with intent to defraud, remove or alter any notice affixed to a vehicle pursuant to subdivision (a).



Article 11. Fire Extinguishers

Ca Codes (veh:28060) Vehicle Code Section 28060



28060. (a) No person shall sell or offer for sale a new recreational vehicle or new camper which is equipped with cooking equipment or heating equipment, and no dealer or person holding a retail seller's permit shall sell or offer for sale a used recreational vehicle or a used camper which is equipped with cooking or heating equipment, unless such new or used vehicle or new or used camper is equipped with at least one fire extinguisher, filled and ready for use, of the dry chemical or carbon dioxide type with an aggregate rating of at least 4-B:C units, which meets the requirements specified in Section 13162 of the Health and Safety Code. (b) The operator of a recreational vehicle, or a vehicle to which a camper is attached, which recreational vehicle or camper is equipped with a fire extinguisher as required by subdivision (a), shall carry such fire extinguisher in such recreational vehicle or camper and shall maintain the fire extinguisher in an efficient operating condition. (c) As used in this section: (1) "Cooking equipment" means a device designed for cooking which utilizes combustible material, including, but not limited to, materials such as charcoal or any flammable gas or liquid, and "heating equipment" means a device designed for heating which utilizes combustible material, including, but not limited to, materials such as charcoal or any flammable gas or liquid. (2) "Recreational vehicle" has the same meaning as defined in Section 18010.5 of the Health and Safety Code.


Article 11.5. Bumpers

Ca Codes (veh:28070-28071) Vehicle Code Section 28070-28071



28070. As used in this article, "passenger vehicle" means "passenger vehicle" as defined in Section 34710.


28071. Every passenger vehicle registered in this state shall be equipped with a front bumper and with a rear bumper. As used in this section, "bumper" means any device designed and intended by a manufacturer to prevent the front or rear of the body of the vehicle from coming into contact with any other motor vehicle. This section shall not apply to any passenger vehicle that is required to be equipped with an energy absorption system pursuant to either state or federal law, or to any passenger vehicle which was not equipped with a front or rear bumper, or both, at the time that it was first sold and registered under the laws of this or any other state or foreign jurisdiction.


Article 12. Camper Signaling Devices

Ca Codes (veh:28080-28081) Vehicle Code Section 28080-28081



28080. (a) Every motor vehicle upon which a camper is mounted shall be equipped with an audible or visual signaling device which can be activated from inside the camper and which is constructed so as to allow any person inside the camper to gain the attention of the driver of the motor vehicle. In no event shall a horn, as required by Section 27000, be used to comply with this subdivision. (b) No person shall drive a motor vehicle upon which is mounted a camper containing any passenger unless the motor vehicle is equipped as required by subdivision (a).


28081. The provisions of Section 28080 shall not apply to either of the following: (a) Any motor vehicle upon which a camper is mounted if a person is able to move between the cab portion of the motor vehicle and the camper. (b) Any motor vehicle upon which a camper is mounted, which motor vehicle is equipped with a sliding or removable rear window which can be opened or removed by a person inside such camper.


Article 13. Theft Alarm System

Ca Codes (veh:28085) Vehicle Code Section 28085



28085. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with a theft alarm system which flashes the lights of the vehicle, or sounds an audible signal, or both, and which operates as follows: (a) The system may flash any of the lights required or permitted on the vehicle. (b) The system may sound an audible signal. (c) No vehicle shall be equipped with a theft alarm system which emits the sound of a siren.


Article 14. Cellular Telephones

Ca Codes (veh:28090) Vehicle Code Section 28090



28090. Every renter of a motor vehicle with cellular radio telephone equipment shall provide the person who rents the motor vehicle with written operating instructions concerning the safe use of the equipment. The equipment shall also be clearly labeled with operating instructions concerning the safe use of the equipment.



Article 15. Pilot Cars

Ca Codes (veh:28100-28103) Vehicle Code Section 28100-28103



28100. A pilot car shall display at least one red warning flag on each side of the vehicle. The flags shall be a minimum of 16 inches square, and shall be mounted so as to be visible from both the front and rear of the vehicle. The flags shall be removed or covered when the vehicle is not operating as a pilot car.

28101. In addition to the lighting, sign, and flag requirements in Sections 25270, 27904, 27904.5, and 28100, a pilot car shall meet all of the following requirements: (a) Be a vehicle not less than 60 inches in width. (b) Be equipped with all of the following: (1) One STOP/SLOW paddle. (2) One orange vest, shirt, or jacket. (3) One red hand flag (24 inches square). (4) One two-way radio communication device.


28102. Pilot cars equipped with vertical clearance measuring devices shall comply with Section 35252.


28103. It is unlawful and an infraction for any person to violate any provision of this article or to fail to have any required equipment in good working order.


Article 16. Methanol Or Ethanol Fueled Vehicles

Ca Codes (veh:28110-28114) Vehicle Code Section 28110-28114



28110. As used in this article, "antisiphoning device" means a device which prevents the removal by suction of fuel from a motor vehicle.

28111. Except as otherwise provided in Section 28112, any 1993 and later model-year vehicle which is capable of operating on methanol or ethanol and is imported into the state, or sold, purchased, leased, rented, or acquired in the state, shall be equipped with an antisiphoning device.


28112. Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of Section 28111, the State Air Resources Board may adopt regulations providing for exemptions from antisiphoning device requirements for categories of vehicles of 1993 and later model-years which it determines not susceptible to siphoning.


28113. (a) Every light-duty and medium-duty motor vehicle operated for compensation to transport persons in an air quality management district or air pollution control district, which does not meet all applicable state ambient air quality standards, shall be a low-emission vehicle, as defined by regulation of the State Air Resources Board. If the vehicle is capable of operating on more than one fuel, it shall be operated within any nonattainment area to the maximum extent practicable either on the designated clean fuel on which the low-emission vehicle was certified or on any other fuel designated by the State Air Resources Board as a substitute fuel for the designated clean fuel. Any air quality management district or air pollution control district may adopt regulations for the enforcement of this section which are consistent with regulations of the State Air Resources Board. (b) As used in this section, "motor vehicle operated for compensation to transport persons" includes a taxi cab, bus, airport shuttle vehicle, transit authority or transit district vehicle, or a vehicle owned by a private entity providing transit service under contract with a transit district or transportation authority. (c) As used in this section, "light-duty" has the same meaning as defined in Section 39035 of the Health and Safety Code. (d) As used in this section, "medium-duty" has the same meaning as defined in Section 39037.5 of the Health and Safety Code. (e) This section applies to all new light-duty motor vehicles purchased on or after January 1, 1997, and to all new medium-duty vehicles purchased on or after January 1, 1998.


28114. (a) Every heavy-duty vehicle operated by a transit authority or transit district, or owned by a private entity providing transit service under contract with a transit district or transportation authority, and used to transport persons for compensation shall meet the emission standards adopted by the State Air Resources Board pursuant to Section 43806 of the Health and Safety Code. (b) As used in this section, "heavy-duty" has the same meaning as defined in Section 39033 of the Health and Safety Code. (c) This section applies to all new heavy-duty motor vehicles purchased on or after January 1, 1996, and all new or replacement engines purchased on or after January 1, 1996, for use in heavy-duty vehicles.


Article 17. Jamming Devices

Ca Codes (veh:28150) Vehicle Code Section 28150



28150. (a) No vehicle shall be equipped with any device that is designed for, or is capable of, jamming, scrambling, neutralizing, disabling, or otherwise interfering with radar, laser, or any other electronic device used by a law enforcement agency to measure the speed of moving objects. (b) No person shall use, buy, possess, manufacture, sell, or otherwise distribute any device that is designed for jamming, scrambling, neutralizing, disabling, or otherwise interfering with radar, laser, or any other electronic device used by a law enforcement agency to measure the speed of moving objects. (c) Except as provided in subdivision (d), a violation of subdivision (a) or (b) is an infraction. (d) When a person possesses four or more devices in violation of subdivision (b), the person is guilty of a misdemeanor. (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a person who has a valid federal license for operating the devices described in this section may transport one or more of those devices if the license is carried in the vehicle transporting the device at all times when the device is being transported.


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