Law:Brown Tree Snake Control And Eradication

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Sec.8501.Definitions.8502.Sense of Congress regarding need for improved and better coordinated Federal policy for brown tree snake introduction, control, and eradication.8503.Brown tree snake control, interdiction, research and eradication.8504.Establishment of quarantine protocols to control the introduction and spread of the brown tree snake.8505.Treatment of brown tree snakes as nonmailable matter.8506.Role of brown tree snake Technical Working Group.8507.Miscellaneous matters.

1 So in original. Probably should be “351A(a)(1)”.


Contents

§8501. Definitions

In this chapter:


(1) Brown tree snake

The term “brown tree snake” means the species of the snake Boiga irregularis.


(2) Compact of Free Association

The term “Compact of Free Association” means the Compacts of Free Association entered into between the United States and the governments of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands, as approved by and contained in Public Law 108–188 (117 Stat. 2720; 48 U.S.C. 1921 et seq.), and the Compact of Free Association entered into between the United States and the government of the Republic of Palau, as approved by and contained in Public Law 99–658 (100 Stat. 3673; 48 U.S.C. 1931 et seq.).


(3) Freely Associated States

The term “Freely Associated States” means the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands.


(4) Introduction

The terms “introduce” and “introduction” refer to the expansion of the brown tree snake outside of the range where this species is endemic.


(5) Secretary

The term “Secretary concerned” means—

(A) the Secretary of the Interior, with respect to matters under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior; and

(B) the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to matters under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture.


(6) Secretaries

The term “Secretaries” means both the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture.


(7) Technical Working Group

The term “Technical Working Group” means Brown Tree Snake Technical Working Group established under the authority of section 4728 of title 16.


(8) Territorial

The term “territorial”, when used to refer to a government, means the Government of Guam, the Government of American Samoa, and the Government of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, as well as autonomous agencies and instrumentalities of such a government.


(9) United States

The term “United States”, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Colombia,1 American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, any other possession of the United States, and any waters within the jurisdiction of the United States.

(Pub. L. 108–384, §2, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2221.)


References in Text

Public Law 108–188, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 108–188, Dec. 17, 2003, 117 Stat. 2720, which is classified principally to part B (§1921 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 18 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2003 Amendment note set out under section 1921 of Title 48 and Tables.

Public Law 99–658, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 99–658, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3672, as amended, which is classified generally to part A (§1931 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 18 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.


Short Title

Pub. L. 108–384, §1, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2221, provided that: “This Act (enacting this chapter) may be cited as the ‘Brown Tree Snake Control and Eradication Act of 2004’.”

1 So in original. Probably should be “Columbia,”.


§8502. Sense of Congress regarding need for improved and better coordinated Federal policy for brown tree snake introduction, control, and eradication

It is the sense of Congress that there exists a need for improved and better coordinated control, interdiction, research, and eradication of the brown tree snake on the part of the United States and other interested parties.

(Pub. L. 108–384, §3, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2222.)


§8503. Brown tree snake control, interdiction, research and eradication

(a) Funding authority

Subject to the availability of appropriations to carry out this section, the Secretaries shall provide funds to support brown tree snake control, interdiction, research, and eradication efforts carried out by the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture, other Federal agencies, States, territorial governments, local governments, and private sector entities. Funds may be provided through grants, contracts, reimbursable agreements, or other legal mechanisms available to the Secretaries for the transfer of Federal funds.


(b) Authorized activities

Brown tree snake control, interdiction, research, and eradication efforts authorized by this section shall include at a minimum the following:

(1) Expansion of science-based eradication and control programs in Guam to reduce the undesirable impact of the brown tree snake in Guam and reduce the risk of the introduction or spread of any brown tree snake to areas in the United States and the Freely Associated States in which the brown tree snake is not established.

(2) Expansion of interagency and intergovernmental rapid response teams in Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Hawaii, and the Freely Associated States to assist the governments of such areas with detecting the brown tree snake and incipient brown tree snake populations.

(3) Expansion of efforts to protect and restore native wildlife in Guam or elsewhere in the United States damaged by the brown tree snake.

(4) Establishment and sustained funding for an Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, Operations Program State Office located in Hawaii dedicated to vertebrate pest management in Hawaii and United States Pacific territories and possessions. Concurrently, the Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services Operations Program shall establish and sustain funding for a District Office in Guam dedicated to brown tree snake control and managed by the Hawaii State Office.

(5) Continuation, expansion, and provision of sustained research funding related to the brown tree snake, including research conducted at institutions located in areas affected by the brown tree snake.

(6) Continuation, expansion, and provision of sustained research funding for the Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center of the Department of Agriculture related to the brown tree snake, including the establishment of a field station in Guam related to the control and eradication of the brown tree snake.

(7) Continuation, expansion, and provision of sustained research funding for the Fort Collins Science Center of the United States Geological Survey related to the brown tree snake, including the establishment of a field station in Guam related to the control and eradication of the brown tree snake.

(8) Expansion of long-term research into chemical, biological, and other control techniques that could lead to large-scale reduction of brown tree snake populations in Guam or other areas where the brown tree snake might become established.

(9) Expansion of short, medium, and long-term research, funded by all Federal agencies interested in or affected by the brown tree snake, into interdiction, detection, and early control of the brown tree snake.

(10) Provision of planning assistance for the construction or renovation of centralized multi-agency facilities in Guam to support Federal, State, and territorial brown tree snake control, interdiction, research and eradication efforts, including office space, laboratory space, animal holding facilities, and snake detector dog kennels.

(11) Provision of technical assistance to the Freely Associated States on matters related to the brown tree snake through the mechanisms contained within a Compact of Free Association dealing with environmental, quarantine, economic, and human health issues.


(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretaries to carry out this section (other than subsection (b)(10)) the following amounts:

(1) For activities conducted through the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, Operations, not more than $2,600,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(2) For activities conducted through the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Methods Development, not more than $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(3) For activities conducted through the Office of Insular Affairs, not more than $3,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(4) For activities conducted through the Fish and Wildlife Service, not more than $2,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(5) For activities conducted through the United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources, not more than $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.


(d) Planning assistance

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of the Interior such amounts as may be required to carry out subsection (b)(10).

(Pub. L. 108–384, §4, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2222.)


Control and Eradication of Brown Tree Snakes

Pub. L. 110–417, (div. A), title III, §316, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4410, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall establish a comprehensive program to control and, to the extent practicable, eradicate the brown tree snake population from military facilities in Guam and to ensure that military activities, including the transport of civilian and military personnel and equipment to and from Guam, do not contribute to the spread of brown tree snakes.”

Pub. L. 102–237, title X, §1013(a)–(c), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1901, as amended by Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(a) (title VII, §743), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681–31, provided that:

“(a) In General.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall take such action as may be necessary to prevent the inadvertent introduction of brown tree snakes into other areas of the United States from Guam.

“(b) Introduction Into Hawaii.—The Secretary shall initiate a program to prevent the introduction of the brown tree snake into Hawaii from Guam. In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall consider the use of sniffer or tracking dogs, snake traps, and other preventative processes or devices at aircraft and vessel loading facilities on Guam, Hawaii, or intermediate sites serving as transportation points that could result in the introduction of brown tree snakes into Hawaii.

“(c) Authority.—The Secretary shall use the authority provided under the Federal Plant Pest Act (7 U.S.C. 150aa et seq.) to carry out subsections (a) and (b).”

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title III, §348, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1348, provided that: “The Secretary of Defense shall take such action as may be necessary to prevent the inadvertent introduction of brown tree snakes from Guam to Hawaii in aircraft and vessels transporting personnel or cargo for the Department of Defense. In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall consider the use of sniffer or tracking dogs, snake traps, and other preventive processes or devices at aircraft and vessel loading facilities in Guam or Hawaii or at intermediate transit points for personnel or cargo transported between Guam and Hawaii.”


§8504. Establishment of quarantine protocols to control the introduction and spread of the brown tree snake

(a) Establishment of quarantine protocols

Not later than two years after October 30, 2004, but subject to the memorandum of agreement required by subsection (b) with respect to Guam, the Secretaries shall establish and cause to be operated at Federal expense a system of pre-departure quarantine protocols for cargo and other items being shipped from Guam and any other United States location where the brown tree snake may become established to prevent the introduction or spread of the brown tree snake. The Secretaries shall establish the quarantine protocols system by regulation. Under the quarantine protocols system, Federal quarantine, natural resource, conservation, and law enforcement officers and inspectors may enforce State and territorial laws regarding the transportation, possession, or introduction of any brown tree snake.


(b) Cooperation and consultation

The activities of the Secretaries under subsection (a) shall be carried out in cooperation with other Federal agencies and the appropriate State and territorial quarantine, natural resource, conservation, and law enforcement officers. In the case of Guam, as a precondition on the establishment of the system of pre-departure quarantine protocols under such subsection, the Secretaries shall enter into a memorandum of agreement with the Government of Guam to obtain the assistance and cooperation of the Government of Guam in establishing the system of pre-departure quarantine protocols.


(c) Implementation

The system of pre-departure quarantine protocols to be established under subsection (a) shall not be implemented until funds are specifically appropriated for that purpose.


(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section the following amounts:

(1) To the Secretary of Agriculture, not more than $3,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(2) To the Secretary of the Interior, not more than $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 108–384, §5, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2224.)


§8505. Treatment of brown tree snakes as nonmailable matter

A brown tree snake constitutes nonmailable matter under section 3015 of title 39.

(Pub. L. 108–384, §6, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2224.)


§8506. Role of brown tree snake Technical Working Group

(a) Purpose

The Technical Working Group shall ensure that Federal, State, territorial, and local agency efforts concerning the brown tree snake are coordinated, effective, complementary, and cost-effective.


(b) Specific duties and activities

The Technical Working Group shall be responsible for the following:

(1) The evaluation of Federal, State, and territorial activities, programs and policies that are likely to cause or promote the introduction or spread of the brown tree snake in the United States or the Freely Associated States and the preparation of recommendations for governmental actions to minimize the risk of introduction or further spread of the brown tree snake.

(2) The preparation of recommendations for activities, programs, and policies to reduce and eventually eradicate the brown tree snake in Guam or other areas within the United States where the snake may be established and the monitoring of the implementation of those activities, programs, and policies.

(3) Any revision of the Brown Tree Snake Control Plan, originally published in June 1996, which was prepared to coordinate Federal, State, territorial, and local government efforts to control, interdict, eradicate or conduct research on the brown tree snake.


(c) Reporting requirement

(1) Report

Subject to the availability of appropriations for this purpose, the Technical Working Group shall prepare a report describing—

(A) the progress made toward a large-scale population reduction or eradication of the brown tree snake in Guam or other sites that are infested by the brown tree snake;

(B) the interdiction and other activities required to reduce the risk of introduction of the brown tree snake or other nonindigenous snake species in Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Hawaii, American Samoa, and the Freely Associated States;

(C) the applied and basic research activities that will lead to improved brown tree snake control, interdiction and eradication efforts conducted by Federal, State, territorial, and local governments; and

(D) the programs and activities for brown tree snake control, interdiction, research and eradication that have been funded, implemented, and planned by Federal, State, territorial, and local governments.


(2) Priorities

The Technical Working Group shall include in the report a list of priorities, ranked in high, medium, and low categories, of Federal, State, territorial, and local efforts and programs in the following areas:

(A) Control.

(B) Interdiction.

(C) Research.

(D) Eradication.


(3) Assessments

Technical Working Group shall include in the report the following assessments:

(A) An assessment of current funding shortfalls and future funding needs to support Federal, State, territorial, and local government efforts to control, interdict, eradicate, or conduct research on the brown tree snake.

(B) An assessment of regulatory limitations that hinder Federal, State, territorial, and local government efforts to control, interdict, eradicate or conduct research on the brown tree snake.


(4) Submission

Subject to the availability of appropriations for this purpose, the Technical Working Group shall submit the report to Congress not later than one year after October 30, 2004.


(d) Meetings

The Technical Working Group shall meet at least annually.


(e) Inclusion of Guam

The Secretaries shall ensure that adequate representation is afforded to the government of Guam in the Technical Working Group.


(f) Support

To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretaries shall make adequate resources available to the Technical Working Group to ensure its efficient and effective operation. The Secretaries may provide staff to assist the Technical Working Group in carrying out its duties and functions.


(g) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to each of the Secretaries not more than $450,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 through 2010 to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 108–384, §7, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2224.)


§8507. Miscellaneous matters

(a) Availability of appropriated funds

Amounts appropriated under this chapter shall remain available until expended.


(b) Administrative expenses

Of the amounts appropriated to carry out this chapter for a fiscal year, the Secretaries may expend not more than five percent to cover the administrative expenses necessary to carry out this chapter.

(Pub. L. 108–384, §8, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2226.)


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