Law:Title 2. Partnerships (California)

From Law Delta

Revision as of 04:57, 26 September 2011 by Admin (Talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Chapter 4. Process Agents For Certain Foreign Corporations

Ca Codes (corp:15800) Corporations Code Section 15800



15800. (a) Every partnership, other than a foreign limited partnership, subject to Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 15611) or Chapter 5.5 (commencing with Section 15900), or a commercial or banking partnership established and transacting business in a place outside the United States, that is domiciled without this state and has no regular place of business within this state, shall, within 40 days from the time it commences to do business in this state, file a statement in the office of the Secretary of State in accordance with Section 16309 designating some natural person or corporation as the agent of the partnership upon whom process issued by authority of or under any law of this state directed against the partnership may be served. A copy of the designation, duly certified by the Secretary of State, is sufficient evidence of the appointment. (b) The process may be served in the manner provided in subdivision (b) of Section 16310 on the person so designated, or, in the event that no person has been designated, or if the agent designated for the service of process is a natural person and cannot be found with due diligence at the address stated in the designation, or if the agent is a corporation and no person can be found with due diligence to whom the delivery authorized by subdivision (b) of Section 16310 may be made for the purpose of delivery to the corporate agent, or if the agent designated is no longer authorized to act, then service may be made by personal delivery to the Secretary of State, Assistant Secretary of State, or a Deputy Secretary of State of the process, together with a written statement signed by the party to the action seeking the service, or by the party's attorney, setting forth the last known address of the partnership and a service fee as set forth in Section 12197 of the Government Code. The Secretary of State shall immediately give notice of the service to the partnership by forwarding the process to it by registered mail, return receipt requested, at the address given in the written statement. (c) Service on the person designated, or personal delivery of the process and statement of address together with a service fee as set forth in Section 12197 of the Government Code to the Secretary of State, Assistant Secretary of State, or a Deputy Secretary of State, pursuant to this section is a valid service on the partnership. The partnership so served shall appear within 30 days after service on the person designated or within 30 days after delivery of the process to the Secretary of State, Assistant Secretary of State, or a Deputy Secretary of State.


Chapter 5. Uniform Partnership Act Of 1994

Article 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (corp:16100-16114) Corporations Code Section 16100-16114



16100. This chapter may be cited as the Uniform Partnership Act of 1994.

16101. As used in this chapter, the following terms and phrases have the following meanings: (1) "Business" includes every trade, occupation, and profession. (2) "Debtor in bankruptcy" means a person who is the subject of either of the following: (A) An order for relief under Title 11 of the United States Code or a comparable order under a successor statute of general application. (B) A comparable order under federal, state, or foreign law governing insolvency. (3) "Distribution" means a transfer of money or other property from a partnership to a partner in the partner's capacity as a partner or to the partner's transferee. (4) "Electronic transmission by the partnership" means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, for that recipient on record with the partnership, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network that the partnership has designated for those communications, together with a separate notice to the recipient of the posting, which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the later of the posting or delivery of the separate notice thereof, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) to a recipient who has provided an unrevoked consent to the use of those means of transmission, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. However, an electronic transmission by a partnership to an individual partner is not authorized unless, in addition to satisfying the requirements of this section, the transmission satisfies the requirements applicable to consumer consent to electronic records as set forth in the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. Sec. 7001 (c)(1)). (5) "Electronic transmission to the partnership" means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, which the partnership has provided from time to time to partners for sending communications to the partnership, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network that the partnership has designated for those communications, and which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the posting, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) as to which the partnership has placed in effect reasonable measures to verify that the sender is the partner (in person or by proxy) purporting to send the transmission, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. (6) (A) "Foreign limited liability partnership" means a partnership, other than a limited partnership, formed pursuant to an agreement governed by the laws of another jurisdiction and denominated or registered as a limited liability partnership or registered limited liability partnership under the laws of that jurisdiction (i) in which each partner is a licensed person or a person licensed or authorized to provide professional limited liability partnership services in a jurisdiction or jurisdictions other than this state, (ii) which is licensed under the laws of the state to engage in the practice of architecture, the practice of public accountancy, the practice of engineering, the practice of land surveying, or the practice of law, or (iii) which (I) is related to a registered limited liability partnership that practices public accountancy or, to the extent permitted by the State Bar, practices law or is related to a foreign limited liability partnership and (II) provides services related or complementary to the professional limited liability partnership services provided by, or provides services or facilities to, that registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership. (B) For the purposes of clause (iii) of subparagraph (A), a partnership is related to a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership if (i) at least a majority of the partners in one partnership are also partners in the other partnership, or (ii) at least a majority in interest in each partnership hold interests in or are members of another person, except an individual, and each partnership renders services pursuant to an agreement with that other person, or (iii) one partnership, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, the other partnership. (7) "Licensed person" means any person who is duly licensed, authorized, or registered under the provisions of the Business and Professions Code to provide professional limited liability partnership services or who is lawfully able to render professional limited liability partnership services in this state. (8) (A) "Registered limited liability partnership" means a partnership, other than a limited partnership, formed pursuant to an agreement governed by Article 10 (commencing with Section 16951), that is registered under Section 16953 and (i) each of the partners of which is a licensed person or a person licensed or authorized to provide professional limited liability partnership services in a jurisdiction or jurisdictions other than this state, (ii) is licensed under the laws of the state to engage in the practice of architecture, the practice of public accountancy, the practice of engineering, the practice of land surveying, or the practice of law, or (iii)(I) is related to a registered limited liability partnership that practices public accountancy or, to the extent permitted by the State Bar, practices law or is related to a foreign limited liability partnership and (II) provides services related or complementary to the professional limited liability partnership services provided by, or provides services or facilities to, that registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership. (B) For the purposes of clause (iii) of subparagraph (A), a partnership is related to a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership if (i) at least a majority of the partners in one partnership are also partners in the other partnership, or (ii) at least a majority in interest in each partnership hold interests in or are members of another person, other than an individual, and each partnership renders services pursuant to an agreement with that other person, or (iii) one partnership, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, the other partnership. (9) "Partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as coowners a business for profit formed under Section 16202, predecessor law, or comparable law of another jurisdiction, and includes, for all purposes of the laws of this state, a registered limited liability partnership, and excludes any partnership formed under Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 15501), Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 15611), or Chapter 5.5 (commencing with Section 15900). (10) "Partnership agreement" means the agreement, whether written, oral, or implied, among the partners concerning the partnership, including amendments to the partnership agreement. (11) "Partnership at will" means a partnership in which the partners have not agreed to remain partners until the expiration of a definite term or the completion of a particular undertaking. (12) "Partnership interest" or "partner's interest in the partnership" means all of a partner's interests in the partnership, including the partner's transferable interest and all management and other rights. (13) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity. (14) "Professional limited liability partnership services" means the practice of architecture, the practice of public accountancy, the practice of engineering, the practice of land surveying, or the practice of law. (15) "Property" means all property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or any interest therein. (16) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. (17) "Statement" means a statement of partnership authority under Section 16303, a statement of denial under Section 16304, a statement of dissociation under Section 16704, a statement of dissolution under Section 16805, a statement of conversion or a certificate of conversion under Section 16906, a statement of merger under Section 16915, or an amendment or cancellation of any of the foregoing. (18) "Transfer" includes an assignment, conveyance, lease, mortgage, deed, and encumbrance. (19) The inclusion of the practice of architecture as a professional limited liability partnership service permitted by this section shall extend only until January 1, 2012. (20) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2016, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2016, deletes or extends that date.

16101. As used in this chapter, the following terms and phrases have the following meanings: (1) "Business" includes every trade, occupation, and profession. (2) "Debtor in bankruptcy" means a person who is the subject of either of the following: (A) An order for relief under Title 11 of the United States Code or a comparable order under a successor statute of general application. (B) A comparable order under federal, state, or foreign law governing insolvency. (3) "Distribution" means a transfer of money or other property from a partnership to a partner in the partner's capacity as a partner or to the partner's transferee. (4) "Electronic transmission by the partnership" means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, for that recipient on record with the partnership, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network that the partnership has designated for those communications, together with a separate notice to the recipient of the posting, which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the later of the posting or delivery of the separate notice thereof, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) to a recipient who has provided an unrevoked consent to the use of those means of transmission, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. However, an electronic transmission by a partnership to an individual partner is not authorized unless, in addition to satisfying the requirements of this section, the transmission satisfies the requirements applicable to consumer consent to electronic records as set forth in the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (15 U.S.C. Sec. 7001 (c)(1)). (5) "Electronic transmission to the partnership" means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, which the partnership has provided from time to time to partners for sending communications to the partnership, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network that the partnership has designated for those communications, and which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the posting, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) as to which the partnership has placed in effect reasonable measures to verify that the sender is the partner (in person or by proxy) purporting to send the transmission, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. (6) (A) "Foreign limited liability partnership" means a partnership, other than a limited partnership, formed pursuant to an agreement governed by the laws of another jurisdiction and denominated or registered as a limited liability partnership or registered limited liability partnership under the laws of that jurisdiction (i) in which each partner is a licensed person or a person licensed or authorized to provide professional limited liability partnership services in a jurisdiction or jurisdictions other than this state, (ii) which is licensed under the laws of the state to engage in the practice of architecture, the practice of public accountancy, or the practice of law, or (iii) which (I) is related to a registered limited liability partnership that practices public accountancy or, to the extent permitted by the State Bar, practices law or is related to a foreign limited liability partnership and (II) provides services related or complementary to the professional limited liability partnership services provided by, or provides services or facilities to, that registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership. (B) For the purposes of clause (iii) of subparagraph (A), a partnership is related to a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership if (i) at least a majority of the partners in one partnership are also partners in the other partnership, or (ii) at least a majority in interest in each partnership hold interests in or are members of another person, except an individual, and each partnership renders services pursuant to an agreement with that other person, or (iii) one partnership, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, the other partnership. (7) "Licensed person" means any person who is duly licensed, authorized, or registered under the provisions of the Business and Professions Code to provide professional limited liability partnership services or who is lawfully able to render professional limited liability partnership services in this state. (8) (A) "Registered limited liability partnership" means a partnership, other than a limited partnership, formed pursuant to an agreement governed by Article 10 (commencing with Section 16951), that is registered under Section 16953 and (i) each of the partners of which is a licensed person or a person licensed or authorized to provide professional limited liability partnership services in a jurisdiction or jurisdictions other than this state, (ii) is licensed under the laws of the state to engage in the practice of architecture, practice of public accountancy, or the practice of law, or (iii)(I) is related to a registered limited liability partnership that practices public accountancy or, to the extent permitted by the State Bar, practices law or is related to a foreign limited liability partnership and (II) provides services related or complementary to the professional limited liability partnership services provided by, or provides services or facilities to, that registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership. (B) For the purposes of clause (iii) of subparagraph (A), a partnership is related to a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership if (i) at least a majority of the partners in one partnership are also partners in the other partnership, or (ii) at least a majority in interest in each partnership hold interests in or are members of another person, other than an individual, and each partnership renders services pursuant to an agreement with that other person, or (iii) one partnership, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, the other partnership. (9) "Partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as coowners a business for profit formed under Section 16202, predecessor law, or comparable law of another jurisdiction, and includes, for all purposes of the laws of this state, a registered limited liability partnership, and excludes any partnership formed under Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 15501), Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 15611), or Chapter 5.5 (commencing with Section 15900). (10) "Partnership agreement" means the agreement, whether written, oral, or implied, among the partners concerning the partnership, including amendments to the partnership agreement. (11) "Partnership at will" means a partnership in which the partners have not agreed to remain partners until the expiration of a definite term or the completion of a particular undertaking. (12) "Partnership interest" or "partner's interest in the partnership" means all of a partner's interests in the partnership, including the partner's transferable interest and all management and other rights. (13) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity. (14) "Professional limited liability partnership services" means the practice of architecture, the practice of public accountancy, or the practice of law. (15) "Property" means all property, real, personal, or mixed, tangible or intangible, or any interest therein. (16) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. (17) "Statement" means a statement of partnership authority under Section 16303, a statement of denial under Section 16304, a statement of dissociation under Section 16704, a statement of dissolution under Section 16805, a statement of conversion or a certificate of conversion under Section 16906, a statement of merger under Section 16915, or an amendment or cancellation of any of the foregoing. (18) "Transfer" includes an assignment, conveyance, lease, mortgage, deed, and encumbrance. (19) The inclusion of the practice of architecture as a professional limited liability partnership service permitted by this section shall extend only until January 1, 2012. (20) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2016.


16102. (a) A person knows a fact if the person has actual knowledge of it. (b) A person has notice of a fact if any of the following apply: (1) The person knows of it. (2) The person has received a notification of it. (3) The person has reason to know it exists from all of the facts known to the person at the time in question. (4) Subdivision (f) of Section 16953 or subdivision (f) of Section 16959 as applicable. (c) A person notifies or gives a notification to another by taking steps reasonably required to inform the other person in ordinary course, whether or not the other person knows of it. (d) A person receives a notification when either of the following apply: (1) The person knows of the notification. (2) The notification is duly delivered at the person's place of business or at any other place held out by the person as a place for receiving communications. (e) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (f), a person other than an individual knows, has notice, or receives a notification of a fact for purposes of a particular transaction when the individual conducting the transaction knows, has notice, or receives a notification of the fact, or in any event when the fact would have been brought to the individual's attention if the person had exercised reasonable diligence. The person exercises reasonable diligence if it maintains reasonable routines for communicating significant information to the individual conducting the transaction and there is reasonable compliance with the routines. Reasonable diligence does not require an individual acting for the person to communicate information unless the communication is part of the individual's regular duties or the individual has reason to know of the transaction and that the transaction would be materially affected by the information. (f) A partner's knowledge, notice, or receipt of a notification of a fact relating to the partnership is effective immediately as knowledge by, notice to, or receipt of a notification by the partnership, except in the case of a fraud on the partnership committed by or with the consent of that partner.


16103. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership are governed by the partnership agreement. To the extent the partnership agreement does not otherwise provide, this chapter governs relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership. (b) The partnership agreement may not do any of the following: (1) Vary the rights and duties under Section 16105 except to eliminate the duty to provide copies of statements to all of the partners. (2) Unreasonably restrict the right of access to books and records under subdivision (b) of Section 16403, or the right to be furnished with information under subdivision (c) of Section 16403. (3) Eliminate the duty of loyalty under subdivision (b) of Section 16404 or paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of Section 16603, but, if not manifestly unreasonable, may do either of the following: (A) The partnership agreement may identify specific types or categories of activities that do not violate the duty of loyalty. (B) All of the partners or a number or percentage specified in the partnership agreement may authorize or ratify, after full disclosure of all material facts, a specific act or transaction that otherwise would violate the duty of loyalty. (4) Unreasonably reduce the duty of care under subdivision (c) of Section 16404 or paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of Section 16603. (5) Eliminate the obligation of good faith and fair dealing under subdivision (d) of Section 16404, but the partnership agreement may prescribe the standards by which the performance of the obligation is to be measured, if the standards are not manifestly unreasonable. (6) Vary the power to dissociate as a partner under subdivision (a) Section 16602, except to require the notice under paragraph (1) of Section 16601 to be in writing. (7) Vary the right of a court to expel a partner in the events specified in paragraph (5) of Section 16601. (8) Vary the requirement to wind up the partnership business in cases specified in paragraph (4), (5), or (6) of Section 16801. (9) Restrict rights of third parties under this chapter. (10) Vary the law applicable to a registered limited liability partnership under subdivision (b) of Section 16106.


16104. (a) Unless displaced by particular provisions of this chapter, the principles of law and equity supplement this chapter. (b) If an obligation to pay interest arises under this chapter and the rate is not specified, the rate is that specified in Section 3289 of the Civil Code.


16105. (a) A statement may be filed in the office of the Secretary of State. A certified copy of a statement that is filed in an office in another state may be filed in the office of the Secretary of State. Either filing has the effect provided in this chapter with respect to partnership property located in or transactions that occur in this state. (b) A certified copy of a statement that has been filed in the office of the Secretary of State and recorded in the office for recording transfers of real property has the effect provided for recorded statements in this chapter. A recorded statement that is not a certified copy of a statement filed in the office of the Secretary of State does not have the effect provided for recorded statements in this chapter. (c) A statement filed by a partnership shall be executed by at least two partners. Other statements shall be executed by a partner or other person authorized by this chapter. An individual who executes a statement as, or on behalf of, a partner or other person named as a partner in a statement shall personally declare under penalty of perjury that the contents of the statement are accurate. (d) A person authorized by this chapter to file a statement may amend or cancel the statement by filing an amendment or cancellation that names the partnership, identifies the statement, and states the substance of the amendment or cancellation. (e) A person who files a statement pursuant to this section shall promptly send a copy of the statement to every nonfiling partner and to any other person named as a partner in the statement. Failure to send a copy of a statement to a partner or other person does not limit the effectiveness of the statement as to a person not a partner. (f) The Secretary of State may collect a fee for filing or providing a certified copy of a statement. The officer responsible for recording transfers of real property may collect a fee for recording a statement.


16106. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b) of this section, or Section 16958, the law of the jurisdiction in which a partnership has its chief executive office governs relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership. (b) With respect to a registered limited liability partnership, the law of this state shall govern relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership, and the liability of partners for obligations of the partnership.


16107. A partnership governed by this chapter is subject to any amendment to or repeal of this chapter.


16108. Except with respect to the provisions of this chapter specifically relating to registered limited liability partnerships and foreign limited liability partnerships, this chapter shall be applied and construed to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law with respect to the subject of this chapter among states enacting it.


16109. The rights and duties of surviving partners, the legal representatives of deceased partners, the creditors of such partners, and the creditors of the partnership created by or defined in this chapter shall be given full force and effect notwithstanding any inconsistent provisions of the Probate Code, but nothing in this chapter shall otherwise affect any provision of the Probate Code.


16110. If any provision of this chapter or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of this chapter that can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this chapter are severable.


16111. (a) Except as provided in Section 16955.5, before January 1, 1999, this chapter governs only a partnership formed (1) on or after the effective date of this chapter, unless that partnership is continuing the business of a dissolved partnership under Section 15041, or (2) before the effective date of this chapter if that partnership elects, in the manner provided in its partnership agreement or by law for amending the partnership agreement, to be governed by this chapter. (b) On and after January 1, 1999, this chapter governs all partnerships. (c) Except with respect to the provisions of this chapter specifically relating to registered limited liability partnerships and foreign limited liability partnerships, the provisions of this chapter relating to the liability of the partnership's partners to third parties apply to limit those partners' liability to a third party who had done business with the partnership within one year preceding the partnership's election to be governed by this chapter, only if the third party knows or has received a notification of the partnership's election to be governed by this chapter.


16112. This chapter does not affect an action or proceeding commenced or right accrued before this chapter takes effect.


16113. (a) The fee for filing a statement of partnership is seventy dollars ($70). (b) Unless another fee is specified by law or the law specifies that no fee is to be charged, the fee for filing any partnership statement pursuant to this chapter is thirty dollars ($30). (c) There is no fee for filing a statement of dissolution for the purposes of canceling a statement of partnership.


16114. Unless another fee is specified by law or the law specifies that no fee is to be charged, the fee for acceptance of copies of process against a surviving foreign partnership or limited partnership pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 16906 is fifty dollars ($50) for each surviving foreign partnership or limited partnership general partnership upon whom service is sought.


Article 2. Nature Of Partnership

Ca Codes (corp:16201-16204) Corporations Code Section 16201-16204



16201. A partnership is an entity distinct from its partners.


16202. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), the association of two or more persons to carry on as coowners a business for profit forms a partnership, whether or not the persons intend to form a partnership. (b) An association formed under a statute other than this chapter, a predecessor statute, or a comparable statute of another jurisdiction is not a partnership under this chapter. (c) In determining whether a partnership is formed, the following rules apply: (1) Joint tenancy, tenancy in common, tenancy by the entireties, joint property, common property, or part ownership does not by itself establish a partnership, even if the coowners share profits made by the use of the property. (2) The sharing of gross returns does not by itself establish a partnership, even if the persons sharing them have a joint or common right or interest in property from which the returns are derived. (3) A person who receives a share of the profits of a business is presumed to be a partner in the business, unless the profits were received for any of the following reasons: (A) In payment of a debt by installments or otherwise. (B) In payment for services as an independent contractor or of wages or other compensation to an employee. (C) In payment of rent. (D) In payment of an annuity or other retirement benefit to a beneficiary, representative, or designee of a deceased or retired partner. (E) In payment of interest or other charge on a loan, even if the amount of payment varies with the profits of the business, including a direct or indirect present or future ownership of the collateral, or rights to income, proceeds, or increase in value derived from the collateral. (F) In payment for the sale of the goodwill of a business or other property by installments or otherwise.


16203. Property acquired by a partnership is property of the partnership and not of the partners individually.


16204. (a) Property is partnership property if acquired in the name of either of the following: (1) The partnership. (2) One or more partners with an indication in the instrument transferring title to the property of the person's capacity as a partner or of the existence of a partnership but without an indication of the name of the partnership. (b) Property is acquired in the name of the partnership by a transfer to either of the following: (1) The partnership in its name. (2) One or more partners in their capacity as partners in the partnership, if the name of the partnership is indicated in the instrument transferring title to the property. (c) Property is presumed to be partnership property if purchased with partnership assets, even if not acquired in the name of the partnership or of one or more partners with an indication in the instrument transferring title to the property of the person's capacity as a partner or of the existence of a partnership. (d) Property acquired in the name of one or more of the partners, without an indication in the instrument transferring title to the property of the person's capacity as a partner or of the existence of a partnership and without use of partnership assets, is presumed to be separate property, even if used for partnership purposes.


Article 3. Relations Of Partners To Persons Dealing With Partnership

Ca Codes (corp:16301-16310) Corporations Code Section 16301-16310



16301. Subject to the effect of a statement of partnership authority under Section 16303 both of the following apply: (1) Each partner is an agent of the partnership for the purpose of its business. An act of a partner, including the execution of an instrument in the partnership name, for apparently carrying on in the ordinary course the partnership business or business of the kind carried on by the partnership binds the partnership, unless the partner had no authority to act for the partnership in the particular matter and the person with whom the partner was dealing knew or had received a notification that the partner lacked authority. (2) An act of a partner that is not apparently for carrying on in the ordinary course the partnership business or business of the kind carried on by the partnership binds the partnership only if the act was authorized by the other partners.


16302. (a) Partnership property may be transferred as follows: (1) Subject to the effect of a statement of partnership authority under Section 16303, partnership property held in the name of the partnership may be transferred by an instrument of transfer executed by a partner in the partnership name. (2) Partnership property held in the name of one or more partners with an indication in the instrument transferring the property to them of their capacity as partners or of the existence of a partnership, but without an indication of the name of the partnership, may be transferred by an instrument of transfer executed by the persons in whose name the property is held. (3) Partnership property held in the name of one or more persons other than the partnership, without an indication in the instrument transferring the property to them of their capacity as partners or of the existence of a partnership, may be transferred by an instrument of transfer executed by the persons in whose name the property is held. (b) A partnership may recover partnership property from a transferee only if it proves that execution of the instrument of initial transfer did not bind the partnership under Section 16301 and either of the following applies: (1) As to a subsequent transferee who gave value for property transferred under paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (a), proves that the subsequent transferee knew or had received a notification that the person who executed the instrument of initial transfer lacked authority to bind the partnership. (2) As to a transferee who gave value for property transferred under paragraph (3) of subdivision (a), proves that the transferee knew or had received a notification that the property was partnership property and that the person who executed the instrument of initial transfer lacked authority to bind the partnership. (c) A partnership may not recover partnership property from a subsequent transferee if the partnership would not have been entitled to recover the property, under subdivision (b), from any earlier transferee of the property. (d) If a person holds all of the partners' interests in the partnership, all of the partnership property vests in that person. The person may execute a document in the name of the partnership to evidence vesting of the property in that person and may file or record the document.

16303. (a) A partnership may file a statement of partnership authority, which is subject to all of the following: (1) The statement shall include all of the following: (A) The name of the partnership. (B) The street address of its chief executive office and of one office in this state, if there is one. (C) The names and mailing addresses of all of the partners or of an agent appointed and maintained by the partnership for the purpose of subdivision (b). (D) The names of the partners authorized to execute an instrument transferring real property held in the name of the partnership. (2) The statement may specify the authority, or limitations on the authority, of some or all of the partners to enter into other transactions on behalf of the partnership and any other matter. (b) If a statement of partnership authority names an agent, the agent shall maintain a list of the names and mailing addresses of all of the partners and make it available to any person on request for good cause shown. (c) If a filed statement of partnership authority is executed pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 16105 and states the name of the partnership but does not contain all of the other information required by subdivision (a), the statement nevertheless operates with respect to a person not a partner as provided in subdivisions (d) and (e). (d) A filed statement of partnership authority supplements the authority of a partner to enter into transactions on behalf of the partnership as follows: (1) Except for transfers of real property, a grant of authority contained in a filed statement of partnership authority is conclusive in favor of a person who gives value without knowledge to the contrary, so long as and to the extent that a limitation on that authority is not then contained in another filed statement. A filed cancellation of a limitation on authority revives the previous grant of authority. (2) A grant of authority to transfer real property held in the name of the partnership contained in a certified copy of a filed statement of partnership authority recorded in the office for recording transfers of that real property is conclusive in favor of a person who gives value without knowledge to the contrary, so long as and to the extent that a certified copy of a filed statement containing a limitation on that authority is not then of record in the office for recording transfers of that real property. The recording in the office for recording transfers of that real property of a certified copy of a filed cancellation of a limitation on authority revives the previous grant of authority. (e) A person not a partner is deemed to know of a limitation on the authority of a partner to transfer real property held in the name of the partnership if a certified copy of the filed statement containing the limitation on authority is of record in the office for recording transfers of that real property. (f) Except as otherwise provided in subdivisions (d) and (e) and Sections 16704 and 16805, a person not a partner is not deemed to know of a limitation on the authority of a partner merely because the limitation is contained in a filed statement.


16304. A partner or other person named as a partner in a filed statement of partnership authority or in a list maintained by an agent pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 16303 may file a statement of denial stating the name of the partnership as filed with the Secretary of State, any identification number issued by the Secretary of State, and the fact that is being denied, that may include denial of a person's authority or status as a partner. A statement of denial is a limitation on authority as provided in subdivisions (d) and (e) of Section 16303.


16305. (a) A partnership is liable for loss or injury caused to a person, or for a penalty incurred, as a result of a wrongful act or omission, or other actionable conduct, of a partner acting in the ordinary course of business of the partnership or with authority of the partnership. (b) If, in the course of the partnership's business or while acting with authority of the partnership, a partner receives or causes the partnership to receive money or property of a person not a partner, and the money or property is misapplied by a partner, the partnership is liable for the loss.


16306. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivisions (b) and (c), all partners are liable jointly and severally for all obligations of the partnership unless otherwise agreed by the claimant or provided by law. (b) A person admitted as a partner into an existing partnership is not personally liable for any partnership obligation incurred before the person's admission as a partner. (c) Notwithstanding any other section of this chapter, and subject to subdivisions (d), (e), (f), and (h), a partner in a registered limited liability partnership is not liable or accountable, directly or indirectly, including by way of indemnification, contribution, assessment, or otherwise, for debts, obligations, or liabilities of or chargeable to the partnership or another partner in the partnership, whether arising in tort, contract, or otherwise, that are incurred, created, or assumed by the partnership while the partnership is a registered limited liability partnership, by reason of being a partner or acting in the conduct of the business or activities of the partnership. (d) Notwithstanding subdivision (c), all or certain specified partners of a registered limited liability partnership, if the specified partners agree, may be liable in their capacity as partners for all or specified debts, obligations, or liabilities of the registered limited liability partnership if the partners possessing a majority of the interests of the partners in the current profits of the partnership, or a different vote as may be required in the partnership agreement, specifically agreed to the specified debts, obligations, or liabilities in writing, prior to the debt, obligation, or liability being incurred. That specific agreement may be modified or revoked if the partners possessing a majority of the interests of the partners in the current profits of the partnership, or a different vote as may be required in the partnership agreement, agree to the modification or revocation in writing; provided, however, that a modification or revocation shall not affect the liability of a partner for any debts, obligations, or liabilities of a registered limited liability partnership incurred, created, or assumed by the registered limited liability partnership prior to the modification or revocation. (e) Nothing in subdivision (c) shall be construed to affect the liability of a partner of a registered limited liability partnership to third parties for that partner's tortious conduct. (f) The limitation of liability in subdivision (c) shall not apply to claims based upon acts, errors, or omissions arising out of the rendering of professional limited liability partnership services of a registered limited liability partnership providing legal services unless that partnership has a currently effective certificate of registration issued by the State Bar. (g) A partner in a registered limited liability partnership is not a proper party to a proceeding by or against a registered limited liability partnership in which personal liability for partnership debts, obligations, or liabilities is asserted against the partner, unless that partner is personally liable under subdivision (d) or (e). (h) Nothing in this section shall affect or impair the ability of a partner to act as a guarantor or surety for, provide collateral for or otherwise be liable for, the debts, obligations, or liabilities of a registered limited liability partnership.


16307. (a) A partnership may sue and be sued in the name of the partnership. (b) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (g) of Section 16306, an action may be brought against the partnership and any or all of the partners in the same action or in separate actions. (c) A judgment against a partnership is not by itself a judgment against a partner. A judgment against a partnership may not be satisfied from a partner's assets unless there is also a judgment against the partner. (d) A judgment creditor of a partner may not levy execution against the assets of the partner to satisfy a judgment based on a claim against the partnership unless any of the following apply: (1) A judgment based on the same claim has been obtained against the partnership and a writ of execution on the judgment has been returned unsatisfied in whole or in part. (2) The partnership is a debtor in bankruptcy. (3) The partner has agreed that the creditor need not exhaust partnership assets. (4) A court grants permission to the judgment creditor to levy execution against the assets of a partner based on a finding that partnership assets subject to execution are clearly insufficient to satisfy the judgment, that exhaustion of partnership assets is excessively burdensome, or that the grant of permission is an appropriate exercise of the court's equitable powers. (5) Liability is imposed on the partner by law or contract independent of the existence of the partnership. (e) This section applies to any partnership liability or obligation resulting from a representation by a partner or purported partner under Section 16308.


16308. Except with respect to registered limited liability partnerships and foreign limited liability partnerships: (a) If a person, by words or conduct, purports to be a partner, or consents to being represented by another as a partner, in a partnership or with one or more persons not partners, the purported partner is liable to a person to whom the representation is made, if that person, relying on the representation, enters into a transaction with the actual or purported partnership. If the representation, either by the purported partner or by a person with the purported partner's consent, is made in a public manner, the purported partner is liable to a person who relies upon the purported partnership even if the purported partner is not aware of being held out as a partner to the claimant. If partnership liability results, the purported partner is liable with respect to that liability as if the purported partner were a partner. If no partnership liability results, the purported partner is liable with respect to that liability jointly and severally with any other person consenting to the representation. (b) If a person is thus represented to be a partner in an existing partnership, or with one or more persons not partners, the purported partner is an agent of persons consenting to the representation to bind them to the same extent and in the same manner as if the purported partner were a partner, with respect to persons who enter into transactions in reliance upon the representation. If all of the partners of the existing partnership consent to the representation, a partnership act or obligation results. If fewer than all of the partners of the existing partnership consent to the representation, the person acting and the partners consenting to the representation are jointly and severally liable. (c) A person is not liable as a partner merely because the person is named by another in a statement of partnership authority. (d) A person does not continue to be liable as a partner merely because of a failure to file a statement of dissociation or to amend a statement of partnership authority to indicate the partner's dissociation from the partnership. (e) Except as otherwise provided in subdivisions (a) and (b), persons who are not partners as to each other are not liable as partners to other persons.


16309. (a) The statement of partnership authority may designate an agent for service of process. The agent may be an individual residing in this state or a corporation that has complied with Section 1505 and whose capacity to act as an agent has not terminated. If an individual is designated, the statement shall include that person's complete business or residence address in this state. (b) An agent designated for service of process may file with the Secretary of State a signed and acknowledged written statement of resignation as an agent. On filing of the statement of resignation, the authority of the agent to act in that capacity shall cease and the Secretary of State shall give written notice of the filing of the statement of resignation by mail to the partnership, addressed to its principal executive office. (c) If an individual who has been designated agent for service of process dies or resigns or no longer resides in the state, or if the corporate agent for that purpose resigns, dissolves, withdraws from the state, forfeits its right to transact intrastate business, has its corporate rights, powers, and privileges suspended, or ceases to exist, the partnership or foreign partnership shall promptly file an amended statement of partnership authority, designating a new agent.


16310. (a) If a partnership has designated an agent for service of process, process may be served on the partnership as provided in this section and in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 413.10) of Title 5 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure. (b) Personal service of a copy of any process against the partnership by delivery to an individual designated by it as agent, or if the designated agent is a corporation, to a person named in the latest certificate of the corporate agent filed pursuant to Section 1505 at the office of the corporate agent, shall constitute valid service on the partnership. (c) No change in the address of the agent for service of process or appointment of a new agent for service of process shall be effective until an amendment to the statement of partnership authority is filed. (d) (1) If an agent for service of process has resigned and has not been replaced, or if the designated agent cannot with reasonable diligence be found at the address designated for personal delivery of the process, and it is shown by affidavit to the satisfaction of the court that process against a partnership cannot be served with reasonable diligence upon the designated agent by hand in the manner provided in Section 415.10, subdivision (a) of Section 415.20, or subdivision (a) of Section 415.30 of the Code of Civil Procedure, the court may make an order that the service shall be made on a partnership by delivering by hand to the Secretary of State, or to any person employed in the Secretary of State's office in the capacity of assistant or deputy, one copy of the process for each defendant to be served, together with a copy of the order authorizing the service. Service in this manner shall be deemed complete on the 10th day after delivery of the process to the Secretary of State. (2) Upon receipt of the copy of process and the fee for service, the Secretary of State shall give notice of the service of the process to the partnership, at its principal executive office, by forwarding to that office, by registered mail with request for return receipt, the copy of the process. (3) The Secretary of State shall keep a record of all process served on the Secretary of State under this section and shall record therein the time of service and the action taken by the Secretary of State. A certificate under the Secretary of State's official seal, certifying to the receipt of process, the giving of notice to the partnership, and the forwarding of the process pursuant to this section, shall be competent and prima facie evidence of the service of process.


Article 4. Relations Of Partners To Each Other And To Partnership

Ca Codes (corp:16401-16406) Corporations Code Section 16401-16406



16401. (a) Each partner is deemed to have an account that is subject to both of the following: (1) Credited with an amount equal to the money plus the value of any other property, net of the amount of any liabilities, the partner contributes to the partnership and the partner's share of the partnership profits. (2) Subject to Sections 16306 and 16957, charged with an amount equal to the money plus the value of any other property, net of the amount of any liabilities, distributed by the partnership to the partner and the partner's share of the partnership losses. (b) Each partner is entitled to an equal share of the partnership profits and, subject to Sections 16306 and 16957, is chargeable with a share of the partnership losses in proportion to the partner's share of the profits. (c) A partnership shall reimburse a partner for payments made and indemnify a partner for liabilities incurred by the partner in the ordinary course of the business of the partnership or for the preservation of its business or property. (d) A partnership shall reimburse a partner for an advance to the partnership beyond the amount of capital the partner agreed to contribute. (e) A payment or advance made by a partner that gives rise to a partnership obligation under subdivision (c) or (d) constitutes a loan to the partnership that accrues interest from the date of the payment or advance. (f) Each partner has equal rights in the management and conduct of the partnership business. (g) A partner may use or possess partnership property only on behalf of the partnership. (h) A partner is not entitled to remuneration for services performed for the partnership, except for reasonable compensation for services rendered in winding up the business of the partnership. (i) A person may become a partner only with the consent of all of the partners. (j) A difference arising as to a matter in the ordinary course of business of a partnership may be decided by a majority of the partners. An act outside the ordinary course of business of a partnership and an amendment to the partnership agreement may be undertaken only with the consent of all of the partners. (k) This section does not affect the obligations of a partnership to other persons under Section 16301.


16402. A partner has no right to receive, and may not be required to accept, a distribution in kind.


16403. (a) A partnership shall keep its books and records, if any, in writing or in any other form capable of being converted into clearly legible tangible form, at its chief executive office. (b) A partnership shall provide partners and their agents and attorneys access to its books and records. It shall provide former partners and their agents and attorneys access to books and records pertaining to the period during which they were partners. The right of access provides the opportunity to inspect and copy books and records during ordinary business hours. A partnership may impose a reasonable charge, covering the costs of labor and material, for copies of documents furnished. (c) Each partner and the partnership shall furnish to a partner, and to the legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under legal disability, both of the following, which may be transmitted by electronic transmission by the partnership (subdivision (4) of Section 16101): (1) Without demand, any information concerning the partnership's business and affairs reasonably required for the proper exercise of the partner's rights and duties under the partnership agreement or this chapter; and (2) On demand, any other information concerning the partnership's business and affairs, except to the extent the demand or the information demanded is unreasonable or otherwise improper under the circumstances.

16404. (a) The fiduciary duties a partner owes to the partnership and the other partners are the duty of loyalty and the duty of care set forth in subdivisions (b) and (c). (b) A partner's duty of loyalty to the partnership and the other partners includes all of the following: (1) To account to the partnership and hold as trustee for it any property, profit, or benefit derived by the partner in the conduct and winding up of the partnership business or derived from a use by the partner of partnership property or information, including the appropriation of a partnership opportunity. (2) To refrain from dealing with the partnership in the conduct or winding up of the partnership business as or on behalf of a party having an interest adverse to the partnership. (3) To refrain from competing with the partnership in the conduct of the partnership business before the dissolution of the partnership. (c) A partner's duty of care to the partnership and the other partners in the conduct and winding up of the partnership business is limited to refraining from engaging in grossly negligent or reckless conduct, intentional misconduct, or a knowing violation of law. (d) A partner shall discharge the duties to the partnership and the other partners under this chapter or under the partnership agreement and exercise any rights consistently with the obligation of good faith and fair dealing. (e) A partner does not violate a duty or obligation under this chapter or under the partnership agreement merely because the partner' s conduct furthers the partner's own interest. (f) A partner may lend money to and transact other business with the partnership, and as to each loan or transaction, the rights and obligations of the partner regarding performance or enforcement are the same as those of a person who is not a partner, subject to other applicable law. (g) This section applies to a person winding up the partnership business as the personal or legal representative of the last surviving partner as if the person were a partner.


16405. (a) A partnership may maintain an action against a partner for a breach of the partnership agreement, or for the violation of a duty to the partnership, causing harm to the partnership. (b) A partner may maintain an action against the partnership or another partner for legal or equitable relief, with or without an accounting as to partnership business, to do any of the following: (1) Enforce the partner's rights under the partnership agreement. (2) Enforce the partner's rights under this chapter, including all of the following: (A) The partner's rights under Section 16401, 16403, or 16404. (B) The partner's right on dissociation to have the partner's interest in the partnership purchased pursuant to Section 16701 or 16701.5, or to enforce any other right under Article 6 (commencing with Section 16601) or 7 (commencing with Section 16701). (C) The partner's right to compel a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business under Section 16801 or enforce any other right under Article 8 (commencing with Section 16801). (3) Enforce the rights and otherwise protect the interests of the partner, including rights and interests arising independently of the partnership relationship. (c) The accrual of, and any time limitation on, a right of action for a remedy under this section is governed by other law. A right to an accounting upon a dissolution and winding up does not revive a claim barred by law.


16406. (a) If a partnership for a definite term or particular undertaking is continued, without an express agreement, after the expiration of the term or completion of the undertaking, the rights and duties of the partners remain the same as they were at the expiration or completion, so far as is consistent with a partnership at will. (b) If the partners, or those of them who habitually acted in the business during the term or undertaking, continue the business without any settlement or liquidation of the partnership, they are presumed to have agreed that the partnership will continue.


Article 5. Transferees And Creditors Of Partner

Ca Codes (corp:16501-16504) Corporations Code Section 16501-16504



16501. A partner is not a coowner of partnership property and has no interest in partnership property that can be transferred, either voluntarily or involuntarily.


16502. The only transferable interest of a partner in the partnership is the partner's share of the profits and losses of the partnership and the partner's right to receive distributions. The interest is personal property.

16503. (a) A transfer, in whole or in part, of a partner's transferable interest in the partnership is permissible. However, a transfer does not do either of the following: (1) By itself cause the partner's dissociation or a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business. (2) As against the other partners or the partnership, entitle the transferee, during the continuance of the partnership, to participate in the management or conduct of the partnership business, to require access to information concerning partnership transactions, or to inspect or copy the partnership books or records. (b) A transferee of a partner's transferable interest in the partnership has a right to all of the following: (1) To receive, in accordance with the transfer, distributions to which the transferor would otherwise be entitled. (2) To receive upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership business, in accordance with the transfer, the net amount otherwise distributable to the transferor. (3) To seek under paragraph (6) of Section 16801 a judicial determination that it is equitable to wind up the partnership business. (c) In a dissolution and winding up, a transferee is entitled to an account of partnership transactions only from the date of the latest account agreed to by all of the partners. (d) Upon transfer, the transferor retains the rights and duties of a partner other than the interest in distributions transferred. (e) A partnership need not give effect to a transferee's rights under this section until it has notice of the transfer. (f) A transfer of a partner's transferable interest in the partnership in violation of a restriction on transfer contained in the partnership agreement is ineffective as to a person having notice of the restriction at the time of transfer.


16504. (a) On application by a judgment creditor of a partner or of a partner's transferee, a court having jurisdiction may charge the transferable interest of the judgment debtor to satisfy the judgment. The court may appoint a receiver of the share of the distributions due or to become due to the judgment debtor in respect of the partnership and make all other orders, directions, accounts, and inquiries the judgment debtor might have made or that the circumstances of the case may require. (b) A charging order constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the partnership. The court may order a foreclosure of the interest subject to the charging order at any time. The purchaser at the foreclosure sale has the rights of a transferee. (c) At any time before foreclosure, an interest charged may be redeemed in any of the following manners: (1) By the judgment debtor. (2) With property other than partnership property, by one or more of the other partners. (3) With partnership property, by one or more of the other partners with the consent of all of the partners whose interests are not so charged. (d) This chapter does not deprive a partner of a right under exemption laws with respect to the partner's interest in the partnership. (e) This section provides the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a partner or partner's transferee may satisfy a judgment out of the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the partnership.


Article 6. Partner's Dissociation

Ca Codes (corp:16601-16603) Corporations Code Section 16601-16603



16601. A partner is dissociated from a partnership upon the occurrence of any of the following events: (1) The partnership's having notice of the partner's express will to withdraw as a partner or on a later date specified by the partner. (2) An event agreed to in the partnership agreement as causing the partner's dissociation. (3) The partner's expulsion pursuant to the partnership agreement. (4) The partner's expulsion by the unanimous vote of the other partners if any of the following apply: (A) It is unlawful to carry on the partnership business with that partner. (B) There has been a transfer of all or substantially all of that partner's transferable interest in the partnership, other than a transfer for security purposes, or a court order charging the partner' s interest, that has not been foreclosed. (C) Within 90 days after the partnership notifies a corporate partner that it will be expelled because it has filed a certificate of dissolution or the equivalent, its charter has been revoked, or its right to conduct business has been suspended by the jurisdiction of its incorporation, there is no revocation of the certificate of dissolution or no reinstatement of its charter or its right to conduct business. (D) A partnership, limited partnership, or limited liability company that is a partner has been dissolved and its business is being wound up. (5) On application by the partnership or another partner, the partner's expulsion by judicial determination because of any of the following: (A) The partner engaged in wrongful conduct that adversely and materially affected the partnership business. (B) The partner willfully or persistently committed a material breach of the partnership agreement or of a duty owed to the partnership or the other partners under Section 16404. (C) The partner engaged in conduct relating to the partnership business that makes it not reasonably practicable to carry on the business in partnership with the partner. (6) The partner's act or failure to act in any of the following instances: (A) By becoming a debtor in bankruptcy. (B) By executing an assignment for the benefit of creditors. (C) By seeking, consenting to, or acquiescing in the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of that partner or of all or substantially all of that partner's property. (D) By failing, within 90 days after the appointment, to have vacated or stayed the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of the partner or of all or substantially all of the partner's property obtained without the partner's consent or acquiescence, or failing within 90 days after the expiration of a stay to have the appointment vacated. (7) In the case of a partner who is an individual, by any of the following: (A) The partner's death. (B) The appointment of a guardian or general conservator for the partner. (C) A judicial determination that the partner has otherwise become incapable of performing the partner's duties under the partnership agreement. (8) In the case of a partner that is a trust or is acting as a partner by virtue of being a trustee of a trust, distribution of the trust's entire transferable interest in the partnership, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor trustee. (9) In the case of a partner that is an estate or is acting as a partner by virtue of being a personal representative of an estate, distribution of the estate's entire transferable interest in the partnership, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor personal representative. (10) Termination of a partner who is not an individual, partnership, corporation, trust, or estate.


16602. (a) A partner has the power to dissociate at any time, rightfully or wrongfully, by express will pursuant to paragraph (1) of Section 16601. (b) A partner's dissociation is wrongful only if any of the following apply: (1) It is in breach of an express provision of the partnership agreement. (2) In the case of a partnership for a definite term or particular undertaking, before the expiration of the term or the completion of the undertaking if any of the following apply: (A) The partner withdraws by express will, unless the withdrawal follows within 90 days after another partner's dissociation by death or otherwise under paragraphs (6) to (10), inclusive, of Section 16601 or wrongful dissociation under this subdivision. (B) The partner is expelled by judicial determination under paragraph (5) of Section 16601. (C) The partner is dissociated by becoming a debtor in bankruptcy. (D) In the case of a partner who is not an individual, trust other than a business trust, or estate, the partner is expelled or otherwise dissociated because it willfully dissolved or terminated. (c) A partner who wrongfully dissociates is liable to the partnership and to the other partners for damages caused by the dissociation. The liability is in addition to any other obligation of the partner to the partnership or to the other partners.


16603. Upon a partner's dissociation, all of the following apply: (1) The partner's right to participate in the management and conduct of the partnership business terminates. (2) The partner's duty of loyalty under paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of Section 16404 terminates. (3) The partner's duty of loyalty under paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 16404 and duty of care under subdivision (c) of Section 16404 continue only with regard to matters arising and events occurring before the partner's dissociation.


Article 7. Partner's Dissociation When Business Not Wound Up 16701-16705

Ca Codes (corp:16701-16705) Corporations Code Section 16701-16705



16701. Except as provided in Section 16701.5, all of the following shall apply: (a) If a partner is dissociated from a partnership, the partnership shall cause the dissociated partner's interest in the partnership to be purchased for a buyout price determined pursuant to subdivision (b). (b) The buyout price of a dissociated partner's interest is the amount that would have been distributable to the dissociating partner under subdivision (b) of Section 16807 if, on the date of dissociation, the assets of the partnership were sold at a price equal to the greater of the liquidation value or the value based on a sale of the entire business as a going concern without the dissociated partner and the partnership was wound up as of that date. Interest shall be paid from the date of dissociation to the date of payment. (c) Damages for wrongful dissociation under Section 16602, and all other amounts owing, whether or not presently due, from the dissociated partner to the partnership, shall be offset against the buyout price. Interest shall be paid from the date the amount owed becomes due to the date of payment. (d) A partnership shall indemnify a dissociated partner whose interest is being purchased against all partnership liabilities, whether incurred before or after the dissociation, except liabilities incurred by an act of the dissociated partner under Section 16702. (e) If no agreement for the purchase of a dissociated partner's interest is reached within 120 days after a written demand for payment, the partnership shall pay, or cause to be paid, in cash to the dissociated partner the amount the partnership estimates to be the buyout price and accrued interest, reduced by any offsets and accrued interest under subdivision (c). (f) If a deferred payment is authorized under subdivision (h), the partnership may tender a written offer to pay the amount it estimates to be the buyout price and accrued interest, reduced by any offsets under subdivision (c), stating the time of payment, the amount and type of security for payment, and the other terms and conditions of the obligation. (g) The payment or tender required by subdivision (e) or (f) shall be accompanied by all of the following: (1) A statement of partnership assets and liabilities as of the date of dissociation. (2) The latest available partnership balance sheet and income statement, if any. (3) An explanation of how the estimated amount of the payment was calculated. (4) Written notice that the payment is in full satisfaction of the obligation to purchase unless, within 120 days after the written notice, the dissociated partner commences an action to determine the buyout price, any offsets under subdivision (c), or other terms of the obligation to purchase. (h) A partner who wrongfully dissociates before the expiration of a definite term or the completion of a particular undertaking is not entitled to payment of any portion of the buyout price until the expiration of the term or completion of the undertaking, unless the partner establishes to the satisfaction of the court that earlier payment will not cause undue hardship to the business of the partnership. A deferred payment shall be adequately secured and bear interest. (i) A dissociated partner may maintain an action against the partnership, pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 16405, to determine the buyout price of that partner's interest, any offsets under subdivision (c), or other terms of the obligation to purchase. The action shall be commenced within 120 days after the partnership has tendered payment or an offer to pay or within one year after written demand for payment if no payment or offer to pay is tendered. The court shall determine the buyout price of the dissociated partner's interest, any offset due under subdivision (c), and accrued interest, and enter judgment for any additional payment or refund. If deferred payment is authorized under subdivision (h), the court shall also determine the security for payment and other terms of the obligation to purchase. The court may assess reasonable attorney's fees and the fees and expenses of appraisers or other experts for a party to the action, in amounts the court finds equitable, against a party that the court finds acted arbitrarily, vexatiously, or not in good faith. The finding may be based on the partnership's failure to tender payment or an offer to pay or to comply with subdivision (g).


16701.5. (a) Section 16701 shall not apply to any dissociation that occurs within 90 days prior to a dissolution under Section 16801. (b) For dissociations occurring within 90 days prior to the dissolution, both of the following shall apply: (1) All partners who dissociated within 90 days prior to the dissolution shall be treated as partners under Section 16807. (2) Any damages for wrongful dissociation under Section 16602 and all other amounts owed by the dissociated partner to the partnership, whether or not presently due, shall be taken into account in determining the amount distributable to the dissociated partner under Section 16807.


16702. (a) For two years after a partner dissociates, the partnership, including a surviving partnership under Article 9 (commencing with Section 16901), is bound by an act of the dissociated partner that would have bound the partnership under Section 16301 before dissociation only if at the time of entering into the transaction all of the following apply to the other party: (1) The other party reasonably believed that the dissociated partner was then a partner. (2) The other party did not have notice of the partner's dissociation. (3) The other party is not deemed to have had knowledge under subdivision (e) of Section 16303 or notice under subdivision (c) of Section 16704. (b) A dissociated partner is liable to the partnership for any damage caused to the partnership arising from an obligation incurred by the dissociated partner after dissociation for which the partnership is liable under subdivision (a).


16703. (a) A partner's dissociation does not of itself discharge the partner's liability for a partnership obligation incurred before dissociation. A dissociated partner is not liable for a partnership obligation incurred after dissociation, except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b). (b) Except for registered limited liability partnerships and foreign limited liability partnerships, a partner who dissociates is liable as a partner to the other party in a transaction entered into by the partnership, or a surviving partnership under Article 9 (commencing with Section 16901), within two years after the partner's dissociation, only if at the time of entering into the transaction all of the following apply to the other party: (1) The other party reasonably believed that the dissociated partner was then a partner. (2) The other party did not have notice of the partner's dissociation. (3) The other party is not deemed to have had knowledge under subdivision (e) of Section 16303 or notice under subdivision (c) of Section 16704. (c) By agreement with the partnership creditor and the partners continuing the business, a dissociated partner may be released from liability for a partnership obligation. (d) A dissociated partner is released from liability for a partnership obligation if a partnership creditor, with notice of the partner's dissociation but without the partner's consent, agrees to a material alteration in the nature or time of payment of a partnership obligation.

16704. (a) A dissociated partner or the partnership may file a statement of dissociation stating the name of the partnership as filed with the Secretary of State, any identification number issued by the Secretary of State, and that the partner is dissociated from the partnership. (b) A statement of dissociation is a limitation on the authority of a dissociated partner for the purposes of subdivisions (d) and (e) of Section 16303. (c) For the purposes of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 16702 and paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of Section 16703, a person not a partner is deemed to have notice of the dissociation 90 days after the statement of dissociation is filed.


16705. Continued use of a partnership name, or a dissociated partner's name as part thereof, by partners continuing the business does not of itself make the dissociated partner liable for an obligation of the partners or the partnership continuing the business.


Article 8. Winding Up Partnership Business

Ca Codes (corp:16801-16807) Corporations Code Section 16801-16807



16801. A partnership is dissolved, and its business shall be wound up, only upon the occurrence of any of the following events: (1) In a partnership at will, by the express will to dissolve and wind up the partnership business of at least half of the partners, including partners, other than wrongfully dissociating partners, who have dissociated within the preceding 90 days, and for which purpose a dissociation under paragraph (1) of Section 16601 constitutes an expression of that partner's will to dissolve and wind up the partnership business. (2) In a partnership for a definite term or particular undertaking, when any of the following occurs: (A) After the expiration of 90 days after a partner's dissociation by death or otherwise under paragraphs (6) to (10), inclusive, of Section 16601, or a partner's wrongful dissociation under subdivision (b) of Section 16602 unless before that time a majority in interest of the partners, including partners who have rightfully dissociated pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 16602, agree to continue the partnership. (B) The express will of all of the partners to wind up the partnership business. (C) The expiration of the term or the completion of the undertaking. (3) An event agreed to in the partnership agreement resulting in the winding up of the partnership business. (4) An event that makes it unlawful for all or substantially all of the business of the partnership to be continued, but a cure of illegality within 90 days after notice to the partnership of the event is effective retroactively to the date of the event for purposes of this section. (5) On application by a partner, a judicial determination that any of the following apply: (A) The economic purpose of the partnership is likely to be unreasonably frustrated. (B) Another partner has engaged in conduct relating to the partnership business that makes it not reasonably practicable to carry on the business in partnership with that partner. (C) It is not otherwise reasonably practicable to carry on the partnership business in conformity with the partnership agreement. (6) On application by a transferee of a partner's transferable interest, a judicial determination that it is equitable to wind up the partnership business after the expiration of the term or completion of the undertaking, if the partnership was for a definite term or particular undertaking at the time of the transfer or entry of the charging order that gave rise to the transfer.


16802. (a) Subject to subdivision (b), a partnership continues after dissolution only for the purpose of winding up its business. The partnership is terminated when the winding up of its business is completed. (b) At any time after the dissolution of a partnership and before the winding up of its business is completed, all of the partners, including any dissociating partner other than a wrongfully dissociating partner, may waive the right to have the partnership's business wound up and the partnership terminated. In that event both of the following apply: (1) The partnership resumes carrying on its business as if dissolution had never occurred, and any liability incurred by the partnership or a partner after the dissolution and before the waiver is determined as if dissolution had never occurred. (2) The rights of a third party accruing under paragraph (1) of Section 16804 or arising out of conduct in reliance on the dissolution before the third party knew or received a notification of the waiver may not be adversely affected.


16803. (a) After dissolution, a partner who has not dissociated may participate in winding up the partnership's business, but on application of any partner, partner's legal representative, or transferee, the court, for good cause shown, may order judicial supervision of the winding up. (b) The legal representative of the last surviving partner may wind up a partnership's business. (c) A person winding up a partnership's business may preserve the partnership business or property as a going concern for a reasonable time, prosecute and defend actions and proceedings, whether civil, criminal, or administrative, settle and close the partnership's business, dispose of and transfer the partnership's property, discharge the partnership's liabilities, distribute the assets of the partnership pursuant to Section 16807, settle disputes by mediation or arbitration, and perform other necessary acts.


16804. Subject to Section 16805, a partnership is bound by a partner's act after dissolution that is either of the following: (1) Appropriate for winding up the partnership business. (2) Would have bound the partnership under Section 16301 before dissolution, if the other party to the transaction did not have notice of the dissolution.


16805. (a) After dissolution, a partner who has not wrongfully dissociated may file a statement of dissolution stating the name of the partnership as filed with the Secretary of State, any identification number issued by the Secretary of State, and that the partnership has dissolved and is winding up its business. (b) A statement of dissolution cancels a filed statement of partnership authority for the purposes of subdivision (d) of Section 16303 and is a limitation on authority for the purposes of subdivision (e) of Section 16303. (c) For the purposes of Sections 16301 and 16804, a person not a partner is deemed to have notice of the dissolution and the limitation on the partners' authority as a result of the statement of dissolution 90 days after it is filed. (d) After filing and, if appropriate, recording a statement of dissolution, a dissolved partnership may file and, if appropriate, record a statement of partnership authority that will operate with respect to a person not a partner as provided in subdivisions (d) and (e) of Section 16303 in any transaction, whether or not the transaction is appropriate for winding up the partnership business.


16806. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b) and except for registered limited liability partnerships and foreign limited liability partnerships, after dissolution a partner is liable to the other partners for the partner's share of any partnership liability incurred under Section 16804. (b) Except for registered limited liability partnerships and foreign limited liability partnerships, a partner who, with knowledge of the dissolution, incurs a partnership liability under paragraph (2) of Section 16804 by an act that is not appropriate for winding up the partnership business is liable to the partnership for any damage caused to the partnership arising from the liability.


16807. (a) In winding up a partnership's business, the assets of the partnership, including the contributions of the partners required by this section, shall be applied to discharge its obligations to creditors, including, to the extent permitted by law, partners who are creditors. Any surplus shall be applied to pay in cash the net amount distributable to partners in accordance with their right to distributions under subdivision (b). (b) Each partner is entitled to a settlement of all partnership accounts upon winding up the partnership business. In settling accounts among the partners, the profits and losses that result from the liquidation of the partnership assets shall be credited and charged to the partners' accounts. The partnership shall make a distribution to a partner in an amount equal to any excess of the credits over the charges in the partner's account. Except for registered limited liability partnerships and foreign limited liability partnerships, a partner shall contribute to the partnership an amount equal to any excess of the charges over the credits in the partner's account. (c) If a partner fails to contribute the full amount that the partner is obligated to contribute under subdivision (b), all of the other partners shall contribute, in the proportions in which those partners share partnership losses, the additional amount necessary to satisfy the partnership obligations for which they are liable under Section 16306. A partner or partner's legal representative may recover from the other partners any contributions the partner makes to the extent the amount contributed exceeds that partner's share of the partnership obligations for which the partner is personally liable under Section 16306. (d) After the settlement of accounts, each partner shall contribute, in the proportion in which the partner shares partnership losses, the amount necessary to satisfy partnership obligations that were not known at the time of the settlement and for which the partner is personally liable under Section 16306. (e) The estate of a deceased partner is liable for the partner's obligation to contribute to the partnership. (f) An assignee for the benefit of creditors of a partnership or a partner, or a person appointed by a court to represent creditors of a partnership or a partner, may enforce a partner's obligation to contribute to the partnership.


Article 9. Conversions And Mergers

Ca Codes (corp:16901-16917) Corporations Code Section 16901-16917



16901. In this article, the following terms have the following meanings: (1) "Constituent other business entity" means any other business entity that is merged with or into one or more partnerships and includes a surviving other business entity. (2) "Constituent partnership" means a partnership that is merged with or into one or more other partnerships or other business entities and includes a surviving partnership. (3) "Disappearing other business entity" means a constituent other business entity that is not the surviving other business entity. (4) "Disappearing partnership" means a constituent partnership that is not the surviving partnership. (5) "Domestic" means organized under the laws of this state when used in relation to any partnership, other business entity, or person (other than an individual). (6) "Foreign other business entity" means any other business entity formed under the laws of any state other than this state or under the laws of the United States or of a foreign country. (7) "Foreign partnership" means a partnership formed under the laws of any state other than this state or under the laws of a foreign country. (8) "General partner" means a partner in a partnership and a general partner in a limited partnership. (9) "Limited liability company" means a limited liability company created under Title 2.5 (commencing with Section 17000), or comparable law of another jurisdiction. (10) "Limited partner" means a limited partner in a limited partnership. (11) "Limited partnership" means a limited partnership created under Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 15611) or Chapter 5.5 (commencing with Section 15900), predecessor law, or comparable law of another jurisdiction. (12) "Other business entity" means a limited partnership, limited liability company, corporation, business trust, real estate investment trust, or an unincorporated association (other than a nonprofit association), but excluding a partnership. (13) "Partner" includes both a general partner and a limited partner. (14) "Surviving other business entity" means an other business entity into which one or more partnerships are merged. (15) "Surviving partnership" means a partnership into which one or more other partnerships or other business entities are merged.


16902. (a) A partnership, other than a registered limited liability partnership, may be converted into a domestic other business entity or a foreign other business entity pursuant to this article if, (1) pursuant to a conversion into a domestic or foreign limited partnership or limited liability company, each of the partners of the converting partnership would receive a percentage interest in the profits and capital of the converted other business entity equal to the partner's percentage interest in profits and capital of the converting partnership as of the effective time of the conversion, and (2) pursuant to a conversion into an other business entity or foreign other business entity not specified in clause (1) above, each of the partnership interests of the same class is treated equally with respect to any distribution of cash, property, rights, interests, or securities of the converted other business entity unless all partners of the same class consent. (b) Notwithstanding this section, the conversion of a partnership to a domestic or foreign other business entity may be effected only if: (1) the law under which that domestic or foreign other business entity will exist expressly permits the formation of that other entity pursuant to a conversion; and (2) the partnership complies with any and all other requirements of that other law that applies to conversion of the other business entity.


16903. (a) A partnership that desires to convert to a domestic or foreign other business entity shall approve a plan of conversion. The plan of conversion shall state the following: (1) The terms and conditions of the conversion. (2) The place of the organization of the converted entity and of the converting partnership and the name of the converted entity after conversion, if different from that of the converting partnership. (3) The manner of converting the partnership interests of each of the partners into shares of, securities of, or interests in the converted entity. (4) The provisions of the governing documents for the converted entity, including the limited partnership agreement, limited liability company articles of organization and operating agreement, or articles or certificate of incorporation if the converted entity is a corporation, to which the holders of interest in the converted entity are to be bound. (5) Any other details or provisions as are required by laws under which the converted entity is organized. (6) Any other details or provisions that are desired. (b) The plan of conversion shall be approved by that number or percentage of partners required by the partnership agreement to approve a conversion of the partnership as set forth in the partnership agreement. If the partnership agreement fails to specify the required partner approval for a conversion of the partnership, the plan of conversion shall be approved by that number or percentage of partners required by the partnership agreement to approve an amendment to the partnership agreement unless the conversion effects a change for which the partnership agreement requires a greater number or percentage of partners than that required to amend the partnership agreement, in which case the plan of conversion shall be approved by that greater number or percentage. If the partnership agreement fails to specify the vote required to amend the partnership agreement, the plan of conversion shall be approved by all partners. (c) If the partnership is converting into a limited partnership, in addition to the approval of the partners as set forth in subdivision (b), the plan of conversion shall be approved by all partners who will become general partners of the converted limited partnership pursuant to the plan of conversion. (d) All partners of the converting partnership except those that dissociate upon effectiveness of the conversion pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section 16909 shall be deemed parties to any partnership or operating agreement, articles or certificate of incorporation, or organic document for the converted entity adopted as part of the plan of conversion, regardless of whether that partner has executed the plan of conversion or the operating agreement, articles or certificate of incorporation, partnership agreement, or other organic document for the converted entity. Any adoption of a new partnership or operating agreement, articles or certificate of incorporation, or other organic document made pursuant to the foregoing sentence shall be effective at the effective time or date of the conversion. (e) Notwithstanding its prior approval, a plan of conversion may be amended before the conversion takes effect if the amendment is approved by the partnership in the same manner, and by the same number or percentage of partners, as was required for approval of the original plan of conversion. (f) The partners of a converting partnership may, at any time before the conversion is effective, in their discretion, abandon a conversion, without further approval by the partners, in the same manner, and by the same number or percentage of partners, as was required for approval of the original plan of conversion at any time before the conversion is effective, subject to the contractual rights of third parties. (g) The converted entity shall keep the plan of conversion at: (1) the principal place of business of the converted entity, if the converted entity is a foreign other business entity or a corporation; or (2) the office at which records are to be kept under Section 15614 or 15901.14 if the converted entity is a domestic limited partnership, or at the office at which records are to be kept under Section 17057 if the converted entity is a domestic limited liability company. Upon the request of a partner of a converting partnership, the authorized person on behalf of the converted entity shall promptly deliver to the partner or the holder of interests or other securities, at the expense of the converted entity, a copy of the plan of conversion. A waiver by a partner of the rights provided in this subdivision shall be unenforceable.


16904. (a) A conversion into a domestic other business entity shall become effective upon the earliest date that all of the following shall have occurred: (1) The approval of the plan of conversion by the partners of the converting partnership as provided in Section 16903. (2) The filing of all documents required by law to create the converted other business entity, which documents shall also contain a statement of conversion, if required under Section 16906. (3) The effective date, if set forth in the plan of conversion, shall have occurred. (b) A copy of the certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, or articles of incorporation, complying with Section 16906, if applicable, duly certified by the Secretary of State, is conclusive evidence of the conversion of the partnership.


16905. (a) The conversion of a partnership into a foreign other business entity shall comply with Section 16902. (b) If the partnership is converting into a foreign other business entity, then the conversion proceedings shall be in accordance with the laws of the state or place of organization of the foreign other business entity and the conversion shall become effective in accordance with that law. (c) (1) Unless a statement of conversion has been filed to effect the conversion, the converted foreign other business entity shall promptly notify the Secretary of State of the mailing address of its agent for service of process, its chief executive office, and of any change of address. To enforce an obligation of a partnership that has converted to a foreign other business entity, the Secretary of State shall only be the agent for service of process in an action or proceeding against the converted foreign other business entity, if the agent designated for the service of process for that entity is a natural person and cannot be found with due diligence or if the agent is a corporation and no person, to whom delivery may be made, may be located with due diligence, or if no agent has been designated and if no one of the officers, partners, managers, members, or agents of that entity may be located after diligent search, and it is so shown by affidavit to the satisfaction of the court. The court then may make an order that service be made by personal delivery to the Secretary of State or to an assistant or deputy Secretary of State of two copies of the process together with two copies of the order, and the order shall set forth an address to which the process shall be sent by the Secretary of State. Service in this manner is deemed complete on the 10th day after delivery of the process to the Secretary of State. (2) Upon receipt of the process and order and the fee set forth in Section 12197 of the Government Code, the Secretary of State shall provide notice to the entity of the service of the process by forwarding by certified mail, return receipt requested, a copy of the process and order to the address specified in the order. (3) The Secretary of State shall keep a record of all process served upon the Secretary of State and shall record therein the time of service and the Secretary of State's action with respect thereto. The certificate of the Secretary of State, under the Secretary of State's official seal, certifying to the receipt of process, the providing of notice thereof to the entity, and the forwarding of the process, shall be competent and prima facie evidence of the matters stated therein.


16906. (a) If the converting partnership has filed a statement of partnership authority under Section 16303 that is effective at the time of the conversion, then upon conversion to a domestic limited partnership, limited liability company, or corporation, the certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, or articles of incorporation filed by the converted entity, as applicable, shall contain a statement of conversion, in that form as may be prescribed by the Secretary of State. If the converting partnership has not filed a statement of partnership authority under Section 16303 that is effective at the time of the conversion, upon conversion to a domestic limited partnership, limited liability company, or corporation, the converted entity may, but is not required to file, on its certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, or articles of incorporation, a statement of conversion. A statement of conversion shall set forth all of the following: (1) The name and the Secretary of State's file number, if any, of the converting partnership. (2) A statement that the principal terms of the plan of conversion were approved by a vote of the partners, which equaled or exceeded the vote required under Section 16903. (b) A partnership converting to a foreign other business entity that has filed a statement of partnership authority under Section 16303 that is effective at the time of conversion may file a certificate of conversion with the Secretary of State. The certificate of conversion shall contain the following: (1) The names of the converting partnership and the converted entity. (2) The street address of the converted entity's chief executive office and of an office in this state, if any. (3) The form of organization of the converted entity. (c) The filing with the Secretary of State of a certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, or articles of incorporation containing a statement of conversion as set forth in subdivision (a) or a certificate of conversion filed pursuant to subdivision (b) shall have the effect of the filing of a cancellation by the converting partnership of any statement of partnership authority filed by it.

16907. (a) Whenever a partnership or other business entity having any real property in this state converts into a partnership or an other business entity pursuant to the laws of this state or of the state or place in which the other business entity was organized, and the laws of the state or place of organization (including this state) of the converting partnership or other business entity provide substantially that the conversion of a converting entity vests in the converted partnership or other business entity all the real property of the converting partnership or converting other business entity, the filing for record in the office of the county recorder of any county in this state in which any of the real property of the converting partnership or converting other business entity is located of either (1) a certificate of conversion or a certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, or articles of incorporation, complying with Section 16906, in the form prescribed by the Secretary of State, certified by the Secretary of State, or (2) a copy of a certificate of conversion or a certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, articles or certificate of incorporation, or other certificate evidencing the creation of a foreign other business entity by conversion, containing a statement of conversion, certified by the Secretary of State or an authorized public official of the state or place pursuant to the laws of which the conversion is effected, shall evidence record ownership in the converted partnership or converted other business entity of all interest of the converting partnership or converting other business entity in and to the real property located in that county. (b) A filed and, if appropriate, recorded certificate of conversion, certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, articles or certificate of incorporation, or other certificate evidencing the creation of an other business entity by conversion, containing a statement of conversion, executed and declared to be accurate pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 16105, stating the name of the converting partnership or converting other business entity in whose name property was held before the conversion and the name of the converted entity, but not containing all of the other information required by Section 16906, operates with respect to the entities named to the extent provided in subdivision (a). (c) Recording of a certificate of conversion, a certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, articles or certificate of incorporation, or other certificate evidencing the creation of another business entity by conversion, containing a statement of conversion, in accordance with Section 16902 shall create, in favor of bona fide purchasers or encumbrancers for value, a conclusive presumption that the conversion was validly completed.


16908. (a) A domestic limited partnership, limited liability company, or corporation, or a foreign other business entity may be converted to a domestic partnership pursuant to this article, but only if the converting entity is authorized by the laws under which it is organized to effect the conversion. (b) An entity that desires to convert into a domestic partnership shall approve a plan of conversion or the instrument that is required to be approved to effect the conversion pursuant to the laws under which the entity is organized. (c) The conversion of a domestic limited partnership, limited liability company, or corporation, or foreign other business entity shall be approved by the number or percentage of the partners, members, shareholders, or holders of interest of the converting entity as is required by the law under which the entity is organized, or a greater or lesser percentage (subject to applicable laws) as set forth in the limited partnership agreement, articles of organization, operating agreement, or articles or certificate of organization, or other governing document for the converting entity. (d) The conversion by a domestic limited partnership, limited liability company, or corporation, or a foreign other business entity into a partnership shall be effective under this article at the time that the conversion is effective under the laws under which the converting entity is organized. (e) The filing with the Secretary of State of a certificate of conversion or a statement of partnership authority containing a statement of conversion pursuant to subdivision (a) shall have the effect of the filing of a certificate of cancellation by the converting foreign limited partnership or foreign limited liability company, and no converting foreign limited partnership or foreign limited liability company that has made the filing is required to file a certificate of cancellation under Section 15696, 15909.07, or 17455 as a result of that conversion. If a converting other business entity is a foreign corporation qualified to transact business in this state, the foreign corporation shall, by virtue of the filing, automatically surrender its right to transact intrastate business.


16909. (a) An entity that converts into another entity pursuant to this article is for all purposes the same entity that existed before the conversion. (b) When a conversion takes effect, all of the following apply: (1) All the rights and property, whether real, personal, or mixed, of the converting entity remains vested in the converted entity. (2) All debts, liabilities, and obligations of the converting entity continue as debts, liabilities, and obligations of the converted entity. (3) All rights of creditors and liens upon the property of the converting entity shall be preserved unimpaired and remain enforceable against the converted entity to the same extent as against the converting entity as if the conversion had not occurred. (4) Any action or proceeding pending by or against the converting entity may be continued against the converted entity as if the conversion had not occurred. (c) A partner of a converting partnership is liable for: (1) All obligations of the converting partnership for which the partner was personally liable before the conversion. (2) All obligations of the converted entity incurred after the conversion takes effect, but those obligations may be satisfied only out of property of the entity if (A) the converted other business entity is a limited partnership and the partner becomes a limited partner, (B) the converted other business entity is a limited liability company and the partner becomes a member, unless the articles of organization or the operating agreement of the limited liability company provide otherwise, or (C) the converted other business entity is a corporation and the partner becomes a shareholder. (d) A partner of a partnership that converted from an other business entity is liable for any and all obligations of the converting other business entity for which the partner was personally liable before the conversion, but only to the extent the partner was liable for the obligation of the converting entity prior to the conversion. (e) A partner of a converting partnership, who does not vote in favor of the conversion and does not agree to become a partner, member, shareholder, or holder of interest of the converted other business entity shall have the right to dissociate from the partnership, as of the date the conversion takes effect. Within 10 days after the approval of the conversion by the partners as required under this article, the converting partnership shall send notice of the approval of the conversion to each partner that has not approved the conversion, accompanied by copies of Section 16701 and a brief description of the procedure to be followed under that section if the partner wishes to dissociate from the partnership. A partner that desires to dissociate from the converting partnership shall send written notice of that dissociation within 30 days after the date of the notice of the approval of the conversion. The converting partnership shall cause the partner's interest in the entity to be purchased under Section 16701. The converting partnership is bound under Section 16702 by an act of a general partner dissociated under this subdivision, and the partner is liable under Section 16703 for transactions entered into by the converted entity after the conversion takes effect. The dissociation of a partner in connection with a conversion pursuant to the terms of this subdivision shall not be deemed to be a wrongful dissociation under Section 16602.


16910. (a) The following entities may be merged pursuant to this article: (1) Two or more partnerships into one partnership. (2) One or more partnerships and one or more other business entities into one of those other business entities. (3) One or more partnerships, other than a limited liability partnership, and one or more other business entities into one partnership. (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the merger of any number of partnerships with any number of other business entities may be effected only if the other business entities that are organized in California are authorized by the laws under which they are organized to effect the merger, and (1) if a domestic partnership is the surviving partnership, the foreign other business entities are not prohibited by the laws under which they are organized from effecting that merger and (2) if a foreign partnership or foreign other business entity is the survivor of the merger, the laws of the jurisdiction under which the survivor is organized authorize that merger.


16911. (a) Each partnership and other business entity which desires to merge shall approve an agreement of merger. The agreement of merger shall be approved by the number or percentage of partners specified for merger in the partnership agreement of the constituent partnership. If the partnership agreement fails to specify the required partner approval for merger of the constituent partnership, then the agreement of merger shall be approved by that number or percentage of partners specified by the partnership agreement to approve an amendment to the partnership agreement. However, if the merger effects a change for which the partnership agreement requires a greater number or percentage of partners than that required to amend the partnership agreement, then the merger shall be approved by that greater number or percentage. If the partnership agreement contains no provision specifying the vote required to amend the partnership agreement, then the agreement of merger must be approved by all the partners. The agreement of merger shall be approved on behalf of each constituent other business entity by those persons required to approve the merger by the laws under which it is organized. Other persons may be parties to the agreement of merger. The agreement of merger shall state all of the following: (1) The terms and conditions of the merger. (2) The name and place of organization of the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity, and of each disappearing partnership and disappearing other business entity, and the agreement of merger may change the name of the surviving partnership, which new name may be the same as, or similar to, the name of a disappearing partnership. (3) The manner of converting the partnership interests of each of the constituent partnerships into interests or other securities of the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity, and if partnership interests of any of the constituent partnerships are not to be converted solely into interest or other securities of the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity, the cash, property, rights, interests, or securities which the holders of the partnership interest are to receive in exchange for the partnership interests, which cash, property, rights, interests, or securities may be in addition to or in lieu of interests or other securities of the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity, or that the partnership interests are canceled without consideration. (4) Any other details or provisions as are required by the laws under which any constituent other business entity is organized. (5) Any other details or provisions that are desired, including, without limitation, a provision for the treatment of fractional partnership interests. (b) If the partnership is merging into a limited partnership, then in addition to the approval of the partners as set forth under subdivision (a), the agreement of merger must be approved by all partners who will become general partners of the surviving limited partnership upon the effectiveness of the merger. (c) Notwithstanding its prior approval, an agreement of merger may be amended before the merger takes effect if the amendment is approved by the partners of each constituent partnership, in the same manner as required for approval of the original agreement of merger, and by each of the constituent other business entities. (d) The partners of a constituent partnership may in their discretion, abandon a merger, subject to the contractual rights, if any, of third parties, including other constituent partnerships and constituent other business entities, if the abandonment is approved by the partners of the constituent partnership in the same manner as required for approval of the original agreement of merger. (e) An agreement of merger approved in accordance with subdivision (a) may (1) effect any amendment to the partnership agreement of any domestic constituent partnership or (2) effect the adoption of a new partnership agreement for a domestic constituent partnership if it is the surviving partnership in the merger. Any amendment to a partnership agreement or adoption of a new partnership agreement made pursuant to the foregoing sentence shall be effective at the effective time or date of the merger. (f) The surviving partnership or surviving other business entity shall keep the agreement of merger at the principal place of business of the surviving entity if the surviving entity is a partnership or a foreign other business entity, at the office referred to in Section 1500 if the surviving entity is a domestic corporation, at the office referred to in subdivision (a) of Section 15614 or 15901.14 if the surviving entity is a domestic limited partnership or at the office referred to in Section 17057 if the surviving entity is a domestic limited liability company and, upon the request of a partner of a constituent partnership or a holder of interests or other securities of a constituent other business entity, the authorized person on behalf of the partnership or the surviving other business entity shall promptly deliver to the partner or the holder of interests or other securities, at the expense of the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity, a copy of the agreement of merger. A waiver by a partner or holder of interests or other securities of the rights provided in this subdivision shall be unenforceable.

16912. (a) Unless a future effective date or time is provided in a certificate of merger if a certificate of merger is required to be filed under Section 16915 in which event the merger shall be effective at the future effective date or time: (1) A merger in which no domestic other business entity is a party to the merger shall be effective upon the later of any of the following: (A) The approval of the agreement of merger by all parties to the merger as provided in Section 16911. (B) The filing of all documents required by law to be filed as a condition to the effectiveness of the merger; or (C) Any effective date specified in the agreement of merger; and (2) A merger in which a domestic other business entity is a party to the merger shall be effective upon the filing of the certificate of merger in the office of the Secretary of State. (b) For all mergers in which a certificate of merger is required to be filed under Section 16915, a copy of the certificate of merger duly certified by the Secretary of State is conclusive evidence of the merger of (A) the constituent partnerships (either by themselves or together with constituent other business entities) into the surviving other business entity, or (B) the constituent partnerships or the constituent other business entities, or both, into the surviving partnership.

16913. (a) The merger of any number of domestic partnerships with any number of foreign partnerships or foreign other business entities shall be required to comply with Section 16910. (b) If the surviving entity is a domestic partnership or a domestic other business entity, the merger proceedings with respect to that partnership or other business entity and any domestic disappearing partnership shall conform to the provisions of this chapter governing the merger of domestic partnerships, but if the surviving entity is a foreign partnership or a foreign other business entity, then, subject to the requirements of subdivision (d), the merger proceedings may be in accordance with the laws of the state or place of organization of the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity. (c) If the surviving entity is a domestic other business entity or is a domestic partnership in a merger in which a domestic other business entity is also a party, the certificate of merger shall be filed as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 16915, and thereupon, subject to subdivision (a) of Section 16912, the merger shall be effective as to each domestic constituent partnership and domestic constituent other business entity. (d) If the surviving entity is a foreign partnership or foreign other business entity, the merger shall become effective in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity is organized, but shall be effective as to any domestic disappearing partnership as of the time of effectiveness in the foreign jurisdiction in accordance with Section 16912.

16914. (a) When a merger takes effect, all of the following apply: (1) The separate existence of the disappearing partnerships and disappearing other business entities ceases and the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity shall succeed, without other transfer, act, or deed, to all the rights and property whether real, personal, or mixed, of each of the disappearing partnerships and disappearing other business entities and shall be subject to all the debts and liabilities of each in the same manner as if the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity had itself incurred them. (2) All rights of creditors and all liens upon the property of each of the constituent partnerships and constituent other business entities shall be preserved unimpaired and may be enforced against the surviving partnership or the surviving other business entity to the same extent as if the debt, liability, or duty that gave rise to that lien had been incurred or contracted by it, provided that those liens upon the property of a disappearing partnership or disappearing other business entity shall be limited to the property affected thereby immediately prior to the time the merger is effective. (3) Any action or proceeding pending by or against any disappearing partnership or disappearing other business entity may be prosecuted to judgment, which shall bind the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity, or the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity may be proceeded against or be substituted in the disappearing partnership's or the disappearing other business entity's place. (b) (1) Unless a certificate of merger has been filed to effect the merger, the surviving foreign entity shall promptly notify the Secretary of State of the mailing address of its agent for service of process and its chief executive office, and of any change of address. To enforce an obligation of a partnership that has merged with a foreign partnership or foreign other business entity, the Secretary of State shall only be the agent for service of process in an action or proceeding against the surviving foreign partnership or foreign other business entity, if the agent designated for the service of process for that entity is a natural person and cannot be located with due diligence or if the agent is a corporation and no person to whom delivery may be made can be located with due diligence, or if no agent has been designated and if no one of the officers, partners, managers, members, or agents of the entity can be located after diligent search, and it is so shown by affidavit to the satisfaction of the court. The court then may make an order that service be made by personal delivery to the Secretary of State or to an assistant or deputy Secretary of State of two copies of the process together with two copies of the order, and the order shall set forth an address to which the process shall be sent by the Secretary of State. Service in this manner is deemed complete on the 10th day after delivery of the process to the Secretary of State. (2) Upon receipt of the process and order and the fee set forth in subdivision (c) of Section 12197 of the Government Code, the Secretary of State shall give notice to the entity of the service of the process by forwarding by certified mail, return receipt requested, a copy of the process and order to the address specified in the order. (3) The Secretary of State shall keep a record of all process served upon the Secretary of State and shall record therein the time of service and the Secretary of State's action with respect thereto. The certificate of the Secretary of State, under the Secretary of State's official seal, certifying to the receipt of process, the giving of notice thereof to the entity, and the forwarding of the process, shall be competent and prima facie evidence of the matters stated therein. (c) A partner of the surviving partnership or surviving limited partnership, a member of the surviving limited liability company, a shareholder of the surviving corporation, or a holder of equity securities of the surviving other business entity, is liable for all of the following: (1) All obligations of a party to the merger for which that person was personally liable before the merger. (2) All other obligations of the surviving entity incurred before the merger by a party to the merger, but those obligations may be satisfied only out of property of the entity. (3) All obligations of the surviving entity incurred after the merger takes effect, but those obligations may be satisfied only out of property of the entity if that person is a limited partner, a shareholder in a corporation, or, unless expressly provided otherwise in the articles of organization or other constituent documents, a member of a limited liability company or a holder of equity securities in a surviving other business entity. (d) If the obligations incurred before the merger by a party to the merger are not satisfied out of the property of the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity, the general partners of that party immediately before the effective date of the merger, to the extent that party was a partnership or a limited partnership, shall contribute the amount necessary to satisfy that party's obligations to the surviving entity in the manner provided in Section 16807 or in the limited partnership act of the jurisdiction in which the party was formed, as the case may be, as if the merged party were dissolved. (e) A partner of a domestic disappearing partnership who does not vote in favor of the merger and does not agree to become a partner, member, shareholder, or holder of interest or equity securities of the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity shall have the right to dissociate from the partnership as of the date the merger takes effect. Within 10 days after the approval of the merger by the partners as required under this article, each domestic disappearing partnership shall send notice of the approval of the merger to each partner that has not approved the merger, accompanied by a copy of Section 16701 and a brief description of the procedure to be followed under that section if the partner wishes to dissociate from the partnership. A partner that desires to dissociate from a disappearing partnership shall send written notice of that dissociation within 30 days after the date of the notice of the approval of the merger. The disappearing partnership shall cause the partner's interest in the entity to be purchased under Section 16701. The surviving entity is bound under Section 16702 by an act of a general partner dissociated under this subdivision, and the partner is liable under Section 16703 for transactions entered into by the surviving entity after the merger takes effect. The dissociation of a partner in connection with a merger pursuant to the terms of this subdivision shall not be deemed a wrongful dissociation under Section 16602.


16915. (a) In a merger involving a domestic partnership, in which another partnership or a foreign other business entity is a party, but in which no other domestic other business entity is a party, the surviving partnership or surviving foreign other business entity may file with the Secretary of State a statement that one or more partnerships have merged into the surviving partnership or surviving foreign other business entity, or that one or more partnerships or foreign other business entities have merged into the surviving domestic partnership. A statement of merger shall contain the following: (1) The name of each partnership or foreign other business entity that is a party to the merger. (2) The name of the surviving entity into which the other partnerships or foreign other business entities were merged. (3) The street address of the surviving entity's chief executive office and of an office in this state, if any. (4) Whether the surviving entity is a partnership or a foreign other business entity, specifying the type of the entity. (b) In a merger involving a domestic partnership in which a domestic other business entity is also a party, after approval of the merger by the constituent partnerships and any constituent other business entities, the constituent partnerships and constituent other business entities shall file a certificate of merger in the office of, and on a form prescribed by, the Secretary of State, but if the surviving entity is a domestic corporation or a foreign corporation in a merger in which a domestic corporation is a constituent party, the surviving corporation shall file in the office of the Secretary of State a copy of the agreement of merger and attachments required under paragraph (1) of subdivision (g) of Section 1113. The certificate of merger shall be executed and acknowledged by each domestic constituent partnership by two partners (unless a lesser number is provided in the partnership agreement) and by each foreign constituent partnership by one or more partners, and by each constituent other business entity by those persons required to execute the certificate of merger by the laws under which the constituent other business entity is organized. The certificate of merger shall set forth all of the following: (1) The names and the Secretary of State's file numbers, if any, of each of the constituent partnerships and constituent other business entities, separately identifying the disappearing partnerships and disappearing other business entities and the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity. (2) If a vote of the partners was required under Section 16911, a statement that the principal terms of the agreement of merger were approved by a vote of the partners, which equaled or exceeded the vote required. (3) If the surviving entity is a domestic partnership and not an other business entity, any change to the information set forth in any filed statement of partnership authority of the surviving partnership resulting from the merger, including any change in the name of the surviving partnership resulting from the merger. The filing of a certificate of merger setting forth any changes to any filed statement of partnership authority of the surviving partnership shall have the effect of the filing of a certificate of amendment of the statement of partnership authority by the surviving partnership, and the surviving partnership need not file a certificate of amendment under Section 16015 to reflect those changes. (4) The future effective date or time (which shall be a date or time certain not more than 90 days subsequent to the date of filing) of the merger, if the merger is not to be effective upon the filing of the certificate of merger with the office of the Secretary of State. (5) If the surviving entity is an other business entity or a foreign partnership, the full name, type of entity, legal jurisdiction in which the entity was organized and by whose laws its internal affairs are governed, and the address of the principal place of business of the entity. (6) Any other information required to be stated in the certificate of merger by the laws under which each constituent other business entity is organized. (c) A statement of merger or a certificate of merger, as is applicable under subdivision (a) or (b), shall have the effect of the filing of a cancellation for each disappearing partnership of any statement of partnership authority filed by it.


16915.5. (a) Upon merger pursuant to this article, a surviving domestic or foreign partnership or other business entity shall be deemed to have assumed the liability of each disappearing domestic or foreign partnership or other business entity that is taxed under Part 10 (commencing with Section 17001) of, or under Part 11 (commencing with Section 23001) of, Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code for the following: (1) To prepare and file, or to cause to be prepared and filed, tax and information returns otherwise required of that disappearing entity as specified in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 18501) of Part 10.2 of Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. (2) To pay any tax liability determined to be due. (b) If the surviving entity is a domestic limited liability company, domestic corporation, or registered limited liability partnership or a foreign limited liability company, foreign limited liability partnership, or foreign corporation that is registered or qualified to do business in California, the Secretary of State shall notify the Franchise Tax Board of the merger.


16916. (a) Whenever a domestic or foreign partnership or other business entity having any real property in this state merges with another partnership or other business entity pursuant to the laws of this state or of the state or place in which any constituent partnership or constituent other business entity was organized, and the laws of the state or place of organization (including this state) of any disappearing partnership or disappearing other business entity provide substantially that the making and filing of a statement of merger, agreement of merger or certificate of merger vests in the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity all the real property of any disappearing partnership and disappearing other business entity, the filing for record in the office of the county record of any county in this state in which any of the real property of the disappearing partnership or disappearing other business entity is located of either (1) a certificate of merger or agreement of merger certified by the Secretary of State, or other certificate prescribed by the Secretary of State, or (2) a copy of the statement of merger, agreement of merger or certificate of merger, certified by the Secretary of State or an authorized public official of the state or place pursuant to the laws of which the merger is effected, shall evidence record ownership in the surviving partnership or surviving other business entity of all interest of that disappearing partnership or disappearing other business entity in and to the real property located in that county. (b) A filed and, if appropriate, recorded statement of merger, executed and declared to be accurate pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 16105, stating the name of a partnership or other business entity that is a party to the merger in whose name property was held before the merger and the name of the surviving entity, but not containing all of the other information required by Section 16915, operates with respect to the partnerships or other business entities named to the extent provided in subdivision (a). (c) Recording of the certificate of merger in accordance with subdivision (a) shall create, in favor of bona fide purchasers or encumbrancers for value, a conclusive presumption that the merger was validly completed.

16917. This article is not exclusive. Partnerships, other than limited liability partnerships, may be converted or merged in any other manner provided by law.


Article 10. Limited Liability Partnerships

Ca Codes (corp:16951-16962) Corporations Code Section 16951-16962



16951. For purposes of this chapter, the only types of limited liability partnerships that shall be recognized are a registered limited liability partnership and a foreign limited liability partnership, as defined in Section 16101. No registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership may render professional limited liability partnership services in this state except through licensed persons.


16952. The name of a registered limited liability partnership shall contain the words "Registered Limited Liability Partnership" or "Limited Liability Partnership" or one of the abbreviations "L.L.P.," "LLP," "R.L.L.P.," or "RLLP" as the last words or letters of its name.


16953. (a) To become a registered limited liability partnership, a partnership, other than a limited partnership, shall file with the Secretary of State a registration, executed by one or more partners authorized to execute a registration, stating all of the following: (1) The name of the partnership. (2) The address of its principal office. (3) The name and address of the agent for service of process on the limited liability partnership in California. (4) A brief statement of the business in which the partnership engages. (5) Any other matters that the partnership determines to include. (6) That the partnership is registering as a registered limited liability partnership. (b) The registration shall be accompanied by a fee as set forth in subdivision (a) of Section 12189 of the Government Code. (c) The Secretary of State shall register as a registered limited liability partnership any partnership that submits a completed registration with the required fee. (d) The Secretary of State may cancel the filing of the registration if a check or other remittance accepted in payment of the filing fee is not paid upon presentation. Upon receiving written notification that the item presented for payment has not been honored for payment, the Secretary of State shall give a first written notice of the applicability of this section to the agent for service of process or to the person submitting the instrument. Thereafter, if the amount has not been paid by cashier's check or equivalent, the Secretary of State shall give a second written notice of cancellation and the cancellation shall thereupon be effective. The second notice shall be given 20 days or more after the first notice and 90 days or less after the date of the original filing. (e) A partnership becomes a registered limited liability partnership at the time of the filing of the initial registration with the Secretary of State or at any later date or time specified in the registration and the payment of the fee required by subdivision (b). A partnership continues as a registered limited liability partnership until a notice that it is no longer a registered limited liability partnership has been filed pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 16954 or, if applicable, until it has been dissolved and finally wound up. The status of a partnership as a registered limited liability partnership and the liability of a partner of the registered limited liability partnership shall not be adversely affected by errors or subsequent changes in the information stated in a registration under subdivision (a) or an amended registration or notice under Section 16954. (f) The fact that a registration or amended registration pursuant to this section is on file with the Secretary of State is notice that the partnership is a registered limited liability partnership and of those other facts contained therein that are required to be set forth in the registration or amended registration. (g) The Secretary of State shall provide a form for a registration under subdivision (a), which shall include the form for confirming compliance with the optional security requirement pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 16956. The Secretary of State shall include with instructional materials provided in conjunction with the form for a registration under subdivision (a) a notice that filing the registration will obligate the limited liability partnership to pay an annual tax for that taxable year to the Franchise Tax Board pursuant to Section 17948 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. That notice shall be updated annually to specify the dollar amount of the tax. (h) A limited liability partnership providing professional limited liability partnership services in this state shall comply with all statutory and administrative registration or filing requirements of the state board, commission, or other agency that prescribes the rules and regulations governing the particular profession in which the partnership proposes to engage, pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Business and Professions Code relating to that profession. The state board, commission, or other agency shall not disclose, unless compelled by a subpoena or other order of a court of competent jurisdiction, any information it receives in the course of evaluating the compliance of a limited liability partnership with applicable statutory and administrative registration or filing requirements, provided that nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent a state board, commission, or other agency from disclosing the manner in which the limited liability partnership has complied with the requirements of Section 16956, or the compliance or noncompliance by the limited liability partnership with any other requirements of the state board, commission, or other agency.


16954. (a) The registration of a registered limited liability partnership may be amended by an amended registration executed by one or more partners authorized to execute an amended registration and filed with the Secretary of State, as soon as reasonably practical after any information set forth in the registration or previously filed amended registration becomes inaccurate or to add information to the registration or amended registration. (b) If a registered limited liability partnership ceases to be a registered limited liability partnership, it shall file with the Secretary of State a notice, executed by one or more partners authorized to execute the notice, that it is no longer a registered limited liability partnership. The notice shall state that a final annual tax return, as described by Section 17948.3 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, has been or will be filed with the Franchise Tax Board, as required under Part 10.2 (commencing with Section 18401) of Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. (c) An amendment pursuant to subdivision (a) and a notice pursuant to subdivision (b) shall each be accompanied by a fee as set forth in subdivision (c) of Section 12189 of the Government Code. (d) The Secretary of State shall provide forms for an amended registration under subdivision (a) and a notice under subdivision (b). (e) A notice of cessation, signed pursuant to subdivision (b), shall be filed with the Secretary of State. The Secretary of State shall notify the Franchise Tax Board of the cessation.


16955. (a) A domestic partnership, other than a limited partnership, may convert to a registered limited liability by the vote of the partners possessing a majority of the interests of its partners in the current profits of the partnership or by a different vote as may be required in its partnership agreement. (b) When such a conversion takes effect, all of the following apply: (1) All property, real and personal, tangible and intangible, of the converting partnership remains vested in the converted registered limited liability partnership. (2) All debts, obligations, liabilities, and penalties of the converting partnership continue as debts, obligations, liabilities, and penalties of the converted registered limited liability partnership. (3) Any action, suit, or proceeding, civil or criminal, then pending by or against the converting partnership may be continued as if the conversion had not occurred. (4) To the extent provided in the agreement of conversion and in this chapter, the partners of a partnership shall continue as partners in the converted registered limited liability partnership. (5) A partnership that has been converted to a registered limited liability partnership pursuant to this chapter is the same person that existed prior to the conversion.


16956. (a) At the time of registration pursuant to Section 16953, in the case of a registered limited liability partnership, and Section 16959, in the case of a foreign limited liability partnership, and at all times during which those partnerships shall transact intrastate business, every registered limited liability partnership and foreign limited liability partnership, as the case may be, shall be required to provide security for claims against it as follows: (1) For claims based upon acts, errors, or omissions arising out of the practice of public accountancy, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing accountancy services shall comply with one, or pursuant to subdivision (b) some combination, of the following: (A) Maintaining a policy or policies of insurance against liability imposed on or against it by law for damages arising out of claims; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance for partnerships with five or fewer licensed persons shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of insurance shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of insurance is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000) in any one designated period, less amounts paid in defending, settling, or discharging claims as set forth in this subparagraph. The policy or policies may be issued on a claims-made or occurrence basis, and shall cover: (i) in the case of a claims-made policy, claims initially asserted in the designated period, and (ii) in the case of an occurrence policy, occurrences during the designated period. For purposes of this subparagraph, "designated period" means a policy year or any other period designated in the policy that is not greater than 12 months. The impairment or exhaustion of the aggregate limit of liability by amounts paid under the policy in connection with the settlement, discharge, or defense of claims applicable to a designated period shall not require the partnership to acquire additional insurance coverage for that designated period. The policy or policies of insurance may be in a form reasonably available in the commercial insurance market and may be subject to those terms, conditions, exclusions, and endorsements that are typically contained in those policies. A policy or policies of insurance maintained pursuant to this subparagraph may be subject to a deductible or self-insured retention. Upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership, the partnership shall, with respect to any insurance policy or policies then maintained pursuant to this subparagraph, maintain or obtain an extended reporting period endorsement or equivalent provision in the maximum total aggregate limit of liability required to comply with this subparagraph for a minimum of three years if reasonably available from the insurer. (B) Maintaining in trust or bank escrow, cash, bank certificates of deposit, United States Treasury obligations, bank letters of credit, or bonds of insurance or surety companies as security for payment of liabilities imposed by law for damages arising out of all claims; however, the maximum amount of security for partnerships with five or fewer licensed persons shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of security shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of security is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). The partnership remains in compliance with this section during a calendar year notwithstanding amounts paid during that calendar year from the accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds in defending, settling, or discharging claims of the type described in this paragraph, provided that the amount of those accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds was at least the amount specified in the preceding sentence as of the first business day of that calendar year. Notwithstanding the pendency of other claims against the partnership, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subparagraph as to a claim if within 30 days after the time that a claim is initially asserted through service of a summons, complaint, or comparable pleading in a judicial or administrative proceeding, the partnership has provided the required amount of security by designating and segregating funds in compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph. (C) Unless the partnership has satisfied subparagraph (D), each partner of a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing accountancy services, by virtue of that person's status as a partner, thereby automatically guarantees payment of the difference between the maximum amount of security required for the partnership by this paragraph and the security otherwise provided in accordance with subparagraphs (A) and (B), provided that the aggregate amount paid by all partners under these guarantees shall not exceed the difference. Neither withdrawal by a partner nor the dissolution and winding up of the partnership shall affect the rights or obligations of a partner arising prior to withdrawal or dissolution and winding up, and the guarantee provided for in this subparagraph shall apply only to conduct that occurred prior to the withdrawal or dissolution and winding up. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall affect or impair the rights or obligations of the partners among themselves, or the partnership, including, but not limited to, rights of contribution, subrogation, or indemnification. (D) Confirming, pursuant to the procedure in subdivision (c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year of the partnership, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding ten million dollars ($10,000,000). (2) For claims based upon acts, errors, or omissions arising out of the practice of law, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing legal services shall comply with one, or pursuant to subdivision (b) some combination, of the following: (A) Each registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing legal services shall maintain a policy or policies of insurance against liability imposed on or against it by law for damages arising out of claims; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance for partnerships with five or fewer licensed persons shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of insurance shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of insurance is not required to exceed seven million five hundred thousand dollars ($7,500,000) in any one designated period, less amounts paid in defending, settling, or discharging claims as set forth in this subparagraph. The policy or policies may be issued on a claims-made or occurrence basis, and shall cover (i) in the case of a claims-made policy, claims initially asserted in the designated period, and (ii) in the case of an occurrence policy, occurrences during the designated period. For purposes of this subparagraph, "designated period" means a policy year or any other period designated in the policy that is not greater than 12 months. The impairment or exhaustion of the aggregate limit of liability by amounts paid under the policy in connection with the settlement, discharge, or defense of claims applicable to a designated period shall not require the partnership to acquire additional insurance coverage for that designated period. The policy or policies of insurance may be in a form reasonably available in the commercial insurance market and may be subject to those terms, conditions, exclusions, and endorsements that are typically contained in those policies. A policy or policies of insurance maintained pursuant to this subparagraph may be subject to a deductible or self-insured retention. Upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership, the partnership shall, with respect to any insurance policy or policies then maintained pursuant to this subparagraph, maintain or obtain an extended reporting period endorsement or equivalent provision in the maximum total aggregate limit of liability required to comply with this subparagraph for a minimum of three years if reasonably available from the insurer. (B) Each registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing legal services shall maintain in trust or bank escrow, cash, bank certificates of deposit, United States Treasury obligations, bank letters of credit, or bonds of insurance or surety companies as security for payment of liabilities imposed by law for damages arising out of all claims; however, the maximum amount of security for partnerships with five or fewer licensed persons shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of security shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of security is not required to exceed seven million five hundred thousand dollars ($7,500,000). The partnership remains in compliance with this section during a calendar year notwithstanding amounts paid during that calendar year from the accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds in defending, settling, or discharging claims of the type described in this paragraph, provided that the amount of those accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds was at least the amount specified in the preceding sentence as of the first business day of that calendar year. Notwithstanding the pendency of other claims against the partnership, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subparagraph as to a claim if within 30 days after the time that a claim is initially asserted through service of a summons, complaint, or comparable pleading in a judicial or administrative proceeding, the partnership has provided the required amount of security by designating and segregating funds in compliance with the requirement of this subparagraph. (C) Unless the partnership has satisfied the requirements of subparagraph (D), each partner of a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing legal services, by virtue of that person's status as a partner, thereby automatically guarantees payment of the difference between the maximum amount of security required for the partnership by this paragraph and the security otherwise provided in accordance with the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B), provided that the aggregate amount paid by all partners under these guarantees shall not exceed the difference. Neither withdrawal by a partner nor the dissolution and winding up of the partnership shall affect the rights or obligations of a partner arising prior to withdrawal or dissolution and winding up, and the guarantee provided for in this subparagraph shall apply only to conduct that occurred prior to the withdrawal or dissolution and winding up. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall affect or impair the rights or obligations of the partners among themselves, or the partnership, including, but not limited to, rights of contribution, subrogation, or indemnification. (D) Confirming, pursuant to the procedure in subdivision (c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year of the partnership, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding fifteen million dollars ($15,000,000). (3) For claims based upon acts, errors, or omissions arising out of the practice of architecture, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing architectural services shall comply with one, or pursuant to subdivision (b) some combination, of the following: (A) Maintaining a policy or policies of insurance against liability imposed on or against it by law for damages arising out of claims; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance for partnerships with five or fewer licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of liability coverage shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). The policy or policies may be issued on a claims-made or occurrence basis, and shall cover: (i) in the case of a claims-made policy, claims initially asserted in the designated period, and (ii) in the case of an occurrence policy, occurrences during the designated period. For purposes of this subparagraph, "designated period" means a policy year or any other period designated in the policy that is not greater than 12 months. The impairment or exhaustion of the aggregate limit of liability by amounts paid under the policy in connection with the settlement, discharge, or defense of claims applicable to a designated period shall not require the partnership to acquire additional insurance coverage for that designated period. The policy or policies of insurance may be in a form reasonably available in the commercial insurance market and may be subject to those terms, conditions, exclusions, and endorsements that are typically contained in those policies. A policy or policies of insurance maintained pursuant to this subparagraph may be subject to a deductible or self-insured retention. Upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership, the partnership shall, with respect to any insurance policy or policies then maintained pursuant to this subparagraph, maintain or obtain an extended reporting period endorsement or equivalent provision in the maximum total aggregate limit of liability required to comply with this subparagraph for a minimum of three years if reasonably available from the insurer. (B) Maintaining in trust or bank escrow, cash, bank certificates of deposit, United States Treasury obligations, bank letters of credit, or bonds of insurance or surety companies as security for payment of liabilities imposed by law for damages arising out of all claims; however, the maximum amount of security for partnerships with five or fewer licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of security shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of security is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). The partnership remains in compliance with this section during a calendar year notwithstanding amounts paid during that calendar year from the accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds in defending, settling, or discharging claims of the type described in this paragraph, provided that the amount of those accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds was at least the amount specified in the preceding sentence as of the first business day of that calendar year. Notwithstanding the pendency of other claims against the partnership, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subparagraph as to a claim if within 30 days after the time that a claim is initially asserted through service of a summons, complaint, or comparable pleading in a judicial or administrative proceeding, the partnership has provided the required amount of security by designating and segregating funds in compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph. (C) Unless the partnership has satisfied subparagraph (D), each partner of a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing architectural services, by virtue of that person's status as a partner, thereby automatically guarantees payment of the difference between the maximum amount of security required for the partnership by this paragraph and the security otherwise provided in accordance with subparagraphs (A) and (B), provided that the aggregate amount paid by all partners under these guarantees shall not exceed the difference. Neither withdrawal by a partner nor the dissolution and winding up of the partnership shall affect the rights or obligations of a partner arising prior to withdrawal or dissolution and winding up, and the guarantee provided for in this subparagraph shall apply only to conduct that occurred prior to the withdrawal or dissolution and winding up. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall affect or impair the rights or obligations of the partners among themselves, or the partnership, including, but not limited to, rights of contribution, subrogation, or indemnification. (D) Confirming, pursuant to the procedure in subdivision (c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year of the partnership, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding ten million dollars ($10,000,000). (4) For claims based upon acts, errors, or omissions arising out of the practice of engineering or the practice of land surveying, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing engineering or land surveying services shall comply with one, or pursuant to subdivision (b) some combination, of the following: (A) Maintaining a policy or policies of insurance against liability imposed on or against it by law for damages arising out of claims; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance for partnerships with five or fewer licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership shall not be less than two million dollars ($2,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of liability coverage shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). The policy or policies may be issued on a claims-made or occurrence basis, and shall cover: (i) in the case of a claims-made policy, claims initially asserted in the designated period, and (ii) in the case of an occurrence policy, occurrences during the designated period. For purposes of this subparagraph, "designated period" means a policy year or any other period designated in the policy that is not greater than 12 months. The impairment or exhaustion of the aggregate limit of liability by amounts paid under the policy in connection with the settlement, discharge, or defense of claims applicable to a designated period shall not require the partnership to acquire additional insurance coverage for that designated period. The policy or policies of insurance may be in a form reasonably available in the commercial insurance market and may be subject to those terms, conditions, exclusions, and endorsements that are typically contained in those policies. A policy or policies of insurance maintained pursuant to this subparagraph may be subject to a deductible or self-insured retention. Upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership, the partnership shall, with respect to any insurance policy or policies then maintained pursuant to this subparagraph, maintain or obtain an extended reporting period endorsement or equivalent provision in the maximum total aggregate limit of liability required to comply with this subparagraph for a minimum of three years if reasonably available from the insurer. (B) Maintaining in trust or bank escrow, cash, bank certificates of deposit, United States Treasury obligations, bank letters of credit, or bonds of insurance or surety companies as security for payment of liabilities imposed by law for damages arising out of all claims; however, the maximum amount of security for partnerships with five or fewer licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership shall not be less than two million dollars ($2,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of security shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of security is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). The partnership remains in compliance with this section during a calendar year, notwithstanding amounts paid during that calendar year from the accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds in defending, settling, or discharging claims of the type described in this paragraph, provided that the amount of those accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds was at least the amount specified in the preceding sentence as of the first business day of that calendar year. Notwithstanding the pendency of other claims against the partnership, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subparagraph as to a claim if, within 30 days after the time that a claim is initially asserted through service of a summons, complaint, or comparable pleading in a judicial or administrative proceeding, the partnership has provided the required amount of security by designating and segregating funds in compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph. (C) Unless the partnership has satisfied subparagraph (D), each partner of a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing engineering services or land surveying services, by virtue of that person's status as a partner, thereby automatically guarantees payment of the difference between the maximum amount of security required for the partnership by this paragraph and the security otherwise provided in accordance with subparagraphs (A) and (B), provided that the aggregate amount paid by all partners under these guarantees shall not exceed the difference. Neither withdrawal by a partner nor the dissolution and winding up of the partnership shall affect the rights or obligations of a partner arising prior to withdrawal or dissolution and winding up, and the guarantee provided for in this subparagraph shall apply only to conduct that occurred prior to the withdrawal or dissolution and winding up. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall affect or impair the rights or obligations of the partners among themselves, or the partnership, including, but not limited to, rights of contribution, subrogation, or indemnification. (D) Confirming, pursuant to the procedure in subdivision (c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year of the partnership, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding ten million dollars ($10,000,000). (b) For purposes of satisfying the security requirements of this section, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership may aggregate the security provided by it pursuant to subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a), or subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (4) of subdivision (a), as the case may be. Any registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership intending to comply with the alternative security provisions set forth in subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), subparagraph (D) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), subparagraph (D) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a), or subparagraph (D) of paragraph (4) of subdivision (a), shall furnish the following information to the Secretary of State's office, in the manner prescribed in, and accompanied by all information required by, the applicable section: TRANSMITTAL FORM FOR EVIDENCING COMPLIANCE WITH SECTION 16956(a)(1)(D), SECTION 16956(a)(2)(D), SECTION 16956(a)(3)(D), OR SECTION 16956(a)(4)(D) OF THE CALIFORNIA CORPORATIONS CODE The undersigned hereby confirms the following: _____________________________________ 1. Name of registered or foreign limited ______________________ liability partnership _________________________________ 2. Jurisdiction where partnership is __________ organized 3. ____________________________ Address of principal office The registered or foreign limited liability partnership chooses to satisfy the requirements of Section 16956 by confirming, pursuant to Section 16956(a)(1)(D), 16956(a)(2)(D), 16956(a)(3)(D), or 16956 (a)(4)(D) and pursuant to Section 16956(c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year, the partnership had a net worth equal to or exceeding ten 4. million dollars ($10,000,000), in the case of a partnership providing accountancy services, fifteen million dollars ($15,000,000) in the case of a partnership providing legal services, or ten million dollars ($10,000,000), in the case of a partnership providing architectural services, engineering services, or land surveying services. _________________________________________ 5. Title of authorized person executing this _____ form ____________________________________ 6. Signature of authorized person ____________________ executing this form (c) Pursuant to subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), subparagraph (D) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), subparagraph (D) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a), or subparagraph (D) of paragraph (4) of subdivision (a), a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership may satisfy the requirements of this section by confirming that, as of the last day of its most recently completed fiscal year, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding the amount required. In order to comply with this alternative method of meeting the requirements established in this section, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall file an annual confirmation with the Secretary of State's office, signed by an authorized member of the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership, accompanied by a transmittal form as prescribed by subdivision (b). In order to be current in a given year, the partnership form for confirming compliance with the optional security requirement shall be on file within four months of the completion of the fiscal year and, upon being filed, shall constitute full compliance with the financial security requirements for purposes of this section as of the beginning of the fiscal year. A confirmation filed during any particular fiscal year shall continue to be effective for the first four months of the next succeeding fiscal year. (d) Neither the existence of the requirements of subdivision (a) nor the extent of the registered limited liability partnership's or foreign limited liability partnership's compliance with the alternative requirements in this section shall be admissible in court or in any way be made known to a jury or other trier of fact in determining an issue of liability for, or to the extent of, the damages in question. (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership is otherwise in compliance with the terms of this section at the time that a bankruptcy or other insolvency proceeding is commenced with respect to the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership, it shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section during the pendency of the proceeding. A registered limited liability partnership that has been the subject of a proceeding and that conducts business after the proceeding ends shall thereafter comply with paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of subdivision (a), in order to obtain the limitations on liability afforded by subdivision (c) of Section 16306. (f) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2016, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2016, deletes or extends that date.

16956. (a) At the time of registration pursuant to Section 16953, in the case of a registered limited liability partnership, and Section 16959, in the case of a foreign limited liability partnership, and at all times during which those partnerships shall transact intrastate business, every registered limited liability partnership and foreign limited liability partnership, as the case may be, shall be required to provide security for claims against it as follows: (1) For claims based upon acts, errors, or omissions arising out of the practice of public accountancy, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing accountancy services shall comply with one, or pursuant to subdivision (b) some combination, of the following: (A) Maintaining a policy or policies of insurance against liability imposed on or against it by law for damages arising out of claims; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance for partnerships with five or fewer licensed persons shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of insurance shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of insurance is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000) in any one designated period, less amounts paid in defending, settling, or discharging claims as set forth in this subparagraph. The policy or policies may be issued on a claims-made or occurrence basis, and shall cover: (i) in the case of a claims-made policy, claims initially asserted in the designated period, and (ii) in the case of an occurrence policy, occurrences during the designated period. For purposes of this subparagraph, "designated period" means a policy year or any other period designated in the policy that is not greater than 12 months. The impairment or exhaustion of the aggregate limit of liability by amounts paid under the policy in connection with the settlement, discharge, or defense of claims applicable to a designated period shall not require the partnership to acquire additional insurance coverage for that designated period. The policy or policies of insurance may be in a form reasonably available in the commercial insurance market and may be subject to those terms, conditions, exclusions, and endorsements that are typically contained in those policies. A policy or policies of insurance maintained pursuant to this subparagraph may be subject to a deductible or self-insured retention. Upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership, the partnership shall, with respect to any insurance policy or policies then maintained pursuant to this subparagraph, maintain or obtain an extended reporting period endorsement or equivalent provision in the maximum total aggregate limit of liability required to comply with this subparagraph for a minimum of three years if reasonably available from the insurer. (B) Maintaining in trust or bank escrow, cash, bank certificates of deposit, United States Treasury obligations, bank letters of credit, or bonds of insurance or surety companies as security for payment of liabilities imposed by law for damages arising out of all claims; however, the maximum amount of security for partnerships with five or fewer licensed persons shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of security shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of security is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). The partnership remains in compliance with this section during a calendar year notwithstanding amounts paid during that calendar year from the accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds in defending, settling, or discharging claims of the type described in this paragraph, provided that the amount of those accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds was at least the amount specified in the preceding sentence as of the first business day of that calendar year. Notwithstanding the pendency of other claims against the partnership, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subparagraph as to a claim if within 30 days after the time that a claim is initially asserted through service of a summons, complaint, or comparable pleading in a judicial or administrative proceeding, the partnership has provided the required amount of security by designating and segregating funds in compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph. (C) Unless the partnership has satisfied subparagraph (D), each partner of a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing accountancy services, by virtue of that person's status as a partner, thereby automatically guarantees payment of the difference between the maximum amount of security required for the partnership by this paragraph and the security otherwise provided in accordance with subparagraphs (A) and (B), provided that the aggregate amount paid by all partners under these guarantees shall not exceed the difference. Neither withdrawal by a partner nor the dissolution and winding up of the partnership shall affect the rights or obligations of a partner arising prior to withdrawal or dissolution and winding up, and the guarantee provided for in this subparagraph shall apply only to conduct that occurred prior to the withdrawal or dissolution and winding up. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall affect or impair the rights or obligations of the partners among themselves, or the partnership, including, but not limited to, rights of contribution, subrogation, or indemnification. (D) Confirming, pursuant to the procedure in subdivision (c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year of the partnership, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding ten million dollars ($10,000,000). (2) For claims based upon acts, errors, or omissions arising out of the practice of law, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing legal services shall comply with one, or pursuant to subdivision (b) some combination, of the following: (A) Each registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing legal services shall maintain a policy or policies of insurance against liability imposed on or against it by law for damages arising out of claims; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance for partnerships with five or fewer licensed persons shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of insurance shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of insurance is not required to exceed seven million five hundred thousand dollars ($7,500,000) in any one designated period, less amounts paid in defending, settling, or discharging claims as set forth in this subparagraph. The policy or policies may be issued on a claims-made or occurrence basis, and shall cover (i) in the case of a claims-made policy, claims initially asserted in the designated period, and (ii) in the case of an occurrence policy, occurrences during the designated period. For purposes of this subparagraph, "designated period" means a policy year or any other period designated in the policy that is not greater than 12 months. The impairment or exhaustion of the aggregate limit of liability by amounts paid under the policy in connection with the settlement, discharge, or defense of claims applicable to a designated period shall not require the partnership to acquire additional insurance coverage for that designated period. The policy or policies of insurance may be in a form reasonably available in the commercial insurance market and may be subject to those terms, conditions, exclusions, and endorsements that are typically contained in those policies. A policy or policies of insurance maintained pursuant to this subparagraph may be subject to a deductible or self-insured retention. Upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership, the partnership shall, with respect to any insurance policy or policies then maintained pursuant to this subparagraph, maintain or obtain an extended reporting period endorsement or equivalent provision in the maximum total aggregate limit of liability required to comply with this subparagraph for a minimum of three years if reasonably available from the insurer. (B) Each registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing legal services shall maintain in trust or bank escrow, cash, bank certificates of deposit, United States Treasury obligations, bank letters of credit, or bonds of insurance or surety companies as security for payment of liabilities imposed by law for damages arising out of all claims; however, the maximum amount of security for partnerships with five or fewer licensed persons shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of security shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of security is not required to exceed seven million five hundred thousand dollars ($7,500,000). The partnership remains in compliance with this section during a calendar year notwithstanding amounts paid during that calendar year from the accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds in defending, settling, or discharging claims of the type described in this paragraph, provided that the amount of those accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds was at least the amount specified in the preceding sentence as of the first business day of that calendar year. Notwithstanding the pendency of other claims against the partnership, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subparagraph as to a claim if within 30 days after the time that a claim is initially asserted through service of a summons, complaint, or comparable pleading in a judicial or administrative proceeding, the partnership has provided the required amount of security by designating and segregating funds in compliance with the requirement of this subparagraph. (C) Unless the partnership has satisfied the requirements of subparagraph (D), each partner of a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing legal services, by virtue of that person's status as a partner, thereby automatically guarantees payment of the difference between the maximum amount of security required for the partnership by this paragraph and the security otherwise provided in accordance with the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B), provided that the aggregate amount paid by all partners under these guarantees shall not exceed the difference. Neither withdrawal by a partner nor the dissolution and winding up of the partnership shall affect the rights or obligations of a partner arising prior to withdrawal or dissolution and winding up, and the guarantee provided for in this subparagraph shall apply only to conduct that occurred prior to the withdrawal or dissolution and winding up. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall affect or impair the rights or obligations of the partners among themselves, or the partnership, including, but not limited to, rights of contribution, subrogation, or indemnification. (D) Confirming, pursuant to the procedure in subdivision (c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year of the partnership, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding fifteen million dollars ($15,000,000). (3) For claims based upon acts, errors, or omissions arising out of the practice of architecture, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing architectural services shall comply with one, or pursuant to subdivision (b) some combination, of the following: (A) Maintaining a policy or policies of insurance against liability imposed on or against it by law for damages arising out of claims in an amount for each claim of at least one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) multiplied by the number of licensed persons rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance for partnerships with five or fewer licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership shall not be less than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), and for all other partnerships is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000) in any one designated period, less amounts paid in defending, settling, or discharging claims as set forth in this subparagraph. On and after January 1, 2008, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance for partnerships with five or fewer licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of liability coverage shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the total aggregate limit of liability under the policy or policies of insurance is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). The policy or policies may be issued on a claims-made or occurrence basis, and shall cover: (i) in the case of a claims-made policy, claims initially asserted in the designated period, and (ii) in the case of an occurrence policy, occurrences during the designated period. For purposes of this subparagraph, "designated period" means a policy year or any other period designated in the policy that is not greater than 12 months. The impairment or exhaustion of the aggregate limit of liability by amounts paid under the policy in connection with the settlement, discharge, or defense of claims applicable to a designated period shall not require the partnership to acquire additional insurance coverage for that designated period. The policy or policies of insurance may be in a form reasonably available in the commercial insurance market and may be subject to those terms, conditions, exclusions, and endorsements that are typically contained in those policies. A policy or policies of insurance maintained pursuant to this subparagraph may be subject to a deductible or self-insured retention. Upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership, the partnership shall, with respect to any insurance policy or policies then maintained pursuant to this subparagraph, maintain or obtain an extended reporting period endorsement or equivalent provision in the maximum total aggregate limit of liability required to comply with this subparagraph for a minimum of three years if reasonably available from the insurer. (B) Maintaining in trust or bank escrow, cash, bank certificates of deposit, United States Treasury obligations, bank letters of credit, or bonds of insurance or surety companies as security for payment of liabilities imposed by law for damages arising out of all claims in an amount of at least one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) multiplied by the number of licensed persons rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership; however, the maximum amount of security for partnerships with five or fewer licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership shall not be less than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), and for all other partnerships is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). On and after January 1, 2008, the maximum amount of security for partnerships with five or fewer licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership shall not be less than one million dollars ($1,000,000), and for partnerships with more than five licensees rendering professional services on behalf of the partnership, an additional one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) of security shall be obtained for each additional licensee; however, the maximum amount of security is not required to exceed five million dollars ($5,000,000). The partnership remains in compliance with this section during a calendar year notwithstanding amounts paid during that calendar year from the accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds in defending, settling, or discharging claims of the type described in this paragraph, provided that the amount of those accounts, funds, Treasury obligations, letters of credit, or bonds was at least the amount specified in the preceding sentence as of the first business day of that calendar year. Notwithstanding the pendency of other claims against the partnership, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall be deemed to be in compliance with this subparagraph as to a claim if within 30 days after the time that a claim is initially asserted through service of a summons, complaint, or comparable pleading in a judicial or administrative proceeding, the partnership has provided the required amount of security by designating and segregating funds in compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph. (C) Unless the partnership has satisfied subparagraph (D), each partner of a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership providing architectural services, by virtue of that person's status as a partner, thereby automatically guarantees payment of the difference between the maximum amount of security required for the partnership by this paragraph and the security otherwise provided in accordance with subparagraphs (A) and (B), provided that the aggregate amount paid by all partners under these guarantees shall not exceed the difference. Neither withdrawal by a partner nor the dissolution and winding up of the partnership shall affect the rights or obligations of a partner arising prior to withdrawal or dissolution and winding up, and the guarantee provided for in this subparagraph shall apply only to conduct that occurred prior to the withdrawal or dissolution and winding up. Nothing contained in this subparagraph shall affect or impair the rights or obligations of the partners among themselves, or the partnership, including, but not limited to, rights of contribution, subrogation, or indemnification. (D) Confirming, pursuant to the procedure in subdivision (c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year of the partnership, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding ten million dollars ($10,000,000). (b) For purposes of satisfying the security requirements of this section, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership may aggregate the security provided by it pursuant to subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), or subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a), as the case may be. Any registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership intending to comply with the alternative security provisions set forth in subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), subparagraph (D) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), or subparagraph (D) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) shall furnish the following information to the Secretary of State's office, in the manner prescribed in, and accompanied by all information required by, the applicable section: TRANSMITTAL FORM FOR EVIDENCING COMPLIANCE WITH SECTION 16956(a)(1)(D), SECTION 16956(a)(2)(D), OR SECTION 16956(a)(3)(D) OF THE CALIFORNIA CORPORATIONS CODE The undersigned hereby confirms the following: _____________________________________ 1. Name of registered or foreign limited ______________________ liability partnership _________________________________ 2. Jurisdiction where partnership is __________ organized 3. ____________________________ Address of principal office The registered or foreign limited liability partnership chooses to satisfy the requirements of Section 16956 by confirming, pursuant to Section 16956(a)(1)(D), 16956(a)(2)(D), or 16956(a)(3)(D) and pursuant to Section 16956(c), that, as of the most recently completed fiscal year, the partnership 4. had a net worth equal to or exceeding ten million dollars ($10,000,000), in the case of a partnership providing accountancy services, fifteen million dollars ($15,000,000) in the case of a partnership providing legal services, or ten million dollars ($10,000,000), in the case of a partnership providing architectural services. _________________________________________ 5. Title of authorized person executing this _____ form ________________________________________ 6. Signature of authorized person executing __________ this form (c) Pursuant to subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), subparagraph (D) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), or subparagraph (D) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a), a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership may satisfy the requirements of this section by confirming that, as of the last day of its most recently completed fiscal year, it had a net worth equal to or exceeding the amount required. In order to comply with this alternative method of meeting the requirements established in this section, a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership shall file an annual confirmation with the Secretary of State's office, signed by an authorized member of the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership, accompanied by a transmittal form as prescribed by subdivision (b). In order to be current in a given year, the partnership form for confirming compliance with the optional security requirement shall be on file within four months of the completion of the fiscal year and, upon being filed, shall constitute full compliance with the financial security requirements for purposes of this section as of the beginning of the fiscal year. A confirmation filed during any particular fiscal year shall continue to be effective for the first four months of the next succeeding fiscal year. (d) Neither the existence of the requirements of subdivision (a) nor the extent of the registered limited liability partnership's or foreign limited liability partnership's compliance with the alternative requirements in this section shall be admissible in court or in any way be made known to a jury or other trier of fact in determining an issue of liability for, or to the extent of, the damages in question. (e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership is otherwise in compliance with the terms of this section at the time that a bankruptcy or other insolvency proceeding is commenced with respect to the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership, it shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section during the pendency of the proceeding. A registered limited liability partnership that has been the subject of a proceeding and that conducts business after the proceeding ends shall thereafter comply with paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subdivision (a), in order to obtain the limitations on liability afforded by subdivision (c) of Section 16306. (f) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2016.


16957. (a) No distribution shall be made by a registered limited liability partnership if, after giving effect to the distribution: (1) The registered limited liability partnership would not be able to pay its debts as they become due in the usual course of business. (2) The registered limited liability partnership's total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus the amount that would be needed, if the registered limited liability partnership were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights of other partners upon dissolution that are superior to the rights of the partners receiving the distribution. (b) A cause of action with respect to an obligation to return a distribution is extinguished unless the action is brought within four years after the distribution is made. (c) A distribution for purposes of this section means the transfer of money or property by a registered limited liability partnership to its partners without consideration.


16958. (a) (1) The laws of the jurisdiction under which a foreign limited liability partnership is organized shall govern its organization and internal affairs and the liability and authority of its partners, subject to compliance with Section 16956, and (2) a foreign limited liability partnership may not be denied registration by reason of any difference between those laws and the laws of this state. (b) The name of a foreign limited liability partnership transacting intrastate business in this state shall contain the words "Registered Limited Liability Partnership" or "Limited Liability Partnership" or one of the abbreviations "L.L.P.," "LLP," "R.L.L.P.," or "RLLP," or such other similar words or abbreviations as may be required or authorized by the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign limited liability partnership, as the last words or letters of its name.


16959. (a) (1) Before transacting intrastate business in this state, a foreign limited liability partnership shall comply with all statutory and administrative registration or filing requirements of the state board, commission, or agency that prescribes the rules and regulations governing a particular profession in which the partnership proposes to be engaged, pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Business and Professions Code relating to the profession or applicable rules adopted by the governing board. A foreign limited liability partnership that transacts intrastate business in this state shall within 30 days after the effective date of the act enacting this section or the date on which the foreign limited liability partnership first transacts intrastate business in this state, whichever is later, register with the Secretary of State by submitting to the Secretary of State an application for registration as a foreign limited liability partnership, signed by a person with authority to do so under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign limited liability partnership, stating the name of the partnership, the address of its principal office, the name and address of its agent for service of process in this state, a brief statement of the business in which the partnership engages, and any other matters that the partnership determines to include. (2) Annexed to the application for registration shall be a certificate from an authorized public official of the foreign limited liability partnership's jurisdiction of organization to the effect that the foreign limited liability partnership is in good standing in that jurisdiction, if the laws of that jurisdiction permit the issuance of those certificates, or, in the alternative, a statement by the foreign limited liability partnership that the laws of its jurisdiction of organization do not permit the issuance of those certificates. (b) The registration shall be accompanied by a fee as set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 12189 of the Government Code. (c) The Secretary of State shall register as a foreign limited liability partnership any partnership that submits a completed application for registration with the required fee. (d) The Secretary of State may cancel the filing of the registration if a check or other remittance accepted in payment of the filing fee is not paid upon presentation. Upon receiving written notification that the item presented for payment has not been honored for payment, the Secretary of State shall give a first written notice of the applicability of this section to the agent for service of process or to the person submitting the instrument. Thereafter, if the amount has not been paid by cashier's check or equivalent, the Secretary of State shall give a second written notice of cancellation and the cancellation shall thereupon be effective. The second notice shall be given 20 days or more after the first notice and 90 days or less after the original filing. (e) A partnership becomes registered as a foreign limited liability partnership at the time of the filing of the initial registration with the Secretary of State or at any later date or time specified in the registration and the payment of the fee required by subdivision (b). A partnership continues to be registered as a foreign limited liability partnership until a notice that it is no longer so registered as a limited liability partnership has been filed pursuant to Section 16960 or, if applicable, once it has been dissolved and finally wound up. The status of a partnership registered as a foreign limited liability partnership and the liability of a partner of that foreign limited liability partnership shall not be adversely affected by errors or subsequent changes in the information stated in an application for registration under subdivision (a) or an amended registration or notice under Section 16960. (f) The fact that a registration or amended registration pursuant to Section 16960 is on file with the Secretary of State is notice that the partnership is a foreign limited liability partnership and of those other facts contained therein that are required to be set forth in the registration or amended registration. (g) The Secretary of State shall provide a form for a registration under subdivision (a), which shall include the form for confirming compliance with the optional security requirement pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 16956. The Secretary of State shall include with instructional materials, provided in conjunction with the form for registration under subdivision (a), a notice that filing the registration will obligate the limited liability partnership to pay an annual tax for that taxable year to the Franchise Tax Board pursuant to Section 17948 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. That notice shall be updated annually to specify the dollar amount of this tax. (h) A foreign limited liability partnership transacting intrastate business in this state shall not maintain any action, suit, or proceeding in any court of this state until it has registered in this state pursuant to this section. (i) Any foreign limited liability partnership that transacts intrastate business in this state without registration is subject to a penalty of twenty dollars ($20) for each day that unauthorized intrastate business is transacted, up to a maximum of ten thousand dollars ($10,000). (j) A partner of a foreign limited liability partnership is not liable for the debts or obligations of the foreign limited liability partnership solely by reason of its having transacted business in this state without registration. (k) A foreign limited liability partnership, transacting business in this state without registration, appoints the Secretary of State as its agent for service of process with respect to causes of action arising out of the transaction of business in this state. (l) "Transact intrastate business" as used in this section means to repeatedly and successively provide professional limited liability partnership services in this state, other than in interstate or foreign commerce. (m) Without excluding other activities that may not be considered to be transacting intrastate business, a foreign limited liability partnership shall not be considered to be transacting intrastate business merely because its subsidiary or affiliate transacts intrastate business, or merely because of its status as any one or more of the following: (1) A shareholder of a domestic corporation. (2) A shareholder of a foreign corporation transacting intrastate business. (3) A limited partner of a foreign limited partnership transacting intrastate business. (4) A limited partner of a domestic limited partnership. (5) A member or manager of a foreign limited liability company transacting intrastate business. (6) A member or manager of a domestic limited liability company. (n) Without excluding other activities that may not be considered to be transacting intrastate business, a foreign limited liability partnership shall not be considered to be transacting intrastate business within the meaning of this subdivision solely by reason of carrying on in this state any one or more of the following activities: (1) Maintaining or defending any action or suit or any administrative or arbitration proceeding, or effecting the settlement thereof or the settlement of claims or disputes. (2) Holding meetings of its partners or carrying on any other activities concerning its internal affairs. (3) Maintaining bank accounts. (4) Maintaining offices or agencies for the transfer, exchange, and registration of the foreign limited liability partnership's securities or maintaining trustees or depositories with respect to those securities. (5) Effecting sales through independent contractors. (6) Soliciting or procuring orders, whether by mail or through employees or agents or otherwise, where those orders require acceptance without this state before becoming binding contracts. (7) Creating or acquiring evidences of debt or mortgages, liens, or security interest in real or personal property. (8) Securing or collecting debts or enforcing mortgages and security interests in property securing the debts. (9) Conducting an isolated transaction that is completed within 180 days and not in the course of a number of repeated transactions of a like nature. (o) A person shall not be deemed to be transacting intrastate business in this state merely because of its status as a partner of a registered limited liability partnership or a foreign limited liability company whether or not registered to transact intrastate business in this state. (p) The Attorney General may bring an action to restrain a foreign limited liability partnership from transacting intrastate business in this state in violation of this chapter. (q) Nothing in this section is intended to, or shall, augment, diminish, or otherwise alter existing provisions of law, statutes, or court rules relating to services by a California architect, California public accountant, California engineer, California land surveyor, or California attorney in another jurisdiction, or services by an out-of-state architect, out-of-state public accountant, out-of-state engineer, out-of-state land surveyor, or out-of-state attorney in California. (r) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2016, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2016, deletes or extends that date.


16959. (a) (1) Before transacting intrastate business in this state, a foreign limited liability partnership shall comply with all statutory and administrative registration or filing requirements of the state board, commission, or agency that prescribes the rules and regulations governing a particular profession in which the partnership proposes to be engaged, pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Business and Professions Code relating to the profession or applicable rules adopted by the governing board. A foreign limited liability partnership that transacts intrastate business in this state shall within 30 days after the effective date of the act enacting this section or the date on which the foreign limited liability partnership first transacts intrastate business in this state, whichever is later, register with the Secretary of State by submitting to the Secretary of State an application for registration as a foreign limited liability partnership, signed by a person with authority to do so under the laws of the jurisdiction of formation of the foreign limited liability partnership, stating the name of the partnership, the address of its principal office, the name and address of its agent for service of process in this state, a brief statement of the business in which the partnership engages, and any other matters that the partnership determines to include. (2) Annexed to the application for registration shall be a certificate from an authorized public official of the foreign limited liability partnership's jurisdiction of organization to the effect that the foreign limited liability partnership is in good standing in that jurisdiction, if the laws of that jurisdiction permit the issuance of those certificates, or, in the alternative, a statement by the foreign limited liability partnership that the laws of its jurisdiction of organization do not permit the issuance of those certificates. (b) The registration shall be accompanied by a fee as set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 12189 of the Government Code. (c) The Secretary of State shall register as a foreign limited liability partnership any partnership that submits a completed application for registration with the required fee. (d) The Secretary of State may cancel the filing of the registration if a check or other remittance accepted in payment of the filing fee is not paid upon presentation. Upon receiving written notification that the item presented for payment has not been honored for payment, the Secretary of State shall give a first written notice of the applicability of this section to the agent for service of process or to the person submitting the instrument. Thereafter, if the amount has not been paid by cashier's check or equivalent, the Secretary of State shall give a second written notice of cancellation and the cancellation shall thereupon be effective. The second notice shall be given 20 days or more after the first notice and 90 days or less after the original filing. (e) A partnership becomes registered as a foreign limited liability partnership at the time of the filing of the initial registration with the Secretary of State or at any later date or time specified in the registration and the payment of the fee required by subdivision (b). A partnership continues to be registered as a foreign limited liability partnership until a notice that it is no longer so registered as a limited liability partnership has been filed pursuant to Section 16960 or, if applicable, once it has been dissolved and finally wound up. The status of a partnership registered as a foreign limited liability partnership and the liability of a partner of that foreign limited liability partnership shall not be adversely affected by errors or subsequent changes in the information stated in an application for registration under subdivision (a) or an amended registration or notice under Section 16960. (f) The fact that a registration or amended registration pursuant to Section 16960 is on file with the Secretary of State is notice that the partnership is a foreign limited liability partnership and of those other facts contained therein that are required to be set forth in the registration or amended registration. (g) The Secretary of State shall provide a form for a registration under subdivision (a), which shall include the form for confirming compliance with the optional security requirement pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 16956. The Secretary of State shall include with instructional materials, provided in conjunction with the form for registration under subdivision (a), a notice that filing the registration will obligate the limited liability partnership to pay an annual tax for that taxable year to the Franchise Tax Board pursuant to Section 17948 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. That notice shall be updated annually to specify the dollar amount of this tax. (h) A foreign limited liability partnership transacting intrastate business in this state shall not maintain any action, suit, or proceeding in any court of this state until it has registered in this state pursuant to this section. (i) Any foreign limited liability partnership that transacts intrastate business in this state without registration is subject to a penalty of twenty dollars ($20) for each day that unauthorized intrastate business is transacted, up to a maximum of ten thousand dollars ($10,000). (j) A partner of a foreign limited liability partnership is not liable for the debts or obligations of the foreign limited liability partnership solely by reason of its having transacted business in this state without registration. (k) A foreign limited liability partnership, transacting business in this state without registration, appoints the Secretary of State as its agent for service of process with respect to causes of action arising out of the transaction of business in this state. (l) "Transact intrastate business" as used in this section means to repeatedly and successively provide professional limited liability partnership services in this state, other than in interstate or foreign commerce. (m) Without excluding other activities that may not be considered to be transacting intrastate business, a foreign limited liability partnership shall not be considered to be transacting intrastate business merely because its subsidiary or affiliate transacts intrastate business, or merely because of its status as any one or more of the following: (1) A shareholder of a domestic corporation. (2) A shareholder of a foreign corporation transacting intrastate business. (3) A limited partner of a foreign limited partnership transacting intrastate business. (4) A limited partner of a domestic limited partnership. (5) A member or manager of a foreign limited liability company transacting intrastate business. (6) A member or manager of a domestic limited liability company. (n) Without excluding other activities that may not be considered to be transacting intrastate business, a foreign limited liability partnership shall not be considered to be transacting intrastate business within the meaning of this subdivision solely by reason of carrying on in this state any one or more of the following activities: (1) Maintaining or defending any action or suit or any administrative or arbitration proceeding, or effecting the settlement thereof or the settlement of claims or disputes. (2) Holding meetings of its partners or carrying on any other activities concerning its internal affairs. (3) Maintaining bank accounts. (4) Maintaining offices or agencies for the transfer, exchange, and registration of the foreign limited liability partnership's securities or maintaining trustees or depositories with respect to those securities. (5) Effecting sales through independent contractors. (6) Soliciting or procuring orders, whether by mail or through employees or agents or otherwise, where those orders require acceptance without this state before becoming binding contracts. (7) Creating or acquiring evidences of debt or mortgages, liens, or security interest in real or personal property. (8) Securing or collecting debts or enforcing mortgages and security interests in property securing the debts. (9) Conducting an isolated transaction that is completed within 180 days and not in the course of a number of repeated transactions of a like nature. (o) A person shall not be deemed to be transacting intrastate business in this state merely because of its status as a partner of a registered limited liability partnership or a foreign limited liability company whether or not registered to transact intrastate business in this state. (p) The Attorney General may bring an action to restrain a foreign limited liability partnership from transacting intrastate business in this state in violation of this chapter. (q) Nothing in this section is intended to, or shall, augment, diminish, or otherwise alter existing provisions of law, statutes, or court rules relating to services by a California architect, California public accountant, or California attorney in another jurisdiction, or services by an out-of-state architect, out-of-state public accountant, or out-of-state attorney in California. (r) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2016.


16960. (a) The registration of a foreign limited partnership may be amended by an amended registration executed by one or more partners authorized to execute an amended registration and filed with the Secretary of State, as soon as reasonably practical after any information set forth in the registration or previously filed amended registration becomes inaccurate, to add information to the registration or amended registration or to withdraw its registration as a foreign limited liability partnership. (b) If a foreign limited partnership ceases to be a limited liability partnership, it shall file with the Secretary of State a notice, executed by one or more partners authorized to execute the notice, that it is no longer a foreign limited liability partnership. The notice shall state that a final annual tax return, as described by Section 17948.3 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, has been or will be filed with the Franchise Tax Board, as required under Part 10.2 (commencing with Section 18401) of the Revenue and Taxation Code. (c) A foreign limited liability partnership that is, but is no longer required to be, registered under Section 16959 may withdraw its registration by filing a notice with the Secretary of State, executed by one or more partners authorized to execute the notice. (d) The Secretary of State shall provide forms for an amended registration under subdivision (a) and notices under subdivisions (b) and (c). (e) The filing of amended registration forms pursuant to subdivision (a) and a notice pursuant to subdivision (b) or (c) shall each be accompanied by a fee as set forth in subdivision (d) of Section 12189 of the Government Code. (f) A notice of cessation, signed pursuant to subdivision (b), shall be filed with the Secretary of State. The Secretary of State shall notify the Franchise Tax Board of the cessation.


16961. The filing of a registration with the Secretary of State under Section 16953 or 16959 shall make it unnecessary for all purposes for the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership to make any of the filings referred to in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 17900) of Part 3 of Division 7 of the Business and Professions Code.


16962. (a) Each registered limited liability partnership whose principal office is not in this state and each foreign limited liability partnership registered under Section 16959 shall designate as its agent for service of process any natural person or a domestic or foreign corporation entitled to be designated as agent for the service of process pursuant to Section 1505. (b) In addition to service that may be made as provided in Section 416.40 of the Code of Civil Procedure, delivery by hand of a copy of any process against a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership registered under Section 16959 (1) to any natural person designated by it as agent or (2), if a corporate agent has been designated, to any person named in the latest certificate of the corporate agent filed pursuant to Section 1505 at the office of that corporate agent shall constitute valid service on the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership. (c) If an agent for the purpose of service of process has resigned and has not been replaced or if the agent designated cannot with reasonable diligence be found at the address designated for personally delivering the process, or if no agent has been designated, and it is shown by affidavit to the satisfaction of the court that process against a registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership required to be registered under Section 16959 cannot be served with reasonable diligence upon the designated agent by hand in the manner provided in Section 415.10, subdivision (a) of Section 415.20, or subdivision (a) of Section 415.30 of the Code of Civil Procedure or upon the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership in the manner provided in Section 416.40 of the Code of Civil Procedure, the court may make an order that the service be made upon the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership by delivering by hand to the Secretary of State, or to any person employed in the Secretary of State's office in the capacity of assistant or deputy, one copy of the process for each defendant to be served, together with a copy of the order authorizing that service. If the court makes that order, the Secretary of State who receives the process, or the person employed in the Secretary of State's office in the capacity of assistant or deputy who receives the process, is required to accept the process. A fee as set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 12197 of the Government Code shall be paid to the Secretary of State for the use of the state upon receipt of the process. Service in this manner shall be deemed complete on the 10th day after delivery of the process to the Secretary of State. (d) Upon the receipt of the copy of process and the fee therefor, the Secretary of State shall give notice of the service of process to the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership registered under Section 16959 at its principal executive office, by forwarding to that office, by registered mail with request for return receipt, the copy of the process or, if the records of the Secretary of State do not disclose an address for that principal executive office, by forwarding the copy in the same manner to the last designated agent for service of process who has not resigned. If the agent for service of process has resigned and has not been replaced and the records of the Secretary of State do not disclose an address for its principal executive office, no action need be taken by the Secretary of State. (e) The Secretary of State shall keep a record of all process served upon the Secretary of State under this section and shall record therein the time of service and the Secretary of State's action with reference thereto. The certificate of the Secretary of State, under the Secretary of State's official seal, certifying to the receipt of process, the giving of notice thereof to the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership, and the forwarding of the process pursuant to this section shall be competent and prima facie evidence of the matters stated therein. (f) The court order pursuant to subdivision (c) that service of process be made upon the registered limited liability partnership or foreign limited liability partnership by delivery to the Secretary of State may be a court order of a court of another state, or of any federal court, if the suit, action, or proceeding has been filed in that court.


Chapter 5.5. Uniform Limited Partnership Act Of 2008

Article 1. General Provisions

Ca Codes (corp:15900-15901.17) Corporations Code Section 15900-15901.17



15900. This chapter may be cited as the Uniform Limited Partnership Act of 2008.


15901.02. In this chapter, the following terms have the following meanings: (a) "Acknowledged" means that an instrument is either of the following: (1) Formally acknowledged as provided in Article 3 (commencing with Section 1180) of Chapter 4 of Title 4 of Part 4 of Division 2 of the Civil Code. (2) Executed to include substantially the following wording preceding the signature: "It is hereby declared that I am the person who executed this instrument, which execution is my act and deed. Any certificate of acknowledgment taken without this state before a notary public or a judge or clerk of a court of record having an official seal need not be further authenticated." (b) "Certificate of limited partnership" means the certificate required by Section 15902.01. The term includes the certificate as amended or restated. (c) "Contribution," except in the phrase "right of contribution," means any benefit provided by a person to a limited partnership in order to become a partner or in the person's capacity as a partner. (d) "Debtor in bankruptcy" means a person that is the subject of either of the following: (1) An order for relief under Title 11 of the United States Code or a comparable order under a successor statute of general application. (2) A comparable order under federal, state, or foreign law governing insolvency. (e) "Designated office" means either of the following: (1) With respect to a limited partnership, the office that the limited partnership is required to designate and maintain under Section 15901.14. (2) With respect to a foreign limited partnership, its principal office. (f) "Distribution" means a transfer of money or other property from a limited partnership to a partner in the partner's capacity as a partner or to a transferee on account of a transferable interest owned by the transferee. (g) "Domestic corporation" means a corporation formed under the laws of this state. (h) "Electronic transmission by the partnership" means a communication that meets both of the following requirements: (1) It is delivered by any of the following means: (A) Facsimile transmission or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, for the recipient on the record with the partnership. (B) Posting on an electronic message board or other electronic database, that the partnership has designated for the communication, together with a separate notice to the recipient of the posting, which shall be validly delivered upon the later of either the posting or delivery of the separate notice thereof. (C) Other means of electronic communication. (2) It is to a recipient that has provided an unrevoked consent to the use of the means of transmission used by the partnership in the electronic transmission. (i) "Electronic transmission to the partnership" means a communication that meets both of the following requirements: (1) It is delivered by any of the following means: (A) Facsimile communication or other electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, that the partnership has provided from time to time to the partners for sending communications to the partnership. (B) Posting on an electronic message board or electronic database that the partnership has designated for the communication. A transmission shall have been validly delivered upon the posting. (C) Other means of electronic communication. (2) It is a communication as to which the partnership has placed in effect reasonable measures to verify that the sender is the partner purporting to send the transmission, either in person or by proxy. (j) "Foreign limited liability limited partnership" means a foreign limited partnership whose general partners have limited liability for the obligations of the foreign limited partnership. (k) "Foreign limited partnership" means a partnership formed under the laws of a jurisdiction other than this state and required by those laws to have one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. The term includes a foreign limited liability limited partnership. (l) "Foreign other business entity" means an other business entity formed under the laws of any state other than this state or under the laws of a foreign country. (m) "General partner" means: (1) With respect to a limited partnership, a person to whom either of the following applies: (A) The person becomes a general partner under Section 15904.01. (B) The person was a general partner in a limited partnership when the limited partnership became subject to this chapter under subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 15912.06. (2) With respect to a foreign limited partnership, a person that has rights, powers, and obligations similar to those of a general partner in a limited partnership. (n) "Interests of all partners" means the aggregate interests of all partners in the current profits derived from business operations of the partnership. (o) "Interests of limited partners" means the aggregate interests of all limited partners in their respective capacities as limited partners in the current profits derived from business operations of the partnership. (p) "Limited partner" means: (1) With respect to a limited partnership, a person to whom either of the following applies: (A) The person becomes a limited partner under Section 15903.01 or subdivision (h) of 15907.02. (B) The person was a limited partner in a limited partnership when the limited partnership became subject to this chapter under subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 15912.06. (2) With respect to a foreign limited partnership, a person that has rights, powers, and obligations similar to those of a limited partner in a limited partnership. (q) "Limited partnership or domestic limited partnership," except in the phrases "foreign limited partnership" and "foreign limited liability limited partnership," means an entity, having one or more general partners and one or more limited partners, which is formed under this chapter by two or more persons or becomes subject to this chapter under Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01) or subdivisions (a) or (b) of Section 15912.06. (r) "Mail" means first-class mail, postage prepaid, unless registered mail is specified. Registered mail includes certified mail. (s) "Majority in interest of all partners" means more than 50 percent of the interests of all partners. (t) "Majority in interest of the limited partners" means more than 50 percent of the interests of limited partners. (u) "Other business entity" means a corporation, general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, or an unincorporated association other than a nonprofit association, but excludes a limited partnership. (v) "Parent" of a limited partnership means any of the following: (1) A general partner of the limited partnership. (2) A person possessing, directly or indirectly, the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a general partner of the limited partnership. (3) A person owning, directly or indirectly, limited partnership interests possessing more than 50 percent of the aggregate voting power of the limited partnership. (w) "Partner" means a limited partner or general partner. (x) "Partnership agreement" means the partners' agreement, whether oral, implied, in a record, or in any combination, concerning the limited partnership. The term includes the agreement as amended. (y) "Person" means an individual, partnership, limited partnership, trust, estate, association, corporation, limited liability company, or other entity, whether domestic or foreign. (z) "Person dissociated as a general partner" means a person dissociated as a general partner of a limited partnership. (aa) "Principal office" means the office where the principal executive office of a limited partnership or foreign limited partnership is located, whether or not the office is located in this state. (ab) "Proxy" means a written authorization signed by a partner or the partner's attorney in fact giving another person the power to vote with respect to the interest of that partner. "Signed," for the purpose of this subdivision, means the placing of the partner's name on the proxy, whether by manual signature, typewriting, telegraphic transmission, or otherwise, by the partner or the partner's attorney in fact. (ac) "Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form. (ad) "Required information" means the information that a limited partnership is required to maintain under Section 15901.11. (ae) "Return of capital" means any distribution to a partner to the extent that the aggregate distributions to that partner do not exceed that partner's contributions to the partnership. (af) "Sign" means either of the following: (1) To execute or adopt a tangible symbol with the present intent to authenticate a record. (2) To attach or logically associate an electronic symbol, sound, or process to or with a record with the present intent to authenticate the record. (ag) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. (ah) "Time a notice is given or sent," unless otherwise expressly provided, means any of the following: (1) The time a written notice to a partner or the limited partnership is deposited in the United States mail. (2) The time any other written notice is personally delivered to the recipient, is delivered to a common carrier for transmission, or is actually transmitted by the person giving the notice by electronic means to the recipient. (3) The time any oral notice is communicated, in person or by telephone or wireless, to the recipient or to a person at the office of the recipient who the person giving the notice has reason to believe will promptly communicate it to the recipient. (ai) (1) "Transact intrastate business" means, for purposes of registration, entering into repeated and successive transactions of business in this state, other than interstate or foreign commerce. (2) A foreign limited partnership shall not be considered to be transacting intrastate business within the meaning of paragraph (1) solely because of its status as one or more of the following: (A) A shareholder of a foreign corporation transacting intrastate business. (B) A shareholder of a domestic corporation. (C) A limited partner of a foreign limited partnership transacting intrastate business. (D) A limited partner of a domestic limited partnership. (E) A member or manager of a foreign limited liability company transacting intrastate business. (F) A member or manager of a domestic limited liability company. (3) Without excluding other activities that may not constitute transacting intrastate business, a foreign limited partnership shall not be considered to be transacting intrastate business within the meaning of paragraph (1) solely by reason of carrying on in this state one or more of the following activities: (A) Maintaining or defending any action or suit or any administrative or arbitration proceeding, or effecting the settlement thereof or the settlement of claims and disputes. (B) Holding meetings of its partners or carrying on other activities concerning its internal affairs. (C) Maintaining bank accounts. (D) Maintaining offices or agencies for the transfer, exchange, and registration of its securities or depositories with relation to its securities. (E) Effecting sales through independent contractors. (F) Soliciting or procuring orders, whether by mail or through employees or agents or otherwise, where the orders require acceptance without this state before becoming binding contracts. (G) Creating or acquiring evidences of debt or mortgages, liens, or security interests on real or personal property. (H) Securing or collecting debts or enforcing mortgages and security interests in property securing the debts. (I) Conducting an isolated transaction completed within a period of 180 days and not in the course of a number of repeated transactions of like nature. (J) Transacting business in interstate commerce. (4) A person shall not be deemed to be transacting intrastate business in this state within the meaning of paragraph (1) solely because of the person's status as a limited partner of a domestic limited partnership or a foreign limited partnership registered to transact intrastate business in this state. This definition shall not apply in determining the contacts or activities that may subject a foreign limited partnership to service of process, taxation, jurisdiction, or other regulation under any other law of this state. (aj) "Transfer" includes an assignment, conveyance, deed, bill of sale, lease, mortgage, creation of a security interest or encumbrance, gift, and transfer by operation of law. (ak) "Transferable interest" means a partner's right to receive distributions. (al) "Transferee" means a person to which all or part of a transferable interest has been transferred, whether or not the transferor is a partner.

15901.03. (a) A person knows a fact if the person has actual knowledge of it. (b) A person has notice of a fact if the person: (1) knows of it; (2) has received a notification of it; (3) has reason to know it exists from all of the facts known to the person at the time in question; or (4) has notice of it under subdivision (c) or (d). (c) A certificate of limited partnership on file in the office of the Secretary of State is notice that the partnership is a limited partnership and the persons designated in the certificate as general partners are general partners. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (d), the certificate is not notice of any other fact. (d) A person has notice of: (1) another person's dissociation as a general partner, 90 days after the effective date of an amendment to the certificate of limited partnership which states that the other person has dissociated or 90 days after the effective date of a certificate of dissociation pertaining to the other person, whichever occurs first; (2) a limited partnership's dissolution, 90 days after the effective date of an amendment to the certificate of limited partnership stating that the limited partnership is dissolved; (3) a limited partnership's termination, 90 days after the effective date of a certificate of cancellation; (4) a limited partnership's conversion under Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01), 90 days after the effective date of the certificate of conversion; or (5) a merger under Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01), 90 days after the effective date of the certificate of merger. (e) A person notifies or gives a notification to another person by taking steps reasonably required to inform the other person in ordinary course, whether or not the other person learns of it. (f) A person receives a notification when the notification: (1) comes to the person's attention; or (2) is delivered at the person's place of business or at any other place held out by the person as a place for receiving communications. (g) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (h), a person other than an individual knows, has notice, or receives a notification of a fact for purposes of a particular transaction when the individual conducting the transaction for the person knows, has notice, or receives a notification of the fact, or in any event when the fact would have been brought to the individual's attention if the person had exercised reasonable diligence. A person other than an individual exercises reasonable diligence if it maintains reasonable routines for communicating significant information to the individual conducting the transaction for the person and there is reasonable compliance with the routines. Reasonable diligence does not require an individual acting for the person to communicate information unless the communication is part of the individual's regular duties or the individual has reason to know of the transaction and that the transaction would be materially affected by the information. (h) A general partner's knowledge, notice, or receipt of a notification of a fact relating to the limited partnership is effective immediately as knowledge of, notice to, or receipt of a notification by the limited partnership, except in the case of a fraud on the limited partnership committed by or with the consent of the general partner. A limited partner's knowledge, notice, or receipt of a notification of a fact relating to the limited partnership is not effective as knowledge of, notice to, or receipt of a notification by the limited partnership.


15901.04. (a) A limited partnership is an entity distinct from its partners. (b) A limited partnership may be organized under this chapter for any lawful purpose. A limited partnership may engage in any lawful business activity, whether or not for profit, except the banking business, the business of issuing policies of insurance and assuming insurance risks, or the trust company business. (c) A limited partnership has a perpetual duration.


15901.05. A limited partnership has the powers to do all things necessary or convenient to carry on its activities, including the power to sue, be sued, and defend in its own name and to maintain an action against a partner for harm caused to the limited partnership by a breach of the partnership agreement or violation of a duty to the partnership.


15901.06. The law of this state governs relations among the partners of a limited partnership and between the partners and the limited partnership and the liability of partners as partners for an obligation of the limited partnership.

15901.07. (a) Unless displaced by particular provisions of this chapter, the principles of law and equity supplement this chapter. (b) If an obligation to pay interest arises under this chapter and the rate is not specified, the rate is that specified in Section 3289 of the Civil Code.


15901.08. (a) The name of a limited partnership may contain the name of any partner. (b) The name of a limited partnership must contain the phrase "limited partnership" or the abbreviation "L.P." or "LP" at the end of its name. (c) The name of a foreign limited liability limited partnership that is applying for a certificate of registration pursuant to Section 15909.02 must contain the phrase "limited liability limited partnership" or the abbreviation "LLLP" or "L.L.L.P." and must not contain the abbreviation "L.P." or "LP." (d) Unless authorized by subdivision (e), the name of a limited partnership must be distinguishable in the records of the Secretary of State from: (1) the name of any limited partnership that has previously filed a certificate pursuant to Section 15902.01 or any foreign limited partnership registered pursuant to Section 15909.01; and (2) each name reserved under Section 15901.09. (e) A limited partnership may apply to the Secretary of State for authorization to use a name that does not comply with subdivision (d). The Secretary of State shall authorize use of the name applied for if, as to each conflicting name: (1) the present user, registrant, or owner of the conflicting name consents in a signed record to the use and submits an undertaking in a form satisfactory to the Secretary of State to change the conflicting name to a name that complies with subdivision (d) and is distinguishable in the records of the Secretary of State from the name applied for; (2) the applicant delivers to the Secretary of State a certified copy of the final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction establishing the applicant's right to use in this state the name applied for; or (3) the applicant delivers to the Secretary of State proof satisfactory to the Secretary of State that the present user, registrant, or owner of the conflicting name: (A) has merged into the applicant; (B) has been converted into the applicant; or (C) has transferred substantially all of its assets, including the conflicting name, to the applicant. (f) Subject to Section 15909.05, this section applies to any foreign limited partnership transacting business in this state, having a certificate of registration to transact business in this state, or applying for a certificate of registration. (g) The name of a limited partnership may not contain the words "bank," "insurance," "trust," "trustee," "incorporated," "inc.," "corporation" or "corp."


15901.09. (a) The exclusive right to the use of a name that complies with Section 15901.08 may be reserved by: (1) a person intending to organize a limited partnership under this chapter and to adopt the name; (2) a limited partnership or a foreign limited partnership authorized to transact business in this state intending to adopt the name; (3) a foreign limited partnership intending to obtain a certificate of registration to transact business in this state and adopt the name; (4) a person intending to organize a foreign limited partnership and intending to have it obtain a certificate of registration to transact business in this state and adopt the name; (5) a foreign limited partnership formed under the name; or (6) a foreign limited partnership formed under a name that does not comply with subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 15901.08, but the name reserved under this paragraph may differ from the foreign limited partnership's name only to the extent necessary to comply with subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 15901.08. (b) A person may apply to reserve a name under subdivision (a) by delivering to the Secretary of State an application that states the name to be reserved and the paragraph of subdivision (a) which applies. If the Secretary of State finds that the name is available for use by the applicant, the Secretary of State shall issue a certificate of name reservation and thereby reserve the name for the exclusive use of the applicant for 60 days. (c) An applicant that has reserved a name pursuant to subdivision (b) may reserve the same name for an additional 60-day period. The Secretary of State shall not issue a certificate reserving the same name for two or more consecutive 60-day periods to the same applicant or for the use or benefit of the same person. (d) A person that has reserved a name under this section may transfer the reserved name to another person, effective upon delivery to the Secretary of State of a notice of transfer that states the reserved name, the name and address of the person to which the reservation is to be transferred, and the paragraph of subdivision (a) which applies to the other person.


15901.10. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), the partnership agreement governs relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership. To the extent the partnership agreement does not otherwise provide, this chapter governs relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership. (b) A partnership agreement may not do any of the following: (1) Vary a limited partnership's power under Section 15901.05 to sue, be sued, and defend in its own name. (2) Vary the law applicable to a limited partnership under Section 15901.06. (3) Vary the requirements of Section 15902.04. (4) Vary the information required under Section 15901.11 or unreasonably restrict the right to information under Section 15903.04 or 15904.07, but the partnership agreement may impose reasonable restrictions on the availability and use of information obtained under those sections and may define appropriate remedies, including liquidated damages, for a breach of any reasonable restriction on use. (5) Eliminate the duty of loyalty under Section 15904.08, but the partnership agreement may do either or both of the following: (A) Identify specific types or categories of activities that do not violate the duty of loyalty, if not manifestly unreasonable. (B) Specify the number or percentage of partners which may authorize or ratify, after full disclosure to all partners of all material facts, a specific act or transaction that otherwise would violate the duty of loyalty. (6) Unreasonably reduce the duty of care under subdivision (c) of Section 15904.08. (7) Eliminate the obligation of good faith and fair dealing under subdivision (b) of Section 15903.05 and subdivision (d) of Section 15904.08, but the partnership agreement may prescribe the standards by which the performance of the obligation is to be measured, if the standards are not manifestly unreasonable. (8) Vary the power of a person to dissociate as a general partner under subdivision (a) of Section 15906.04 except to require that the notice under subdivision (a) of Section 15906.03 be in a record. (9) Eliminate the power of a court to decree dissolution in the circumstances specified in subdivision (a) of Section 15908.02. (10) Vary the requirement to wind up the partnership's business as specified in Section 15908.03. (11) Unreasonably restrict the right to maintain an action under Article 10 (commencing with Section 15910.01). (12) Restrict the right of a partner to approve a conversion or merger. (13) Vary the provisions of Article 11.5 (commencing with Section 15911.20), except to the extent expressly permitted by such provisions. (14) Restrict rights under this chapter of a person other than a partner or a transferee.

15901.11. A limited partnership shall maintain at its designated office the following information: (1) a current list showing the full name and last known street and mailing address of each partner, separately identifying the general partners, in alphabetical order, and the limited partners, in alphabetical order; (2) a copy of the initial certificate of limited partnership and all amendments to and restatements of the certificate, together with signed copies of any powers of attorney under which any certificate, amendment, or restatement has been signed; (3) a copy of any filed certificate of conversion or merger; (4) a copy of the limited partnership's federal, state, and local income tax returns and reports, if any, for the six most recent years; (5) a copy of any partnership agreement made in a record and any amendment made in a record to any partnership agreement; (6) a copy of any financial statement of the limited partnership for the six most recent years; (7) a copy of any record made by the limited partnership during the past three years of any consent given by or vote taken of any partner pursuant to this chapter or the partnership agreement; and (8) unless contained in a partnership agreement made in a record, a record stating: (A) the amount of cash, and a description and statement of the agreed value of the other benefits, contributed and agreed to be contributed by each partner; (B) (1) the times at which, or events on the happening of which, any additional contributions agreed to be made by each partner are to be made; (C) for any person that is both a general partner and a limited partner, a specification of what transferable interest the person owns in each capacity; and (D) any events upon the happening of which the limited partnership is to be dissolved and its activities wound up.


15901.12. A partner may lend money to and transact other business with the limited partnership and has the same rights and obligations with respect to the loan or other transaction as a person that is not a partner.

15901.13. A person may be both a general partner and a limited partner. A person that is both a general and limited partner has the rights, powers, duties, and obligations provided by this chapter and the partnership agreement in each of those capacities. When the person acts as a general partner, the person is subject to the obligations, duties and restrictions under this chapter and the partnership agreement for general partners. When the person acts as a limited partner, the person is subject to the obligations, duties and restrictions under this chapter and the partnership agreement for limited partners.

15901.14. (a) A limited partnership shall designate and continuously maintain in this state: (1) an office, which need not be a place of its activity in this state; and (2) an agent for service of process. (b) A foreign limited partnership shall designate and continuously maintain in this state an agent for service of process. (c) An agent for service of process of a limited partnership or foreign limited partnership must be an individual who is a resident of this state or a corporation that has complied with Section 1505 of the Corporations Code and whose capacity to act as an agent has not terminated.

15901.15. Action requiring the consent of partners under this chapter may be taken without a meeting, and a partner may appoint a proxy to consent or otherwise act for the partner by signing an appointment record, either personally or by the partner's attorney in fact.


15901.16. (a) In addition to Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 413.10) of Title 5 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure, process may be served upon limited partnerships and foreign limited partnerships as provided in this section. (b) Personal service of a copy of any process against the limited partnership or the foreign limited partnership will constitute valid service on the limited partnership if delivered either (1) to any individual designated by it as agent or, if a limited partnership, to any general partner or (2) if the designated agent or, if a limited partnership, general partner is a corporation, to any person named in the latest certificate of the corporate agent filed pursuant to Section 1505 of the Corporations Code at the office of the corporate agent or to any officer of the general partner, shall constitute valid service on the limited partnership or the foreign limited partnership. No change in the address of the agent for service of process where the agent is an individual or appointment of a new agent for service of process shall be effective (1) for a limited partnership until an amendment to the certificate of limited partnership is filed or (2) for a foreign limited partnership until an amendment to the application for registration is filed. In the case of a foreign limited partnership that has appointed the Secretary of State as agent for service of process by reason of subdivision (b) of Section 15909.07, process shall be delivered by hand to the Secretary of State, or to any person employed in the capacity of assistant or deputy, which shall be one copy of the process for each defendant to be served, together with a copy of the court order authorizing the service and the fee therefor. The order shall include and set forth an address to which the process shall be sent by the Secretary of State. (c) (1) If an agent for service of process has resigned and has not been replaced or if the agent designated cannot with reasonable diligence be found at the address designated for personal delivery of the process, and it is shown by affidavit to the satisfaction of the court that process against a limited partnership or foreign limited partnership cannot be served with reasonable diligence upon the designated agent or, if a foreign limited partnership, upon any general partner by hand in the manner provided in Section 415.10, subdivision (a) of Section 415.20, or subdivision (a) of Section 415.30 of the Code of Civil Procedure, the court may make an order that the service shall be made upon a domestic limited partnership which has filed a certificate or upon a foreign limited partnership which has a certificate of registration to transact business in this state by delivering by hand to the Secretary of State, or to any person employed in the Secretary of State's office in the capacity of assistant or deputy, one copy of the process for each defendant to be served, together with a copy of the order authorizing the service. Service in this manner shall be deemed complete on the 10th day after delivery of the process to the Secretary of State. (2) Upon receipt of any such copy of process and the fee therefor, the Secretary of State shall give notice of the service of the process to the limited partnership or foreign limited partnership, at its principal office, by forwarding to that office, by registered mail with request for return receipt, the copy of the process. (3) The Secretary of State shall keep a record of all process served upon the Secretary of State under this chapter and shall record therein the time of service and the Secretary of State's action with reference thereto. A certificate under the Secretary of State's official seal, certifying to the receipt of process, the giving of notice thereof to the limited partnership or foreign limited partnership, and the forwarding of the process pursuant to this section, shall be competent and prima facie evidence of the matters stated therein. (d) (1) The certificate of a limited partnership and the application for a certificate of registration of a foreign limited partnership shall designate, as the agent for service of process, an individual residing in this state or a corporation which has complied with Section 1505 of the Corporations Code and whose capacity to act as an agent has not terminated. If an individual is designated, the statement shall set forth that person's complete business or residence address in this state. If a corporate agent is designated, no address for it shall be set forth. (2) An agent designated for service of process may file with the Secretary of State a signed and acknowledged written statement of resignation as an agent. Thereupon the authority of the agent to act in that capacity shall cease and the Secretary of State forthwith shall give written notice of the filing of the certificate of resignation by mail to the limited partnership or foreign limited partnership addressed to its designated office. (3) If an individual who has been designated agent for service of process dies or resigns or no longer resides in the state or if the corporate agent for that purpose, resigns, dissolves, withdraws from the state, forfeits its right to transact intrastate business, has its corporate rights, powers and privileges suspended or ceases to exist, (A) the limited partnership shall promptly file an amendment to the certificate designating a new agent or (B) the foreign limited partnership shall promptly file an amendment to the application for registration. (e) In addition to any other discovery rights which may exist, in any case pending in a California court having jurisdiction in which a party seeks records from a partnership formed under this chapter, whether or not the partnership is a party, the court shall have the power to order the production in California of the books and records of the partnership on the terms and conditions that the court deems appropriate.


15901.17. (a) A partner may, in a written partnership agreement or other writing, consent to be subject to the nonexclusive jurisdiction of the courts of a specified jurisdiction, or the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of this state. (b) If a partner desires to use the arbitration process, that partner may in a written partnership agreement or other writing, consent to be nonexclusively subject to arbitration in a specified state, or to be exclusively subject to arbitration in this state. (c) Along with this consent to the jurisdiction of courts or arbitration, a partner may consent to be served with legal process in the manner prescribed in the partnership agreement or other writing.


Article 2. Formation; Certificate Of Limited Partnership And Other Filings

Ca Codes (corp:15902.01-15902.09) Corporations Code Section 15902.01-15902.09



15902.01. (a) In order for a limited partnership to be formed, a certificate of limited partnership must be filed with and on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State and, either before or after the filing of a certificate of limited partnership, the partners shall have entered into a partnership agreement. The certificate must state: (1) the name of the limited partnership, which must comply with Section 15901.08; (2) the address of the initial designated office; and (3) the name and address of the initial agent for service of process in accordance with paragraph (1) of subdivision (d) of Section 15901.16. (4) the name and the address of each general partner. (b) A certificate of limited partnership may also contain any other matters but may not vary or otherwise affect the provisions specified in subdivision (b) of Section 15901.10 in a manner inconsistent with that section. (c) Subject to subdivision (c) of Section 15902.06 a limited partnership is formed when the Secretary of State files the certificate of limited partnership. (d) Subject to subdivision (b), if any provision of a partnership agreement is inconsistent with the filed certificate of limited partnership or with a filed certificate of dissociation, cancellation, or amendment or filed certificate of conversion or merger: (1) the partnership agreement prevails as to partners and transferees; and (2) the filed certificate of limited partnership, certificate of dissociation, cancellation, or amendment or filed certificate of conversion or merger prevails as to persons, other than partners and transferees, that reasonably rely on the filed record to their detriment. (e) A limited partnership may record in the office of the county recorder of any county in this state a certified copy of the certificate of limited partnership, or any amendment thereto, which has been filed by the Secretary of State. A foreign limited partnership may record in the office of the county recorder of any county in the state a certified copy of the application for registration to transact business, together with the certificate of registration, referred to in Section 15909.02, or any amendment thereto, which has been filed by the Secretary of State. The recording shall create a conclusive presumption in favor of any bona fide purchaser or encumbrancer for value of the partnership real property located in the county in which the certified copy has been recorded, that the persons named as general partners therein are the general partners of the partnership named and that they are all of the general partners of the partnership. (f) The Secretary of State may cancel the filing of certificates of limited partnership if a check or other remittance accepted in payment of the filing fee is not paid upon presentation. For partners and transferees, the partnership agreement is paramount. Upon receiving written notification that the item presented for payment has not been honored for payment, the Secretary of State shall give a first written notice of the applicability of this section to the agent for service of process or to the person submitting the instrument. Thereafter, if the amount has not been paid by cashier's check or equivalent, the Secretary of State shall give a second written notice of cancellation and the cancellation shall thereupon be effective. The second notice shall be given 20 days or more after the first notice and 90 days or less after the original filing. (g) The Secretary of State shall include with instructional materials, provided in conjunction with the form for filing a certificate of limited partnership under subdivision (a), a notice that the filing of the certificate of limited partnership will obligate the limited partnership to pay an annual tax for that taxable year to the Franchise Tax Board pursuant to Section 17935 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. That notice shall be updated annually to specify the dollar amount of the annual tax.


15902.02. (a) In order to amend its certificate of limited partnership, a limited partnership must deliver to and on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State for filing an amendment stating: (1) the name and the Secretary of State's file number of the limited partnership; and (2) the changes the amendment makes to the certificate as most recently amended or restated. (b) A limited partnership shall promptly deliver to the Secretary of State for filing an amendment to a certificate of limited partnership to reflect: (1) the admission of a new general partner; (2) the dissociation of a person as a general partner; or (3) the appointment of a person to wind up the limited partnership' s activities under subdivisions (c) or (d) of Section 15908.03. (c) A general partner that knows that any information in a filed certificate of limited partnership was false when the certificate was filed or has become false due to changed circumstances shall promptly: (1) cause the certificate to be amended; or (2) if appropriate, deliver to the Secretary of State for filing an amendment or a certificate of correction pursuant to Section 15902.07. (d) A certificate of limited partnership may be amended at any time for any other proper purpose as determined by the limited partnership. (e) A restated certificate of limited partnership may be delivered to and on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State for filing in the same manner as an amendment. (1) A restated certificate of limited partnership may be filed that embodies all of the provisions that are in effect contained in the different certificates that have been filed with the Secretary of State. (2) A restated certificate of limited partnership may include an amendment of the certificate of limited partnership not previously filed with the Secretary of State. (3) The restated certificate of limited partnership shall supersede the initial certificate of limited partnership and all amendments thereto previously filed with the Secretary of State. (4) Any amendment effected in connection with the restatement of the certificate of limited partnership shall be subject to any other provision of this chapter not inconsistent with this section that would apply if a separate certificate of amendment were filed to effect that amendment. (f) Subject to subdivision (c) of Section 15902.06, an amendment or restated certificate is effective when filed by the Secretary of State.


15902.03. A dissolved limited partnership that has completed winding up shall deliver to and on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State for filing a certificate of cancellation that states: (1) the name of the limited partnership and the Secretary of State' s file number; (2) the date of filing of its initial certificate of limited partnership; and (3) any other information as determined by the general partners filing the certificate or by a person appointed pursuant to subdivisions (c) or (d) of Section 15908.03.


15902.04. (a) Each record delivered to the Secretary of State for filing pursuant to this chapter must be signed in the following manner: (1) An initial certificate of limited partnership must be signed by all general partners listed in the certificate. (2) An amendment designating as general partner a person admitted under paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 15908.01 following the dissociation of a limited partnership's last general partner must be signed by that person. (3) An amendment required by subdivision (c) of Section 15908.03 following the appointment of a person to wind up the dissolved limited partnership's activities must be signed by that person. (4) Any other amendment must be signed by: (A) at least one general partner listed in the certificate of limited partnership; (B) each other person designated in the amendment as a new general partner; and (C) each person that the amendment indicates has dissociated as a general partner, unless: (i) the person is deceased or a guardian or general conservator has been appointed for the person and the amendment so states; or (ii) the person has previously delivered to the Secretary of State for filing a certificate of dissociation. (5) A restated certificate of limited partnership must be signed by at least one general partner listed in the certificate, and, to the extent the restated certificate effects a change under any other paragraph of this subdivision, the restated certificate must be signed in a manner that satisfies that paragraph. (6) A certificate of cancellation must be signed by all general partners listed in the certificate of limited partnership or, if the certificate of limited partnership of a dissolved limited partnership lists no general partners, by the person appointed pursuant to subdivisions (c) or (d) of Section 15908.03 to wind up the dissolved limited partnership's activities. (7) Certificates of conversion must be signed as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 15911.06. (8) Certificates of merger must be signed as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 15911.14. (9) Any other record delivered on behalf of a limited partnership to the Secretary of State for filing must be signed by at least one general partner listed in the certificate of limited partnership. (10) A certificate of dissociation by a person pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 15906.05 stating that the person has dissociated as a general partner must be signed by that person. (11) A certificate of withdrawal by a person pursuant to Section 15903.06 must be signed by that person. (12) A record delivered on behalf of a foreign limited partnership to the Secretary of State for filing must be signed by at least one general partner of the foreign limited partnership. (13) Any other record delivered on behalf of any person to the Secretary of State for filing must be signed by that person. (b) Any person may sign by an attorney in fact any record to be filed pursuant to this chapter. (c) The Secretary of State shall not be required to verify that the person withdrawing or dissociating was ever actually named in an official filing as a general or limited partner.


15902.05. (a) If a person required by this chapter to sign a record or deliver a record to the Secretary of State for filing does not do so, any other person that is aggrieved may petition the superior court to order: (1) the person to sign the record; (2) deliver the record to the Secretary of State for filing; or (3) the Secretary of State to file the record unsigned. (b) If the person aggrieved under subdivision (a) is not the limited partnership or foreign limited partnership to which the record pertains, the aggrieved person shall make the limited partnership or foreign limited partnership a party to the action. A person aggrieved under subdivision (a) may seek the remedies provided in subdivision (a) in the same action in combination or in the alternative. In any action under this subdivision, if the court finds the failure of the person to comply with the requirement to sign a record or deliver a record to the Secretary of State for filing to have been without justification, the court may award an amount sufficient to reimburse the persons aggrieved under subdivision (a) bringing the action for the reasonable expenses incurred by such persons, including attorneys' fees, in connection with the action or proceeding. (c) A record filed unsigned pursuant to this section is effective without being signed. (d) Any person, other than a general partner, delivering a record to the Secretary of State for filing, shall state the statutory authority for such action after the signature on the appropriate record.


15902.06. (a) A record authorized or required to be delivered to the Secretary of State for filing under this chapter must be completed on a form prescribed by and in a medium permitted by the Secretary of State, and be delivered to the Secretary of State. Unless the Secretary of State determines that a record does not comply with the filing requirements of this chapter, and if all requisite fees have been paid, the Secretary of State shall file the record. (b) Except as otherwise provided in Sections 15901.16, 15902.01, and 15902.07, a record delivered to the Secretary of State for filing under this chapter may specify an effective time and a delayed effective date. Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a record filed by the Secretary of State is effective: (1) if the record does not specify a delayed effective date, on the date the record is filed as evidenced by the Secretary of State's endorsement of the date on the record; (2) if the record specifies a delayed effective date on the earlier of: (A) the specified date; or (B) the 90th day after the record is filed; or (c) In case a delayed effective date is specified, the record may be prevented from becoming effective by a certificate stating that by appropriate action it has been revoked and is null and void, executed in the same manner as the original record and delivered to the Secretary of State for filing before the specified effective date. In the case of certificate of merger, a certificate revoking the earlier filing need only be executed on behalf of one of the constituent parties to the merger. If no such revocation certificate is filed, the record becomes effective on the date specified. (d) If the Secretary of State determines that a record delivered to the Secretary of State for filing does not conform to the law and returns it to the person delivering it, the record may be resubmitted accompanied by a written opinion of the member of the State Bar of California delivering the record or representing the person delivering it, to the effect that the specific provisions of the record objected to by the Secretary of State do conform to law and stating the points and authorities upon which the opinion is based. The Secretary of State shall rely, with respect to any disputed point of law, other than the application of Sections 15901.08, 15901.09, 15909.02, and 15909.05, upon that written opinion in determining whether the record conforms to law. When filed by the Secretary of State upon resubmission, such record is effective retroactively as of the date that the original record was delivered to the Secretary of State for filing.


15902.07. (a) A limited partnership or foreign limited partnership may deliver to and on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State for filing a certificate of correction to correct a record previously delivered by the limited partnership or foreign limited partnership to the Secretary of State and filed by the Secretary of State, if at the time of filing the record contained false or erroneous information or was defectively signed. (b) A certificate of correction may not state a delayed effective date and must: (1) describe the record to be corrected, including its filing date and file number; (2) specify the incorrect information and the reason it is incorrect or the manner in which the signing was defective; and (3) correct the incorrect information or defective signature. (c) When filed by the Secretary of State, a certificate of correction is effective retroactively as of the effective date of the record the certificate corrects, but the certificate is effective when filed: (1) for the purposes of subdivisions (c) and (d) of Section 15901.03; and (2) as to persons relying on the uncorrected record and adversely affected by the correction.

15902.08. (a) If a record delivered to the Secretary of State for filing under this chapter and filed by the Secretary of State contains false information, a person that suffers loss by reliance on the information may recover damages for the loss from: (1) a person that signed the record, or caused another to sign it on the person's behalf, and knew the information to be false at the time the record was signed; and (2) a general partner that has notice that the information was false when the record was filed or has become false because of changed circumstances, if the general partner has notice for a reasonably sufficient time before the information is relied upon to enable the general partner to effect an amendment under Section 15902.02, file a petition pursuant to Section 15902.05, or deliver to the Secretary of State for filing a certificate of correction pursuant to Section 15902.07. (b) Signing a record authorized or required to be filed under this chapter constitutes an affirmation under the penalties of perjury that the facts stated in the record are true.


15902.09. (a) A domestic limited partnership whose certificate of limited partnership has been canceled pursuant to Section 15902.03 may be revived by filing with, and on a form prescribed by, the Secretary of State a certificate of revival. The certificate of revival shall be accompanied by written confirmation by the Franchise Tax Board that all of the following have occurred: (1) All of the following have been paid to the Franchise Tax Board: (A) The annual tax due under Section 17935 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. (B) All fees, penalties, and interest for each year for which the domestic limited partnership failed to pay such annual tax, including each year between the cancellation of its certificate of limited partnership and its revival. (2) All required tax returns have been filed, including returns for each taxable year between the cancellation of its certificate of limited partnership and its revival. (b) The certificate of revival shall set forth all of the following: (1) The name of the limited partnership at the time its certificate of limited partnership was canceled, and if the name is not available at the time of revival, the name under which the limited partnership is to be revived. (2) The date of filing of the original certificate of limited partnership. (3) The address of the limited partnership's designated office. (4) The name and address of the initial agent for service of process in accordance with paragraph (1) of subdivision (d) of Section 15901.16. (5) A statement that the certificate of revival is filed by one or more general partners of the limited partnership authorized to execute and file the certificate of revival to revive the limited partnership. (6) The Secretary of State's file number for the original limited partnership. (7) The name and address of each general partner. (8) Any other matters the general partner or partners executing the certificate of revival determine to include therein. (c) The certificate of revival should be deemed to be an amendment to the certificate of limited partnership, and the limited partnership shall not be required to take any further action to amend its certificate of limited partnership pursuant to Section 15902.02 with respect to the matter set forth in the certificate of revival. (d) Upon the filing of the certificate of revival, the limited partnership shall be revived with the same force and effect as if the certificate of limited partnership had not been canceled pursuant to Section 15902.03. The revival shall validate all contracts, acts, matters, and things made, done, and performed by the limited partnership, its partners, employees, and agents following the time its certificate of limited partnership was canceled pursuant to Section 15902.03 with the same force and effect and all intents and purposes as if the certificate of limited partnership had remained in full force and effect. This provision shall apply provided that third parties are relying on the acts of the partnership, its partners, employees, and agents. All real and personal property, and all rights and interests, that belong to a limited partnership at the time its certificate of limited partnership was canceled pursuant to Section 15902.03 or that were acquired by the limited partnership following the cancellation of the certificate of limited partnership, that were not disposed of prior to the time of its revival, shall be vested in the limited partnership after its revival as fully as if they were held by the limited partnership at, and during the time after, as the case may be, the time the certificate of limited partnership was canceled. After its revival, the limited partnership and its partners shall have all of the same liability for contracts, acts, matters, and things made, done, or performed in the limited partnership's name and on behalf of its partners, employees, and agents, as the limited partnership and its partners would have had if the limited partnership's certificate of limited partnership had at all times remained in full force and effect. (e) The amendments made to this section by the act adding this subdivision shall apply to written confirmations made by the Franchise Tax Board on or after January 1, 2010.


Article 3. Limited Partners

Ca Codes (corp:15903.01-15903.07) Corporations Code Section 15903.01-15903.07



15903.01. A person becomes a limited partner: (a) as provided in the partnership agreement; (b) as the result of a conversion or merger under Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01); or (c) with the consent of all the partners.


15903.02. A limited partner does not have the right or the power as a limited partner to act for or bind the limited partnership.


15903.03. (a) A limited partner is not liable for any obligation of a limited partnership unless named as a general partner in the certificate or, in addition to exercising the rights and powers of a limited partner, the limited partner participates in the control of the business. If a limited partner participates in the control of the business without being named as a general partner, that partner may be held liable as a general partner only to persons who transact business with the limited partnership with actual knowledge of that partner's participation in control and with a reasonable belief, based upon the limited partner's conduct, that the partner is a general partner at the time of the transaction. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to affect the liability of a limited partner to third parties for the limited partner's participation in tortious conduct. (b) A limited partner does not participate in the control of the business within the meaning of subdivision (a) solely by doing, attempting to do, or having the right or power to do, one or more of the following: (1) Being any of the following: (A) An independent contractor for, an agent or employee of, or transacting business with, the limited partnership or a general partner of the limited partnership. (B) An officer, director, or shareholder of a corporate general partner of the limited partnership. (C) A member, manager, or officer of a limited liability company that is a general partner of the limited partnership. (D) A limited partner of a partnership that is a general partner of the limited partnership. (E) A trustee, administrator, executor, custodian, or other fiduciary or beneficiary of an estate or trust that is a general partner. (F) A trustee, officer, adviser, shareholder, or beneficiary of a business trust that is a general partner. (2) Consulting with and advising a general partner with respect to the business of the limited partnership. (3) Acting as surety for the limited partnership or for a general partner, guaranteeing one or more specific debts of the limited partnership, providing collateral for the limited partnership or general partner, borrowing money from the limited partnership or a general partner, or lending money to the limited partnership or a general partner. (4) Approving or disapproving an amendment to the partnership agreement. (5) Voting on, proposing, or calling a meeting of the partners. (6) Winding up the partnership pursuant to Section 15908.03. (7) Executing and filing a certificate pursuant to Section 15902.05, a certificate of withdrawal pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 15902.04, or a certificate of cancellation of the certificate of limited partnership pursuant to paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 15902.04. (8) Serving on an audit committee or committee performing the functions of an audit committee. (9) Serving on a committee of the limited partnership or the limited partners for the purpose of approving actions of the general partner. (10) Calling, requesting, attending, or participating at any meeting of the partners or the limited partners. (11) Taking any action required or permitted by law to bring, pursue, settle, or terminate a derivative action on behalf of the limited partnership. (12) Serving on the board of directors or a committee of, consulting with or advising, being or acting as an officer, director, stockholder, partner, member, manager, agent, or employee of, or being or acting as a fiduciary for, any person in which the limited partnership has an interest. (13) Exercising any right or power permitted to limited partners under this chapter and not specifically enumerated in this subdivision. (c) The enumeration in subdivision (b) does not mean that any other conduct or the possession or exercise of any other power by a limited partner constitutes participation by the limited partner in the control of the business of the limited partnership.


15903.04. (a) On 10 days' demand, made in a record received by the limited partnership, a limited partner may inspect and copy any information required to be maintained pursuant to Section 15901.11 during regular business hours in the limited partnership's designated office. The limited partner need not have any particular purpose for seeking the information. (b) Subject to subdivision (g), during regular business hours and at a reasonable location specified by the limited partnership, a limited partner may obtain from the limited partnership, which may be transmitted via electronic transmission, and inspect and copy true and full information regarding the state of the activities and financial condition of the limited partnership and other information regarding the activities of the limited partnership as is just and reasonable if: (1) the limited partner seeks the information for a purpose reasonably related to the partner's interest as a limited partner; (2) the limited partner makes a demand in a record received by the limited partnership, describing with reasonable particularity the information sought and the purpose for seeking the information; and (3) the information sought is directly connected to the limited partner's purpose. (c) Within 10 days after receiving a demand pursuant to subdivision (b), the limited partnership in a record shall inform the limited partner that made the demand: (1) what information the limited partnership will provide in response to the demand; (2) when and where the limited partnership will provide the information; and (3) if the limited partnership declines to provide any demanded information, the limited partnership's reasons for declining. (d) Subject to subdivision (f), a person dissociated as a limited partner may inspect and copy required information during regular business hours in the limited partnership's designated office if: (1) the information pertains to the period during which the person was a limited partner; (2) the person seeks the information in good faith; and (3) the person meets the requirements of subdivision (b). (e) The limited partnership shall respond to a demand made pursuant to subdivision (d) in the same manner as provided in subdivision (c). (f) If a limited partner dies, Section 15907.04 applies. (g) The limited partnership shall have the right to keep confidential from limited partners for such period of time as the limited partnership deems reasonable, any information which the limited partnership reasonably believes to be in the nature of trade secrets or other information the disclosure of which the limited partnership in good faith believes is not in the best interest of the limited partnership or could damage the limited partnership or its business or which the limited partnership is required by law or by agreement with a third party to keep confidential. (h) The limited partnership may impose reasonable restrictions on the use of information obtained under this section. In a dispute concerning the reasonableness of a restriction under this subdivision, the limited partnership has the burden of proving reasonableness. (i) A limited partnership may charge a person that makes a demand under this section reasonable costs of copying, limited to the costs of labor and material. (j) Whenever this chapter or a partnership agreement provides for a limited partner to give or withhold consent to a matter, before the consent is given or withheld, the limited partnership shall, without demand, provide the limited partner with all information material to the limited partner's decision that the limited partnership knows. (k) A limited partner or person dissociated as a limited partner may exercise the rights under this section through an attorney or other agent. Any restriction imposed under subdivision (g), subdivision (h) or by the partnership agreement applies both to the attorney or other agent and to the limited partner or person dissociated as a limited partner. (l) The rights stated in this section do not extend to a person as transferee, but may be exercised by the legal representative of an individual under legal disability who is a limited partner or person dissociated as a limited partner.


15903.05. (a) A limited partner does not have any fiduciary duty to the limited partnership or to any other partner solely by reason of being a limited partner. (b) A limited partner shall discharge the duties to the partnership and the other partners under this chapter or under the partnership agreement and exercise any rights consistently with the obligation of good faith and fair dealing. (c) A limited partner does not violate a duty or obligation under this chapter or under the partnership agreement merely because the limited partner's conduct furthers the limited partner's own interest.

15903.06. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), a person that makes an investment in a business enterprise and erroneously but in good faith believes that the person has become a limited partner in the enterprise is not liable for the enterprise's obligations by reason of making the investment, receiving distributions from the enterprise, or exercising any rights of or appropriate to a limited partner, if, on ascertaining the mistake, the person: (1) causes an appropriate certificate of limited partnership, amendment, or certificate of correction to be signed and delivered to the Secretary of State for filing; or (2) withdraws from future participation as an owner in the enterprise by signing and delivering to and on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State for filing a certificate of withdrawal under this section. (b) A person that makes an investment described in subdivision (a) is liable to the same extent as a general partner to any third party that enters into a transaction with the enterprise, believing in good faith that the person is a general partner, before the Secretary of State files a certificate of withdrawal, certificate of limited partnership, amendment, or certificate of correction to show that the person is not a general partner. (c) If a person makes a diligent effort in good faith to comply with paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) and is unable to cause the appropriate certificate of limited partnership, amendment, or certificate of correction to be signed and delivered to the Secretary of State for filing, the person has the right to withdraw from the enterprise pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) even if the withdrawal would otherwise breach an agreement with others that are or have agreed to become co-owners of the enterprise.


15903.07. (a) The partnership agreement may provide for the creation of classes of limited partners. The partnership agreement shall define the rights, powers, and duties of those classes, including rights, powers, and duties senior to other classes of limited partners. (b) The partnership agreement may provide to all or certain specified classes of limited partners the right to vote separately or with all or any class or the general partners on any matter.


Article 4. General Partners

Ca Codes (corp:15904.01-15904.09) Corporations Code Section 15904.01-15904.09



15904.01. A person becomes a general partner: (a) as provided in the partnership agreement: (b) under paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 15908.01 following the dissociation of a limited partnership's last general partner; (c) as the result of a conversion or merger under Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01); or (d) with the consent of all the partners.


15904.02. (a) Each general partner is an agent of the limited partnership for the purposes of its activities. An act of a general partner, including the signing of a record in the partnership's name, for apparently carrying on in the ordinary course the limited partnership's activities or activities of the kind carried on by the limited partnership binds the limited partnership, unless the general partner did not have authority to act for the limited partnership in the particular matter and the person with which the general partner was dealing knew, had received a notification, or had notice under subdivision (d) of Section 15901.03 that the general partner lacked authority. (b) An act of a general partner which is not apparently for carrying on in the ordinary course the limited partnership's activities or activities of the kind carried on by the limited partnership binds the limited partnership only if the act was actually authorized by all the other partners.


15904.03. (a) A limited partnership is liable for loss or injury caused to a person, or for a penalty incurred, as a result of a wrongful act or omission, or other actionable conduct, of a general partner acting in the ordinary course of activities of the limited partnership or with authority of the limited partnership. (b) If, in the course of the limited partnership's activities or while acting with authority of the limited partnership, a general partner receives or causes the limited partnership to receive money or property of a person not a partner, and the money or property is misapplied by a general partner, the limited partnership is liable for the loss.


15904.04. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b), all general partners are liable jointly and severally for all obligations of the limited partnership unless otherwise agreed by the claimant or provided by law. (b) A person that becomes a general partner of an existing limited partnership is not personally liable for an obligation of a limited partnership incurred before the person became a general partner.


15904.05. (a) To the extent not inconsistent with Section 15904.04, a general partner may be joined in an action against the limited partnership or named in a separate action. (b) A judgment against a limited partnership is not by itself a judgment against a general partner. A judgment against a limited partnership may not be satisfied from a general partner's assets unless there is also a judgment against the general partner. (c) A judgment creditor of a general partner may not levy execution against the assets of the general partner to satisfy a judgment based on a claim against the limited partnership, unless the partner is personally liable for the claim under Section 15904.04 and: (1) a judgment based on the same claim has been obtained against the limited partnership and a writ of execution on the judgment has been returned unsatisfied in whole or in part; (2) the limited partnership is a debtor in bankruptcy; (3) the general partner has agreed that the creditor need not exhaust limited partnership assets; (4) a court grants permission to the judgment creditor to levy execution against the assets of a general partner based on a finding that limited partnership assets subject to execution are clearly insufficient to satisfy the judgment, that exhaustion of limited partnership assets is excessively burdensome, or that the grant of permission is an appropriate exercise of the court's equitable powers; or (5) liability is imposed on the general partner by law or contract independent of the existence of the limited partnership.


15904.06. (a) Each general partner has equal rights in the management and conduct of the limited partnership's activities. Except as expressly provided in this chapter, any matter relating to the activities of the limited partnership may be exclusively decided by the general partner or, if there is more than one general partner, by a majority of the general partners. (b) The consent of each partner is necessary to: (1) amend the partnership agreement; and (2) sell, lease, exchange, or otherwise dispose of all, or substantially all, of the limited partnership's property, with or without the good will, other than in the usual and regular course of the limited partnership's activities. (c) A limited partnership shall reimburse a general partner for payments made and indemnify a general partner for liabilities incurred by the general partner in the ordinary course of the activities of the partnership or for the preservation of its activities or property. (d) A limited partnership shall reimburse a general partner for an advance to the limited partnership beyond the amount of capital the general partner agreed to contribute. (e) A payment or advance made by a general partner which gives rise to an obligation of the limited partnership under subdivision (c) or (d) constitutes a loan to the limited partnership which accrues interest from the date of the payment or advance. (f) A general partner is not entitled to remuneration for services performed for the partnership.

15904.07. (a) A general partner, without having any particular purpose for seeking the information, may inspect and copy during regular business hours: (1) in the limited partnership's designated office, required information; and (2) at a reasonable location specified by the limited partnership, any other records maintained by the limited partnership regarding the limited partnership's activities and financial condition. (b) Each general partner and the limited partnership shall furnish to a general partner which may be transmitted via electronic transmission: (1) without demand, any information concerning the limited partnership's activities and activities reasonably required for the proper exercise of the general partner's rights and duties under the partnership agreement or this chapter; and (2) on demand, any other information concerning the limited partnership's activities, except to the extent the demand or the information demanded is unreasonable or otherwise improper under the circumstances. (c) Subject to subdivision (e), on 10 days' demand made in a record received by the limited partnership, a person dissociated as a general partner may have access to the information and records described in subdivision (a) at the location specified in subdivision (a) if: (1) the information or record pertains to the period during which the person was a general partner; (2) the person seeks the information or record in good faith; and (3) the person satisfies the requirements imposed on a limited partner by subdivision (b) of Section 15903.04. (d) The limited partnership shall respond to a demand made pursuant to subdivision (c) in the same manner as provided in subdivision (c) of Section 15903.04. (e) If a general partner dies, Section 15907.04 applies. (f) The limited partnership may impose reasonable restrictions on the use of information under this section. In any dispute concerning the reasonableness of a restriction under this subdivision, the limited partnership has the burden of proving reasonableness. (g) A limited partnership may charge a person dissociated as a general partner that makes a demand under this section reasonable costs of copying, limited to the costs of labor and material. (h) A general partner or person dissociated as a general partner may exercise the rights under this section through an attorney or other agent. Any restriction imposed under subdivision (f) or by the partnership agreement applies both to the attorney or other agent and to the general partner or person dissociated as a general partner. (i) The rights under this section do not extend to a person as transferee, but the rights under subdivision (c) of a person dissociated as a general partner may be exercised by the legal representative of an individual who dissociated as a general partner under paragraph (2) or (3) of subdivision (g) of Section 15906.03.


15904.08. (a) The fiduciary duties that a general partner owes to the limited partnership and the other partners are the duties of loyalty and care under subdivisions (b) and (c). (b) A general partner's duty of loyalty to the limited partnership and the other partners is limited to the following: (1) to account to the limited partnership and hold as trustee for it any property, profit, or benefit derived by the general partner in the conduct and winding up of the limited partnership's activities or derived from a use by the general partner of limited partnership property, including the appropriation of a limited partnership opportunity; (2) to refrain from dealing with the limited partnership in the conduct or winding up of the limited partnership's activities as or on behalf of a party having an interest adverse to the limited partnership; and (3) to refrain from competing with the limited partnership in the conduct or winding up of the limited partnership's activities. (c) A general partner's duty of care to the limited partnership and the other partners in the conduct and winding up of the limited partnership's activities is limited to refraining from engaging in grossly negligent or reckless conduct, intentional misconduct, or a knowing violation of law. (d) A general partner shall discharge the duties to the partnership and the other partners under this chapter or under the partnership agreement and exercise any rights consistently with the obligation of good faith and fair dealing. (e) A general partner does not violate a duty or obligation under this chapter or under the partnership agreement merely because the general partner's conduct furthers the general partner's own interest.

15904.09. (a) A partnership agreement may provide for the creation of classes of general partners. The partnership agreement shall define the rights, powers, and duties of those classes including rights, powers, and duties senior to other classes of general partners. (b) The partnership agreement may provide to all or certain specified classes of general partners the right to vote separately or with all or any class of the general partners on any matters.


Article 5. Contributions And Distributions

Ca Codes (corp:15905.01-15905.09) Corporations Code Section 15905.01-15905.09



15905.01. A contribution of a partner may consist of tangible or intangible property or other benefit to the limited partnership, including money, services performed, promissory notes, other agreements to contribute cash or property, and contracts for services to be performed.


15905.02. (a) A partner's obligation to contribute money or other property or other benefit to, or to perform services for, a limited partnership is not excused by the partner's death, disability, or other inability to perform personally. (b) If a partner does not make a promised nonmonetary contribution, the partner is obligated at the option of the limited partnership to contribute money equal to the value of that portion, as stated in the required information, of the stated contribution which has not been made. (c) The obligation of a partner to make a contribution or return money or other property paid or distributed in violation of this chapter may be compromised only by consent of all partners. A creditor of a limited partnership which extends credit or otherwise acts in reliance on an obligation described in subdivision (a), without notice of any compromise under this subdivision, may enforce the original obligation. (d) A partnership agreement may provide that the interest of a partner who fails to make any contribution or other payment that the partner is required to make will be subject to specific remedies for, or specific consequences of, the failure. A provision shall be enforceable in accordance with its terms unless the partner seeking to invalidate the provision establishes that the provision was unreasonable under the circumstances existing at the time the agreement was made. The specific remedies or consequences may include loss of voting, approval, or other rights, loss of the partner's ability to actively participate in the management and operations of the partnership, liquidated damages, or a reduction of the defaulting partner's economic rights. The reduction of the defaulting partner's economic rights may include one or more of the following provisions: (1) Diluting, reducing or eliminating the defaulting partner's proportionate interest in the partnership. (2) Subordinating the defaulting partner's interest in the partnership to that of nondefaulting partners. (3) Permitting a forced sale of the partnership interest. (4) Permitting the lending or contribution by other partners of the amount necessary to meet the defaulting partner's commitment. (5) Adjusting the interest rates or other rates of return, preferred, priority, or otherwise, with respect to contributions by or capital accounts of the other partners. (6) Fixing the value of the defaulting partner's interest in the partnership by appraisal, formula and redemption, or sale of the defaulting partner's interest in the partnership at a percentage of that value. (7) Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the rights of third-party creditors of the partnership to seek equitable remedies nor any rights existing under the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 3439) of Title 2 of Part 2 of Division 4 of the Civil Code).


15905.03. A distribution by a limited partnership must be shared among the partners on the basis of the value, as stated in the required records when the limited partnership decides to make the distribution, of the contributions the limited partnership has received from each partner.


15905.035. The profits and losses of a limited partnership shall be allocated among the partners in the manner provided in the partnership agreement. If the partnership agreement does not otherwise provide, profits and losses shall be allocated in the same manner as the partners share distributions.


15905.04. A partner does not have a right to any distribution before the dissolution and winding up of the limited partnership unless the limited partnership decides to make an interim distribution.


15905.05. A person does not have a right to receive a distribution on account of dissociation.


15905.06. A partner does not have a right to demand or receive any distribution from a limited partnership in any form other than cash. Subject to subdivision (b) of Section 15908.09, a limited partnership may distribute an asset in kind to the extent each partner receives a percentage of the asset equal to the partner's share of distributions.


15905.07. When a partner or transferee becomes entitled to receive a distribution, the partner or transferee has the status of, and is entitled to all remedies available to, a creditor of the limited partnership with respect to the distribution. However, the limited partnership's obligation to make a distribution is subject to offset for any amount owed to the limited partnership by the partner or dissociated partner on whose account the distribution is made.


15905.08. (a) A limited partnership may not make a distribution in violation of the partnership agreement. (b) A limited partnership may not make a distribution if after the distribution: (1) the limited partnership would not be able to pay its debts as they become due in the ordinary course of the limited partnership's activities; or (2) the limited partnership's total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus the amount that would be needed, if the limited partnership were to be dissolved, wound up, and terminated at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution, winding up, and termination of partners whose preferential rights are superior to those of persons receiving the distribution. (c) A limited partnership may base a determination that a distribution is not prohibited under subdivision (b) on financial statements prepared on the basis of accounting practices and principles that are reasonable in the circumstances or on a fair valuation or other method that is reasonable in the circumstances. (d) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (g), the effect of a distribution under subdivision (b) is measured: (1) in the case of distribution by purchase, redemption, or other acquisition of a transferable interest in the limited partnership, as of the date money or other property is transferred or debt incurred by the limited partnership; and (2) in all other cases, as of the date: (A) the distribution is authorized, if the payment occurs within 120 days after that date; or (B) the payment is made, if payment occurs more than l20 days after the distribution is authorized. (e) A limited partnership's indebtedness to a partner incurred by reason of a distribution made in accordance with this section is at parity with the limited partnership's indebtedness to its general unsecured creditors. (f) A limited partnership's indebtedness, including indebtedness issued in connection with or as part of a distribution, is not considered a liability for purposes of subdivision (b) if the terms of the indebtedness provide that payment of principal and interest are made only to the extent that a distribution could then be made to partners under this section. (g) If indebtedness is issued as a distribution, each payment of principal or interest on the indebtedness is treated as a distribution, the effect of which is measured on the date the payment is made.


15905.09. (a) A general partner that consents to a distribution made in violation of Section 15905.08 is personally liable to the limited partnership for the amount of the distribution which exceeds the amount that could have been distributed without the violation if it is established that in consenting to the distribution the general partner failed to comply with Section 15904.08. (b) A partner or transferee that received a distribution knowing that the distribution to that partner or transferee was made in violation of Section 15905.08 is personally liable to the limited partnership but only to the extent that the distribution received by the partner or transferee exceeded the amount that could have been properly paid under Section 15905.08. (c) A general partner against which an action is commenced under subdivision (a) may: (1) implead in the action any other person that is liable under subdivision (a) and compel contribution from the person; and (2) implead in the action any person that received a distribution in violation of subdivision (b) and compel contribution from the person in the amount the person received in violation of subdivision (b). (d) An action under this section is barred if it is not commenced within four years after the distribution.


Article 6. Dissociation

Ca Codes (corp:15906.01-15906.07) Corporations Code Section 15906.01-15906.07



15906.01. (a) A person does not have a right to dissociate as a limited partner before the termination of the limited partnership. (b) A person is dissociated from a limited partnership as a limited partner upon the occurrence of any of the following events: (1) the limited partnership's having notice of the person's express will to withdraw as a limited partner or on a later date specified by the person; (2) an event agreed to in the partnership agreement as causing the person's dissociation as a limited partner; (3) the person's expulsion as a limited partner pursuant to the partnership agreement; (4) the person's expulsion as a limited partner by the unanimous consent of the other partners if: (A) it is unlawful to carry on the limited partnership's activities with the person as a limited partner; (B) there has been a transfer of all of the person's transferable interest in the limited partnership, other than a transfer for security purposes, or a court order charging the person's interest, which has not been foreclosed; (C) the person is a corporation and, within 90 days after the limited partnership notifies the person that it will be expelled as a limited partner because it has filed a certificate of dissolution or the equivalent, its charter has been revoked, or its right to conduct business has been suspended by the jurisdiction of its incorporation, there is no revocation of the certificate of dissolution or no reinstatement of its charter or its right to conduct business; or (D) the person is a limited liability company or partnership that has been dissolved and whose business is being wound up; (5) on application by the limited partnership, the person's expulsion as a limited partner by judicial order because: (A) the person engaged in wrongful conduct that adversely and materially affected the limited partnership's activities; (B) the person willfully or persistently committed a material breach of the partnership agreement or of the obligation of good faith and fair dealing under subdivision (b) of Section 15903.05; or (C) the person engaged in conduct relating to the limited partnership's activities which makes it not reasonably practicable to carry on the activities with the person as limited partner; (6) in the case of a person who is an individual, the person's death; (7) in the case of a person that is a trust or is acting as a limited partner by virtue of being a trustee of a trust, distribution of the trust's entire transferable interest in the limited partnership, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor trustee; (8) in the case of a person that is an estate or is acting as a limited partner by virtue of being a personal representative of an estate, distribution of the estate's entire transferable interest in the limited partnership, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor personal representative; (9) termination of a limited partner that is not an individual, partnership, limited liability company, corporation, trust, or estate; (10) the limited partnership's participation in a conversion or merger under Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01), if the limited partnership: (A) is not the converted or surviving entity; or (B) is the converted or surviving entity but, as a result of the conversion or merger, the person ceases to be a limited partner.


15906.02. (a) Upon a person's dissociation as a limited partner: (1) subject to Section 15907.04, the person does not have further rights as a limited partner; (2) the person's obligation of good faith and fair dealing as a limited partner under subdivision (b) of Section 15903.05 continues only as to matters arising and events occurring before the dissociation; and (3) subject to Section 15907.04 and Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01), any transferable interest owned by the person in the person's capacity as a limited partner immediately before dissociation is owned by the person as a mere transferee. (b) A person's dissociation as a limited partner does not of itself discharge the person from any obligation to the limited partnership or the other partners which the person incurred while a limited partner.


15906.03. A person is dissociated from a limited partnership as a general partner upon the occurrence of any of the following events: (a) the limited partnership's having notice of the person's express will to withdraw as a general partner or on a later date specified by the person; (b) an event agreed to in the partnership agreement as causing the persons dissociation as a general partner; (c) the person's expulsion as a general partner pursuant to the partnership agreement; (d) the person's expulsion as a general partner by the unanimous consent of the other partners if: (1) it is unlawful to carry on the limited partnership's activities with the person as a general partner; (2) there has been a transfer of all or substantially all of the person's transferable interest in the limited partnership, other than a transfer for security purposes, or a court order charging the person's interest, which has not been foreclosed; (3) the person is a corporation and, within 90 days after the limited partnership notifies the person that it will be expelled as a general partner because it has filed a certificate of dissolution or the equivalent, its charter has been revoked, or its right to conduct business has been suspended by the jurisdiction of its incorporation, there is no revocation of the certificate of dissolution or no reinstatement of its charter or its right to conduct business; or (4) the person is a limited liability company or partnership that has been dissolved and whose business is being wound up; (e) on application by the limited partnership, the person's expulsion as a general partner by judicial order because: (1) the person engaged in wrongful conduct that adversely and materially affected the limited partnership activities; (2) the person willfully or persistently committed a material breach of the partnership agreement or of a duty owed to the partnership or the other partners under Section 15904.08; or (3) the person engaged in conduct relating to the limited partnership's activities which makes it not reasonably practicable to carry on the activities of the limited partnership with the person as a general partner; (f) the person's: (1) becoming a debtor in bankruptcy; (2) execution of an assignment for the benefit of creditors; (3) seeking, consenting to, or acquiescing in the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of the person or of all or substantially all of the person's property; or (4) failure, within 90 days after the appointment, to have vacated or stayed the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of the general partner or of all or substantially all of the person's property obtained without the person's consent or acquiescence, or failing within 90 days after the expiration of a stay to have the appointment vacated; (g) in the case of a person who is an individual: (1) the person's death; (2) the appointment of a guardian or general conservator for the person; or (3) a judicial determination that the person has otherwise become incapable of performing the person's duties as a general partner under the partnership agreement; (h) in the case of a person that is a trust or is acting as a general partner by virtue of being a trustee of a trust, distribution of the trust's entire transferable interest in the limited partnership, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor trustee; (i) in the case of a person that is an estate or is acting as a general partner by virtue of being a personal representative of an estate, distribution of the estate's entire transferable interest in the limited partnership, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor personal representative; (j) termination of a general partner that is not an individual, partnership, limited liability company, corporation, trust, or estate; or (k) the limited partnership's participation in a conversion or merger under Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01), if the limited partnership: (1) is not the converted or surviving entity; or (2) is the converted or surviving entity but, as a result of the conversion or merger, the person ceases to be a general partner.


15906.04. (a) A person has the power to dissociate as a general partner at any time, rightfully or wrongfully, by express will pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 15906.03. (b) A person's dissociation as a general partner is wrongful only if: (1) it is in breach of an express provision of the partnership agreement; or (2) it occurs before the termination of the limited partnership, and: (A) the person withdraws as a general partner by express will; (B) the person is expelled as a general partner by judicial determination under subdivision (e) of Section 15906.03; (C) the person is dissociated as a general partner by becoming a debtor in bankruptcy; or (D) in the case of a person that is not an individual, trust other than a business trust, or estate, the person is expelled or otherwise dissociated as a general partner because it willfully dissolved or terminated. (c) A person that wrongfully dissociates as a general partner is liable to the limited partnership and, subject to Section 15910.01, to the other partners for damages caused by the dissociation. The liability is in addition to any other obligation of the general partner to the limited partnership or to the other partners.


15906.05. (a) Upon a person's dissociation as a general partner: (1) the person's right to participate as a general partner in the management and conduct of the partnership's activities terminates; (2) the person's duty of loyalty as a general partner under paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of Section 15904.08 terminates; (3) the person's duty of loyalty as a general partner under paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 15904.08 and duty of care under subdivision (c) of Section 15904.08 continue only with regard to matters arising and events occurring before the person' s dissociation as a general partner; (4) the person may sign and deliver to the Secretary of State for filing , on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State, a certificate of dissociation pertaining to the person and, at the request of the limited partnership, shall sign an amendment to the certificate of limited partnership which states that the person has dissociated; and (5) subject to Section 15907.04 and Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01), any transferable interest owned by the person immediately before dissociation in the person's capacity as a general partner is owned by the person as a mere transferee. (b) A person's dissociation as a general partner does not of itself discharge the person from any obligation to the limited partnership or the other partners which the person incurred while a general partner.


15906.06. (a) After a person is dissociated as a general partner and before the limited partnership is dissolved, converted under Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01), or merged out of existence under that article, the limited partnership is bound by an act of the person only if: (1) the act would have bound the limited partnership under Section 15904.02 before the dissociation; and (2) at the time the other party enters into the transaction: (A) less than two years have passed since the dissociation; and (B) the other party does not have notice of the dissociation and reasonably believes that the person is a general partner. (b) If a limited partnership is bound under subdivision (a), the person dissociated as a general partner which caused the limited partnership to be bound is liable: (1) to the limited partnership for any damage caused to the limited partnership arising from the obligation incurred under subdivision (a); and (2) if a general partner or another person dissociated as a general partner is liable for the obligation, to the general partner or other person for any damage caused to the general partner or other person arising from the liability.


15906.07. (a) A person's dissociation as a general partner does not of itself discharge the person's liability as a general partner for an obligation of the limited partnership incurred before dissociation. Except as otherwise provided in subdivisions (b) and (c), the person is not liable for a limited partnership's obligation incurred after dissociation. (b) A person whose dissociation as a general partner resulted in a dissolution and winding up of the limited partnership's activities is liable to the same extent as a general partner under Section 15904.04 on an obligation incurred by the limited partnership under Section 15908.04. (c) A person that has dissociated as a general partner but whose dissociation did not result in a dissolution and winding up of the limited partnership's activities is liable on a transaction entered into by the limited partnership after the dissociation only if: (1) a general partner would be liable on the transaction; and (2) at the time the other party enters into the transaction: (A) less than two years have passed since the dissociation; and (B) the other party does not have notice of the dissociation and reasonably believes that the person is a general partner. (d) By agreement with a creditor of a limited partnership and the limited partnership, a person dissociated as a general partner may be released from liability to the creditor for an obligation of the limited partnership. (e) A person dissociated as a general partner is released from liability for an obligation of the limited partnership if the limited partnership's creditor, with notice of the person's dissociation as a general partner but without the person's consent, agrees to a material alteration in the nature or time of payment of the obligation.


Article 7. Transferable Interests And Rights Of Transferees And Creditors

Ca Codes (corp:15907.01-15907.04) Corporations Code Section 15907.01-15907.04



15907.01. The only interest of a partner which is transferable is the partner's transferable interest. A transferable interest is personal property.

15907.02. (a) A transfer, in whole or in part, of a partner's transferable interest: (1) is permissible; (2) does not by itself cause the partner's dissociation or a dissolution and winding up of the limited partnership's activities; and (3) does not, as against the other partners or the limited partnership, entitle the transferee to participate in the management or conduct of the limited partnership's activities, to require access to information concerning the limited partnership's transactions except as otherwise provided in subdivision (c), or to inspect or copy the required information or the limited partnership's other records or to exercise any other rights or powers of a partner. (b) A transferee has a right to receive, in accordance with the transfer, distributions to which the transferor would otherwise be entitled. (c) A transferee is entitled to an account of the limited partnership's transactions only upon the dissolution and winding up of the limited partnership. (d) Upon transfer, the transferor retains the rights of a partner other than the interest in distributions transferred and retains all duties and obligations of a partner. (e) A limited partnership need not give effect to a transferee's rights under this section until the limited partnership has notice of the transfer. (f) A transfer of a partner's transferable interest in the limited partnership in violation of a restriction on transfer contained in the partnership agreement is ineffective as to a person having notice of the restriction at the time of transfer. (g) A transferee that becomes a partner with respect to a transferable interest is liable for the transferor's obligations under Sections 15905.02 and 15905.09. However, the transferee is not obligated for liabilities unknown to the transferee at the time the transferee became a partner. (h) A transferee of a partnership interest, including a transferee of a general partner, may become a limited partner if and to the extent that (1) the partnership agreement provides or (2) all general partners and a majority in interest of the limited partners consent.


15907.03. (a) On application to a court of competent jurisdiction by any judgment creditor of a partner or transferee, the court may charge the transferable interest of the judgment debtor with payment of the unsatisfied amount of the judgment with interest. To the extent so charged, the judgment creditor has only the rights of a transferee. The court may appoint a receiver of the share of the distributions due or to become due to the judgment debtor in respect of the limited partnership and make all other orders, directions, accounts, and inquiries the judgment debtor might have made or which the circumstances of the case may require to give effect to the charging order. (b) A charging order constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor's transferable interest. The court may order a foreclosure upon the interest subject to the charging order at any time. The purchaser at the foreclosure sale has the rights of a transferee. (c) At any time before foreclosure, an interest charged may be redeemed: (1) by the judgment debtor; (2) with property other than limited partnership property, by one or more of the other partners; or (3) with limited partnership property, by the limited partnership with the consent of all partners whose interests are not so charged. (d) This chapter does not deprive any partner or transferee of the benefit of any exemption laws applicable to the partner's or transferee's transferable interest. (e) This section provides the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a partner or transferee may satisfy a judgment out of the judgment debtor's transferable interest. (f) No creditor of a partner shall have any right to obtain possession or otherwise exercise legal or equitable remedies with respect to the property of the limited partnership.


15907.04. If a partner dies, the deceased partner's personal representative or other legal representative may exercise the rights of a transferee as provided in Section 15907.02 and, for the purposes of settling the estate, may exercise the rights of a current limited partner under Section 15903.04.


Article 8. Dissolution

Ca Codes (corp:15908.01-15908.09) Corporations Code Section 15908.01-15908.09



15908.01. Except as otherwise provided in Section 15908.02, a limited partnership is dissolved, and its activities must be wound up, only upon the occurrence of any of the following: (a) the happening of an event specified in the partnership agreement; (b) the consent of all general partners and of limited partners owning a majority of the rights to receive distributions as limited partners at the time the consent is to be effective; (c) after the dissociation of a person as a general partner: (1) if the limited partnership has at least one remaining general partner, and a consent to dissolve the limited partnership is given within 90 days after the dissociation by partners owning a majority of the rights to receive distributions as partners at the time the consent is to be effective; or (2) if the limited partnership does not have a remaining general partner, the passage of 90 days after the dissociation, unless before the end of the period: (A) consent to continue the activities of the limited partnership and admit at least one general partner is given by limited partners owning a majority of the rights to receive distributions as limited partners at the time the consent is to be effective; and (B) at least one person is admitted as a general partner in accordance with the consent; or (d) the passage of 90 days after the dissociation of the limited partnership's last limited partner, unless before the end of the period the limited partnership admits at least one limited partner.


15908.02. (a) On application by a partner, a court of competent jurisdiction may order dissolution of a limited partnership if it is not reasonably practicable to carry on the activities of the limited partnership in conformity with the partnership agreement. (b) In any suit for judicial dissolution, the other partners may avoid the dissolution of the limited partnership by purchasing for cash the partnership interests owned by the partners so initiating the proceeding (the "moving parties") at their fair market value. In fixing the value, the amount of any damages resulting if the initiation of the dissolution is a breach by any moving party or parties of an agreement with the purchasing party or parties, including, without limitation, the partnership agreement, may be deducted from the amount payable to the moving party or parties. (c) If the purchasing parties (1) elect to purchase the partnership interests owned by the moving parties, (2) are unable to agree with the moving parties upon the fair market value of the partnership interests, and (3) give bond with sufficient security to pay the estimated reasonable expenses, including attorneys' fees, of the moving parties if the expenses are recoverable under paragraph (3), the court, upon application of the purchasing parties, either in the pending action or in a proceeding initiated in the superior court of the proper county by the purchasing parties, shall stay the winding up and dissolution proceeding and shall proceed to ascertain and fix the fair market value of the partnership interests owned by the moving parties. (d) The court shall appoint three disinterested appraisers to appraise the fair market value of the partnership interests owned by the moving parties, and shall make an order referring the matter to the appraisers so appointed for the purpose of ascertaining that value. The order shall prescribe the time and manner of producing evidence, if evidence is required. The award of the appraisers or a majority of them, when confirmed by the court, shall be final and conclusive upon all parties. The court shall enter a decree that shall provide in the alternative for winding up and dissolution of the limited partnership unless payment is made for the partnership interests within the time specified by the decree. If the purchasing parties do not make payment for the partnership interests within the time specified, judgment shall be entered against them and the surety or sureties on the bond for the amount of the expenses, including attorneys' fees, of the moving parties. Any member aggrieved by the action of the court may appeal therefrom. (e) If the purchasing parties desire to prevent the winding up and dissolution of the limited partnership, they shall pay to the moving parties the value of their partnership interests ascertained and decreed within the time specified pursuant to this section, or, in the case of an appeal, as fixed on appeal. On receiving that payment or the tender thereof, the moving parties shall transfer their partnership interests to the purchasing parties. (f) For the purposes of this section, the valuation date shall be the date upon which the action for judicial dissolution was commenced. However, the court may, upon the hearing of a motion by any party, and for good cause shown, designate some other date as the valuation date.


15908.03. (a) A limited partnership continues after dissolution only for the purpose of winding up its activities. (b) In winding up its activities, the limited partnership: (1) may amend its certificate of limited partnership to state that the limited partnership is dissolved, preserve the limited partnership business or property as a going concern for a reasonable time, prosecute and defend actions and proceedings, whether civil, criminal, or administrative, transfer the limited partnership's property, settle disputes by mediation or arbitration, file a certificate of cancellation as provided in Section 15902.03, and perform other necessary acts; and (2) shall discharge the limited partnership's liabilities, settle and close the limited partnership's activities, and marshal and distribute the assets of the partnership. (c) If a dissolved limited partnership does not have a general partner, a person to wind up the dissolved limited partnership's activities may be appointed by the consent of limited partners owning a majority of the rights to receive distributions as limited partners at the time the consent is to be effective. A person appointed under this subdivision: (1) has the powers of a general partner under Section 15908.04; and (2) shall promptly amend the certificate of limited partnership to state: (A) that the limited partnership does not have a general partner; (B) the name of the person that has been appointed to wind up the limited partnership; and (C) the address of the person. (d) On the application of any partner, the appropriate court may order judicial supervision of the winding up, including the appointment of a person to wind up the dissolved limited partnership' s activities, if: (1) a limited partnership does not have a general partner and within a reasonable time following the dissolution no person has been appointed pursuant to subdivision (c); or (2) the applicant establishes other good cause. (e) Unless otherwise provided in the partnership agreement, the limited partners winding up the affairs of the partnership pursuant to this section shall be entitled to reasonable compensation.


15908.04. (a) A limited partnership is bound by a general partner's act after dissolution which: (1) is appropriate for winding up the limited partnership's activities; or (2) would have bound the limited partnership under Section 15904.02 before dissolution, if, at the time the other party enters into the transaction, the other party does not have notice of the dissolution. (b) A person dissociated as a general partner binds a limited partnership through an act occurring after dissolution if: (1) at the time the other party enters into the transaction: (A) less than two years have passed since the dissociation; and (B) the other party does not have notice of the dissociation and reasonably believes that the person is a general partner; and (2) the act: (A) is appropriate for winding up the limited partnership's activities; or (B) would have bound the limited partnership under Section 15904.02 before dissolution and at the time the other party enters into the transaction the other party does not have notice of the dissolution.


15908.05. (a) If a general partner having knowledge of the dissolution causes a limited partnership to incur an obligation under subdivision (a) of Section 15908.04 by an act that is not appropriate for winding up the partnership's activities, the general partner is liable: (1) to the limited partnership for any damage caused to the limited partnership arising from the obligation; and (2) if another general partner or a person dissociated as a general partner is liable for the obligation, to that other general partner or person for any damage caused to that other general partner or person arising from the liability. (b) If a person dissociated as a general partner causes a limited partnership to incur an obligation under subdivision (b) of Section 15908.04, the person is liable: (1) to the limited partnership for any damage caused to the limited partnership arising from the obligation; and (2) if a general partner or another person dissociated as a general partner is liable for the obligation, to the general partner or other person for any damage caused to the general partner or other person arising from the liability.


15908.06. (a) A dissolved limited partnership may dispose of the known claims against it by following the procedure described in subdivision (b). (b) A dissolved limited partnership may notify its known claimants of the dissolution in a record. The notice must: (1) specify the information required to be included in a claim; (2) provide a mailing address to which the claim is to be sent; (3) state the deadline for receipt of the claim, which may not be less than 120 days after the date the notice is received by the claimant; and (4) state that the claim will be barred if not received by the deadline. (c) A claim against a dissolved limited partnership is barred if the requirements of subdivision (b) are met and: (1) the claim is not received by the specified deadline; or (2) in the case of a claim that is timely received but rejected in writing by the dissolved limited partnership, the claimant does not commence an action to enforce the claim against the limited partnership within 90 days after the receipt of a written notice of the rejection. (d) This section does not apply to a claim based on an event occurring after the effective date of dissolution or a liability that is contingent on that date.


15908.07. (a) A dissolved limited partnership may publish notice of its dissolution and request persons having claims against the limited partnership to present them in accordance with the notice. (b) The notice must: (1) be published at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the dissolved limited partnership' s principal office is located or, if it has none in this state, in the county in which the limited partnership's designated office is or was last located; (2) describe the information required to be contained in a claim and provide a mailing address to which the claim is to be sent; and (3) state that a claim against the limited partnership is barred unless an action to enforce the claim is commenced within four years after publication of the notice. (c) If a dissolved limited partnership publishes a notice in accordance with subdivision (b), the claim of each of the following claimants is barred unless the claimant commences an action to enforce the claim against the dissolved limited partnership within four years after the publication date of the notice: (1) a claimant that did not receive notice in a record under Section 15908.06; (2) a claimant whose claim was timely sent to the dissolved limited partnership but not acted on; and (3) a claimant whose claim is contingent or based on an event occurring after the effective date of dissolution. (d) A claim not barred under this section may be enforced: (1) against the dissolved limited partnership, to the extent of its undistributed assets; (2) if the assets have been distributed in liquidation, against a partner or transferee to the extent of that person's proportionate share of the claim or the limited partnership's assets distributed to the partner or transferee in liquidation, whichever is less, but a person's total liability for all claims under this paragraph does not exceed the total amount of assets distributed to the person as part of the winding up of the dissolved limited partnership; or (3) against any person liable on the claim under Section 15904.04. (e) Publication of a notice of dissolution of a limited partnership pursuant to this section shall not bar the collection of any tax, interest, penalty or addition to tax under Part 10 (commencing with Section 17001) of, Part 10.20 (commencing with Section 18401) of, and Part 11 (commencing with Section 23001) of, Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.


15908.08. If a claim against a dissolved limited partnership is barred under Section 15908.06 or 15908.07, any corresponding claim under Section 15904.04 is also barred.


15908.09. (a) In winding up a limited partnership's activities, the assets of the limited partnership, including the contributions required by this section, must be applied to satisfy the limited partnership's obligations to creditors, including, to the extent permitted by law, partners that are creditors. (b) Any surplus remaining after the limited partnership complies with subdivision (a) must be returned to the partners as they share in distributions. (c) If a limited partnership's assets are insufficient to satisfy all of its obligations under subdivision (a) the following rules apply: (1) Each person that was a general partner when the obligation was incurred and that has not been released from the obligation under Section 15906.07 shall contribute to the limited partnership for the purpose of enabling the limited partnership to satisfy the obligation. The contribution due from each of those persons is in proportion to the right to receive distributions in the capacity of general partner in effect for each of those persons when the obligation was incurred. (2) If a person does not contribute the full amount required under paragraph (1) with respect to an unsatisfied obligation of the limited partnership, the other persons required to contribute by paragraph (1) on account of the obligation shall contribute the additional amount necessary to discharge the obligation. The additional contribution due from each of those other persons is in proportion to the right to receive distributions in the capacity of general partner in effect for each of those other persons when the obligation was incurred. (3) If a person does not make the additional contribution required by paragraph (2), further additional contributions are determined and due in the same manner as provided in that paragraph. (d) A person that makes an additional contribution under paragraph (2) or (3) of subdivision (c) may recover from any person whose failure to contribute under paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (c) necessitated the additional contribution. A person may not recover under this subdivision more than the amount additionally contributed. A person's liability under this subdivision may not exceed the amount the person failed to contribute. (e) The estate of a deceased individual is liable for the person's obligations under this section. (f) An assignee for the benefit of creditors of a limited partnership or a partner, or a person appointed by a court to represent creditors of a limited partnership or a partner, may enforce a person's obligation to contribute under subdivision (c).


Article 9. Foreign Limited Partnership

Ca Codes (corp:15909.01-15909.08) Corporations Code Section 15909.01-15909.08



15909.01. (a) The laws of the state or other jurisdiction under which a foreign limited partnership is organized govern relations among the partners of the foreign limited partnership and between the partners and the foreign limited partnership and the liability of partners as partners for an obligation of the foreign limited partnership, except as to foreign limited liability limited partnerships, which shall be treated as if they were foreign limited partnerships. (b) A foreign limited partnership may not be denied a certificate of registration by reason of any difference between the laws of the jurisdiction under which the foreign limited partnership is organized and the laws of this state. (c) A certificate of registration does not authorize a foreign limited partnership to engage in any business or exercise any power that a limited partnership may not engage in or exercise in this state.


15909.02. (a) A foreign limited partnership may apply for a certificate of registration to transact business in this state by delivering an application signed and acknowledged by a general partner of the foreign limited partnership to, and on a form prescribed by, the Secretary of State for filing. The application must state: (1) the name of the foreign limited partnership and, if the name does not comply with Section 15901.08, an alternate name adopted pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 15909.05. (2) the name of the state or other jurisdiction under whose law the foreign limited partnership is organized and the date of its formation; (3) the address of the foreign limited partnership's designated office and, if the laws of the jurisdiction under which the foreign limited partnership is organized require the foreign limited partnership to maintain an office in that jurisdiction, the address of the required office; (4) the name and address of the foreign limited partnership's initial agent for service of process in this state in accordance with paragraph (1) of subdivision (d) of Section 15901.16; (5) the name and address of each of the foreign limited partnership's general partners; and (6) whether the foreign limited partnership is a foreign limited liability limited partnership. (b) A foreign limited partnership shall deliver with the completed application a certificate of existence or a record of similar import signed by the Secretary of State or other official having custody of the foreign limited partnership's publicly filed records in the state or other jurisdiction under whose law the foreign limited partnership is organized.


15909.03. (a) Activities of a foreign limited partnership that do not constitute transacting business in this state for registration purposes within the meaning of this article include the activities set forth in subdivision (ai) of Section 15901.02. (b) For purposes of this article, the ownership in this state of income-producing real property or tangible personal property, other than property excluded under subdivision (a), constitutes transacting business in this state. (c) This section does not apply in determining the contacts or activities that may subject a foreign limited partnership to service of process, taxation jurisdiction, or regulation under any other law of this state.

15909.04. Unless the Secretary of State determines that an application for a certificate of registration does not comply with the filing requirements of this chapter, the Secretary of State, upon payment of all requisite fees, shall file the application and shall issue to the foreign limited partnership a certificate of registration stating the date of filing of the application and that the foreign limited partnership is qualified to transact intrastate business, subject, however, to any licensing requirements otherwise imposed by the laws of this state.


15909.05. (a) A foreign limited partnership whose name does not comply with Section 15901.08 may not obtain a certificate of registration until it adopts, for the purpose of transacting business in this state, an alternate name that complies with Section 15901.08. (b) If a foreign limited partnership authorized to transact business in this state changes its name to one that does not comply with Section 15901.08, it may not thereafter transact business in this state until it complies with subdivision (a) and obtains an amended certificate of registration. (c) The Secretary of State may cancel the application and certificate of registration of a foreign limited partnership if a check or other remittance accepted in payment of the filing fee is not paid upon presentation. Upon receiving written notification that the item presented for payment has not been honored for payment, the Secretary of State shall give a first written notice of the applicability of this section to the agent for service of process or to the person submitting the instrument. Thereafter, if the amount has not been paid by cashier's check or equivalent, the Secretary of State shall give a second written notice of cancellation and the cancellation shall thereupon be effective. The second notice shall be given 20 days or more after the first notice and 90 days or less after the original filing.


15909.06. If any statement in the application for registration of a foreign limited partnership was false when made or any statements made have become erroneous, the foreign limited partnership shall promptly deliver to, and on a form prescribed by, the Secretary of State an amendment to the application for registration signed and acknowledged by the general partner amending the statement.


15909.07. (a) In order to cancel its certificate of registration to transact business in this state, a foreign limited partnership must deliver to and on a form prescribed by the Secretary of State for filing a certificate of cancellation signed and acknowledged by a general partner of the foreign limited partnership. The registration is canceled when the certificate becomes effective under Section 15902.06. (b) A foreign limited partnership transacting business in this state may not maintain an action or proceeding in this state unless it has a certificate of registration to transact business in this state. (c) Any foreign limited partnership that transacts intrastate business in this state without registration is subject to a penalty of twenty dollars ($20) for each day that the unauthorized intrastate business is transacted, up to a maximum of ten thousand dollars ($10,000). An action to recover this penalty may be brought, and any recovery shall be paid, as provided in Section 2258. (d) The failure of a foreign limited partnership to have a certificate of registration to transact business in this state does not impair the validity of a contract or act of the foreign limited partnership or prevent the foreign limited partnership from defending an action or proceeding in this state. (e) A partner of a foreign limited partnership is not liable for the obligations of the foreign limited partnership solely by reason of the foreign limited partnership's having transacted business in this state without a certificate of registration. (f) If a foreign limited partnership transacts business in this state without a certificate of registration or cancels its certificate of registration, it appoints the Secretary of State as its agent for service of process for rights of action arising out of the transaction of business in this state.


15909.08. The Attorney General may maintain an action to restrain a foreign limited partnership from transacting business in this state in violation of this article.


Article 10. Actions By Partners

Ca Codes (corp:15910.01-15910.06) Corporations Code Section 15910.01-15910.06



15910.01. (a) Subject to subdivision (b), a partner may maintain a direct action against the limited partnership or another partner for legal or equitable relief, with or without an accounting as to the partnership's activities, to enforce the rights and otherwise protect the interests of the partner, including rights and interests under the partnership agreement or this chapter or arising independently of the partnership relationship. (b) A partner bringing a direct action under this section is required to plead and prove an actual or threatened injury that is not solely the result of an injury suffered or threatened to be suffered by the limited partnership. (c) The accrual of, and any time limitation on, a right of action for a remedy under this section is governed by other law. A right to an accounting upon a dissolution and winding up does not revive a claim barred by law.


15910.02. A partner may bring a derivative action to enforce a right of a limited partnership if: (1) the partner first makes a demand on the general partners, requesting that they cause the limited partnership to bring an action to enforce the right, and the general partners do not bring the action within a reasonable time; or (2) a demand would be futile.


15910.03. (a) A derivative action may be maintained only by a person that is a partner at the time the action is commenced and: (1) that was a partner when the conduct giving rise to action occurred; or (2) whose status as a partner devolved upon the person by operation of law or pursuant to the terms of the partnership agreement from a person that was a partner at the time of that conduct. (b) Notwithstanding the foregoing, any partner who does not meet the foregoing requirements may nevertheless be allowed in the discretion of the court to maintain the action on a preliminary showing to and determination by the court, by motion and after a hearing, at which the court shall consider such evidence, by affidavit or testimony, as it deems material that (1) there is a strong prima facie case in favor of the claim asserted on behalf of the partnership, (2) no other similar action has been or is likely to be instituted, (3) the plaintiff acquired the shares before there was disclosure to the public and to the plaintiff of the wrongdoing of which plaintiff complains, (4) unless the action can be maintained the defendant may retain a gain derived from the defendant's willful breach of a fiduciary duty, and (5) the requested relief will not result in unjust enrichment of the partnership or any partner.


15910.04. In a derivative action, the complaint must state with particularity: (1) the date and content of plaintiff's demand and the general partners' response to the demand; or (2) why demand is excused as futile.


15910.05. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (b): (1) any proceeds or other benefits of a derivative action, whether by judgment, compromise, or settlement, belong to the limited partnership and not to the derivative plaintiff; (2) if the derivative plaintiff receives any of those proceeds, the derivative plaintiff shall immediately remit them to the limited partnership. (b) If a derivative action is successful in whole or in part, the court may award the plaintiff reasonable expenses, including reasonable attorney's fees, from the recovery of the limited partnership.


15910.06. (a) In any derivative action, at any time within 30 days after service of summons upon the limited partnership or the general partner, the limited partnership or general partner may move the court for an order, upon notice and hearing, requiring the plaintiff to furnish a bond as hereinafter provided. The motion shall be based upon one or both of the following grounds: (1) That there is no reasonable possibility that the prosecution of the cause of action alleged in the complaint against the moving party will benefit the limited partnership or its partners. (2) That the moving party, if other than the partnership, did not participate in the transaction complained of in any capacity. The court on application of the limited partnership or the general partner may, for good cause shown, extend the 30-day period for an additional period or periods not exceeding 60 days. (b) At the hearing upon any motion pursuant to subdivision (a) the court shall consider such evidence, written or oral, by witnesses or affidavit, as may be material (1) to the ground or grounds upon which the motion is based, or (2) to a determination of the probable reasonable expenses, including attorneys' fees, of the limited partnership and the general partner which will be incurred in defense of the action. If the court determines, after hearing the evidence adduced by the parties, that the moving party has established a probability in support of any of the grounds upon which the motion is based, the court shall fix the amount of the bond, not to exceed fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), to be furnished by the plaintiff for reasonable expenses, including attorneys fees, which may be incurred by the moving party and the limited partnership in connection with the action, including expenses for which the limited partnership may become liable pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 15904.06. A ruling by the court on the motion shall not be a determination of any issue in the action or of the merits thereof. If the court, upon motion, makes a determination that a bond shall be furnished by the plaintiff as to any one or more defendants, the action shall be dismissed as to the defendant or defendants, unless the bond required by the court has been furnished within such reasonable time as may be fixed by the court. (c) If the plaintiff shall, either before or after a motion is made pursuant to subdivision (a), or any order or determination pursuant to the motion, furnish a bond in the aggregate amount of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) to secure the reasonable expenses of the parties entitled to make the motion, the plaintiff has complied with the requirements of this section and with any order for a bond theretofore made, any such motion then pending shall be dismissed and no further additional bond shall be required. (d) If a motion is filed pursuant to subdivision (a), no pleadings need to be filed by the limited partnership or any other defendant and the prosecution of the action shall be stayed until 10 days after the motion has been disposed of.


Article 11. Conversion And Merger

Ca Codes (corp:15911.01-15911.19) Corporations Code Section 15911.01-15911.19



15911.01. For purposes of this article, the following definitions apply: (a) "Converted entity" means the other business entity or foreign other business entity or foreign limited partnership that results from a conversion of a domestic limited partnership under this chapter. (b) "Converted limited partnership" means a domestic limited partnership that results from a conversion of an other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership pursuant to Section 15911.08. (c) "Converting limited partnership" means a domestic limited partnership that converts to an other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership pursuant to this chapter. (d) "Converting entity" means an other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership that converts to a domestic limited partnership pursuant to the terms of Section 15911.08. (e) "Constituent corporation" means a corporation that is merged with or into one or more limited partnerships or other business entities, and that includes a surviving corporation. (f) "Constituent limited partnership" means a limited partnership that is merged with or into one or more other limited partnerships or other business entities, and that includes a surviving limited partnership. (g) "Constituent other business entity" means an other business entity that is merged with or into one or more limited partnerships, and that includes a surviving other business entity. (h) "Disappearing limited partnership" means a constituent limited partnership that is not the surviving limited partnership. (i) "Disappearing other business entity" means a constituent other business entity that is not the surviving other business entity. (j) "Foreign other business entity" means an other business entity formed under the laws of any state other than this state or under the laws of a foreign country. (k) "Other business entity" means a corporation, general partnership, limited liability company, business trust, real estate investment trust, or unincorporated association, other than a nonprofit association, but excludes a limited partnership. (l) "Surviving limited partnership" means a limited partnership into which one or more other limited partnerships or other business entities are merged. (m) "Surviving other business entity" means another business entity into which one or more limited partnerships are merged.


15911.02. (a) A limited partnership may be converted into another business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership pursuant to this article if both of the following apply: (1) Pursuant to a conversion into a domestic or foreign partnership or limited liability company or into a foreign limited partnership, each of the partners of the converting limited partnership receives a percentage interest in the profits and capital of the converted entity equal to that partner's percentage interest in profits and capital of the converting limited partnership as of the effective time of the conversion. (2) Pursuant to a conversion into an other business entity or foreign other business entity not specified in paragraph (1), both of the following occur: (A) Each limited partnership interest of the same class is treated equally with respect to any distribution of cash, property, rights, interests, or securities of the converted entity, unless all limited partners of the class consent. (B) The nonredeemable limited partnership interests of the converting limited partnership are converted only into nonredeemable interests or securities of the converted entity, unless all holders of the unredeemable interests consent. (b) The conversion of a limited partnership to an other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership may be effected only if both of the following conditions are satisfied: (1) The law under which the converted entity will exist expressly permits the formation of that entity pursuant to a conversion. (2) The limited partnership complies with all other requirements of any other law that applies to conversion to the converted entity.


15911.03. (a) A limited partnership that desires to convert to an other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership shall approve a plan of conversion. The plan of conversion shall state all of the following: (1) The terms and conditions of the conversion. (2) The place of the organization of the converted entity and of the converting limited partnership and the name of the converted entity after conversion. (3) The manner of converting the limited and general partnership interests of each of the partners into shares of, securities of, or interests in, the converted entity. (4) The provisions of the governing documents for the converted entity, including the partnership agreement, limited liability company articles of organization and operating agreement, or articles or certificate of incorporation if the converted entity is a corporation, to which the holders of interests in the converted entity are to be bound. (5) Any other details or provisions that are required by the laws under which the converted entity is organized, or that are desired by the parties. (b) The plan of conversion shall be approved by all general partners of the converting limited partnership and by a majority in interest of each class of limited partners of the converting limited partnership, unless a greater or lesser approval is required by the partnership agreement of the converting limited partnership. However, if the limited partners of the limited partnership would become personally liable for any obligations of the converted entity as a result of the conversion, the plan of conversion shall be approved by all of the limited partners of the converting limited partnership, unless the plan of conversion provides that all limited partners will have dissenters' rights as provided in Article 11.5 (commencing with Section 15911.20). (c) Upon the effectiveness of the conversion, all partners of the converting limited partnership, except those that exercise dissenters' rights as provided in Article 11.5 (commencing with Section 15911.20), shall be deemed parties to any governing documents for the converted entity adopted as part of the plan of conversion, irrespective of whether or not the partner has executed the plan of conversion or the governing documents for the converted entity. Any adoption of governing documents made pursuant thereto shall be effective at the effective time or date of the conversion. (d) Notwithstanding its prior approval, a plan of conversion may be amended before the conversion takes effect if the amendment is approved by all general partners of the converting limited partnership and, if the amendment changes any of the principal terms of the plan of conversion, the amendment is approved by the limited partners of the converting limited partnership in the same manner and to the same extent as required for the approval of the original plan of conversion. (e) The general partners of a converting limited partnership may, by unanimous approval at any time before the conversion is effective, in their discretion, abandon a conversion, without further approval by the limited partners, subject to the contractual rights of third parties other than limited partners. (f) The converted entity shall keep the plan of conversion at the principal place of business of the converted entity if the converted entity is a domestic partnership or foreign other business entity, at the principal executive office of, or registrar or transfer agent of, the converted entity, if the converted entity is a domestic corporation, or at the office at which records are to be kept under Section 17057 if the converted entity is a domestic limited liability company. Upon the request of a partner of a converting limited partnership, the authorized person on behalf of the converted entity shall promptly deliver to the partner or the holder of shares, interests, or other securities, at the expense of the converted entity, a copy of the plan of conversion. A waiver by a partner of the rights provided in this subdivision shall be unenforceable.


15911.04. (a) A conversion into an other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership shall become effective upon the earliest date that all of the following occur: (1) The plan of conversion is approved by the partners of the converting limited partnership, as provided in Section 15911.03. (2) All documents required by law to create the converted entity are filed, which documents shall also contain a statement of conversion if required under Section 15911.06. (3) The effective date, if set forth in the plan of conversion, occurs. (b) A copy of the statement of partnership authority or articles of organization complying with Section 15911.06, if applicable, duly certified by the Secretary of State, is conclusive evidence of the conversion of the limited partnership.


15911.05. (a) The conversion of a limited partnership into a foreign limited partnership or foreign other business entity shall be required to comply with Section 15911.02. (b) If the limited partnership is converting into a foreign limited partnership or foreign other business entity, those conversion proceedings shall be in accordance with the laws of the state or place of organization of the foreign limited partnership or foreign other business entity and the conversion shall become effective in accordance with that law. (c) (1) To enforce an obligation of a limited partnership that has converted to a foreign limited partnership or foreign other business entity, the Secretary of State shall only be the agent for service of process in an action or proceeding against that converted foreign entity if the agent designated for the service of process for that entity is a natural person and cannot be found with due diligence or if the agent is a corporation and no person to whom delivery may be made may be located with due diligence, or if no agent has been designated and if no one of the officers, partners, managers, members, or agents of that entity may be located after diligent search and it is so shown by affidavit to the satisfaction of the court. The court then may make an order that service be made by personal delivery to the Secretary of State or to an assistant or deputy Secretary of State of two copies of the process together with two copies of the order, and the order shall set forth an address to which the process shall be sent by the Secretary of State. Service in this manner is deemed complete on the 10th day after delivery of the process to the Secretary of State. (2) Upon receipt of the process and order and the fee set forth in Section 12206 of the Government Code, the Secretary of State shall provide notice to that entity of the service of the process by forwarding by certified mail, return receipt requested, a copy of the process and order to the address specified in the order. (3) The Secretary of State shall keep a record of all process served upon the Secretary of State and shall record therein the time of service and the Secretary of State's action with respect thereto. The certificate of the Secretary of State, under the Secretary of State's official seal, certifying to the receipt of process, the providing of notice thereof to that entity, and the forwarding of the process shall be competent and prima facie evidence of the matters stated therein.


15911.06. (a) Upon conversion of a limited partnership, one of the following applies: (1) If the limited partnership is converting into a domestic limited liability company, a statement of conversion shall be completed on the articles of organization for the converted entity and shall be filed with the Secretary of State. (2) If the limited partnership is converting into a domestic partnership, a statement of conversion shall be completed on the statement of partnership authority for the converted entity. If no statement of partnership authority is filed, a certificate of conversion shall be filed separately with the Secretary of State. (3) If the limited partnership is converting into a domestic corporation, a statement of conversion shall be completed on the articles of incorporation for the converted entity and shall be filed with the Secretary of State. (4) If the limited partnership is converting to a foreign limited partnership or foreign other business entity, a certificate of conversion shall be filed with the Secretary of State. (b) Any certificate or statement of conversion shall be executed and acknowledged by all general partners, unless a lesser number is provided in the certificate of limited partnership, and shall set forth all of the following: (1) The name and the Secretary of State's file number of the converting limited partnership. (2) A statement that the principal terms of the plan of conversion were approved by a vote of the partners, that equaled or exceeded the vote required under Section 15911.03, specifying each class entitled to vote and the percentage vote required of each class. (3) The form of organization of the converted entity. (4) The mailing address of the converted entity's agent for service of process and the chief executive office of the converted entity. (c) The filing with the Secretary of State of a certificate of conversion or a statement of partnership authority, articles of organization, or articles of incorporation containing a statement of conversion as set forth in subdivision (a) shall have the effect of the filing of a certificate of cancellation by the converting limited partnership, and no converting limited partnership that has made the filing is required to file a certificate of cancellation under Section 15902.03 as a result of that conversion.


15911.07. (a) Whenever a limited partnership or other business entity having any real property in this state converts into a limited partnership or an other business entity pursuant to the laws of this state or of the state or place in which the limited partnership or other business entity was organized, and the laws of the state or place of organization, including this state, of the converting limited partnership or other converting entity provide substantially that the conversion vests in the converted limited partnership or other converted entity all the real property of the converting limited partnership or other converting entity, the filing for record in the office of the county recorder of any county in this state in which any of the real property of the converting limited partnership or other converting entity is located of either of the following shall evidence record ownership in the converted limited partnership or other converted entity of all interest of the converting limited partnership or other converting entity in and to the real property located in that county: (1) A certificate of conversion or statement of partnership authority, a certificate of limited partnership, articles of incorporation, or articles of organization complying with Section 15911.06, in the form prescribed and certified by the Secretary of State. (2) A copy of a certificate of conversion or a statement of partnership authority, certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, articles of incorporation, or other certificate or document evidencing the creation of a foreign other business entity or foreign limited partnership by conversion, containing a statement of conversion, certified by the Secretary of State or an authorized public official of the state or place pursuant to the laws of which the conversion is effected. (b) A filed and, if appropriate, recorded certificate of conversion or a statement of partnership authority, certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, articles or certificate of incorporation, or other certificate evidencing the creation of a foreign other business entity or foreign limited partnership by conversion, containing a statement of conversion, filed pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 15911.06, stating the name of the converting limited partnership or other converting entity in whose name property was held before the conversion and the name of the converted entity or converted limited partnership, but not containing all of the other information required by Section 15911.06, operates with respect to the entities named to the extent provided in subdivision (a). (c) Recording of a certificate of conversion, or a statement of partnership authority, certificate of limited partnership, articles of organization, articles of incorporation, or other certificate evidencing the creation of another business entity or a limited partnership by conversion, containing a statement of conversion, in accordance with subdivision (a), shall create, in favor of bona fide purchasers or encumbrances for value, a conclusive presumption that the conversion was validly completed.


15911.08. (a) An other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership may be converted to a domestic limited partnership pursuant to this article only if the converting entity is authorized by the laws under which it is organized to effect the conversion. (b) An other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership that desires to convert into a domestic limited partnership shall approve a plan of conversion or another instrument as is required to be approved to effect the conversion pursuant to the laws under which that entity is organized. (c) The conversion of an other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership into a domestic limited partnership shall be approved by the number or percentage of the partners, members, shareholders, or holders of interest of the converting entity as is required by the laws under which that entity is organized, or a greater or lesser percentage, subject to applicable laws, as set forth in the converting entity's partnership agreement, articles of organization, operating agreement, articles or certificate of incorporation, or other governing document. (d) The conversion by an other business entity or a foreign other business entity or a foreign limited partnership into a domestic limited partnership shall be effective under this article at the time the conversion is effective under the laws under which the converting entity is organized, as long as a certificate of limited partnership containing a statement of conversion has been filed with the Secretary of State. If the converting entity's governing law is silent as to the effectiveness of the conversion, the conversion shall be effective upon the completion of all acts required under this title to form a limited partnership. (e) The filing with the Secretary of State of a certificate of conversion or a certificate of limited partnership containing a statement of conversion pursuant to subdivision (a) shall have the effect of the filing of a certificate of cancellation by the converting foreign limited partnership or foreign limited liability company and no converting foreign limited partnership or foreign limited liability company that has made the filing is required to file a certificate of cancellation under Section 15902.03 or 17455 as a result of that conversion. If a converting other business entity is a foreign corporation qualified to transact business in this state, the foreign corporation shall, by virtue of the filing, automatically surrender its right to transact intrastate business.


15911.09. (a) An entity that converts into another entity pursuant to this article is, for all purposes, other than for the purposes of Part 10 (commencing with Section 17001) of, Part 10.20 (commencing with Section 18401) of, and Part 11 (commencing with Section 23001) of, Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, the same entity that existed before the conversion and the conversion shall not be deemed a transfer of property. (b) Upon a conversion taking effect, all of the following apply: (1) All the rights and property, whether real, personal, or mixed, of the converting entity or converting limited partnership are vested in the converted entity or converted limited partnership. (2) All debts, liabilities, and obligations of the converting entity or converting limited partnership continue as debts, liabilities, and obligations of the converted entity or converted limited partnership. (3) All rights of creditors and liens upon the property of the converting entity or converting limited partnership shall be preserved unimpaired and remain enforceable against the converted entity or converted limited partnership to the same extent as against the converting entity or converting limited partnership as if the conversion had not occurred. (4) Any action or proceeding pending by or against the converting entity or converting limited partnership may be continued against the converted entity or converted limited partnership as if the conversion had not occurred. (c) A partner of a converting limited partnership is liable for the following: (1) All obligations of the converting limited partnership for which the partner was personally liable before the conversion. (2) All obligations of the converted entity incurred after the conversion takes effect, but those obligations may be satisfied only out of property of the entity if that partner is a limited partner or a shareholder in a corporation, or unless expressly provided otherwise in the articles of organization or other governing documents, a member of a limited liability company, or a holder of equity securities in another converted entity if the holders of equity securities in that entity are not personally liable for the obligations of that entity under the law under which the entity is organized or its governing documents. (d) A partner of a converted limited partnership remains liable for any and all obligations of the converting entity for which the partner was personally liable before the conversion, but only to the extent that the partner was liable for the obligations of the converting entity prior to the conversion. (e) If the other party to a transaction with the limited partnership reasonably believes when entering the transaction that the limited partner is a general partner, the limited partner is liable for an obligation incurred by the limited partnership within 90 days after the conversion takes effect. The limited partner's liability for all other obligations of the limited partnership incurred after the conversion takes effect is that of a limited partner.

15911.10. Mergers of limited partnerships shall be governed by Sections 15911.11 to 15911.19, inclusive.


15911.11. The following entities may be merged pursuant to this article: (a) Two or more limited partnerships into one limited partnership. (b) One or more limited partnerships and one or more other business entities into one of those other business entities. (c) One or more limited partnerships and one or more other business entities into one limited partnership. Notwithstanding this section, the merger of any number of limited partnerships with any number of other business entities may be effected only if the other business entities that are organized in California are authorized by the laws under which they are organized to effect the merger, and (1) if a limited partnership is the surviving limited partnership, the foreign other business entities are not prohibited by the laws under which they are organized from effecting that merger, and (2) if a foreign limited partnership or foreign other business entity is the survivor of the merger, the laws of the jurisdiction under which the survivor is organized authorize that merger. Notwithstanding the first sentence of this paragraph, if one or more domestic corporations is also a party to the merger described in that sentence, the merger may be effected only if, with respect to any foreign other business entity that is a corporation, the foreign corporation is authorized by the laws under which it is organized to effect that merger.

15911.12. (a) Each limited partnership and other business entity that desires to merge shall approve an agreement of merger. The agreement of merger shall be approved by all general partners of each constituent limited partnership and the principal terms of the merger shall be approved by a majority in interest of each class of limited partners of each constituent limited partnership, unless a greater approval is required by the partnership agreement of the constituent limited partnership. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, if the limited partners of any constituent limited partnership become personally liable for any obligations of a constituent limited partnership or constituent other business entity as a result of the merger, the principal terms of the agreement of merger shall be approved by all of the limited partners of the constituent limited partnership, unless the agreement of merger provides that all limited partners will have the dissenters' rights provided in Article 11.5 (commencing with Section 15911.20). The agreement of merger shall be approved on behalf of each constituent other business entity by those persons required to approve the merger by the laws under which it is organized. Other persons, including a parent of a constituent limited partnership, may be parties to the agreement of merger. The agreement of merger shall state: (1) The terms and conditions of the merger. (2) The name and place of organization of the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity, and of each disappearing limited partnership and disappearing other business entity, and the agreement of merger may change the name of the surviving limited partnership, which new name may be the same as or similar to the name of a disappearing domestic or foreign limited partnership, subject to Section 15901.08. (3) The manner of converting the partnership interests of each of the constituent limited partnerships into interests, shares, or other securities of the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity, and if partnership interests of any of the constituent limited partnerships are not to be converted solely into interests, shares, or other securities of the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity, the cash, property, rights, interests, or securities that the holders of the partnership interests are to receive in exchange for the partnership interests, which cash, property, rights, interests, or securities may be in addition to or in lieu of interests, shares, or other securities of the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity, or that the partnership interests are canceled without consideration. (4) Any other details or provisions that are required by the laws under which any constituent other business entity is organized, including, if a domestic corporation is a party to the merger, subdivision (b) of Section 1113. (5) Any other details or provisions that are desired, including, without limitation, a provision for the treatment of fractional partnership interests. (b) Each limited partnership interest of the same class of any constituent limited partnership, other than a limited partnership interest in another constituent limited partnership that is being canceled and that is held by a constituent limited partnership or its parent or a limited partnership of which the constituent limited partnership is a parent, shall, unless all limited partners of the class consent, be treated equally with respect to any distribution of cash, property, rights, interests, or securities. Notwithstanding this subdivision, except in a merger of a limited partnership with a limited partnership in which it controls at least 90 percent of the limited partnership interests entitled to vote with respect to the merger, the unredeemable limited partnership interests of a constituent limited partnership may be converted only into unredeemable interests or securities of the surviving limited partnership or other business entity or a parent if a constituent limited partnership or a constituent other business entity or its parent owns, directly or indirectly, prior to the merger, limited partnership interests of another constituent limited partnership or interests or securities of a constituent other business entity representing more than 50 percent of the interests or securities entitled to vote with respect to the merger of the other constituent limited partnership or constituent other business entity or more than 50 percent of the voting power, as defined in Section 194.5, of a constituent other business entity that is a domestic corporation, unless all of the limited partners of the class consent. This subdivision shall apply only to constituent limited partnerships with more than 35 limited partners. (c) Notwithstanding its prior approval, an agreement of merger may be amended prior to the filing of the certificate of merger or the agreement of merger, as provided in Section 15911.14, if the amendment is approved by the general partners of each constituent limited partnership in the same manner as required for approval of the original agreement of merger and, if the amendment changes any of the principal terms of the agreement of merger, the amendment is approved by the limited partners of each constituent limited partnership in the same manner and to the same extent as required for the approval of the original agreement of merger, and by each of the constituent other business entities. (d) The general partners of a constituent limited partnership may, in their discretion, abandon a merger, subject to the contractual rights, if any, of third parties, including other constituent limited partnerships and constituent other business entities, without further approval by the limited partnership interests, at any time before the merger is effective. (e) An agreement of merger approved in accordance with subdivision (a) may (1) effect any amendment to the partnership agreement of any constituent limited partnership or (2) effect the adoption of a new partnership agreement for a constituent limited partnership if it is the surviving limited partnership in the merger. Any amendment to a partnership agreement or adoption of a new partnership agreement made pursuant to the foregoing sentence shall be effective at the effective time or date of the merger. Notwithstanding the above provisions of this subdivision, if a greater number of limited partners is required to approve an amendment to the partnership agreement of a constituent limited partnership than is required to approve the agreement of merger pursuant to subdivision (a), and the number of limited partners that approve the agreement of merger is less than the number of limited partners required to approve an amendment to the partnership agreement of the constituent limited partnership, any amendment to the partnership agreement or adoption of a new partnership agreement of that constituent limited partnership made pursuant to the first sentence of this subdivision shall be effective only if the agreement of merger provides that all of the limited partners shall have the dissenters' rights provided in Article 11.5 (commencing with Section 15911.20). (f) The surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity shall keep the agreement of merger at its designated office or at the business address specified in paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 15911.14, as applicable, and, upon the request of a limited partner of a constituent limited partnership or a holder of shares, interests, or other securities of a constituent other business entity, the general partners of the surviving limited partnership or the authorized person of the surviving other business entity shall promptly deliver to the limited partner or the holder of shares, interests, or other securities, at the expense of the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity, a copy of the agreement of merger. A waiver by a partner or holder of shares, interests, or other securities of the rights provided in this subdivision shall be unenforceable.


15911.13. Subdivision (b) of Section 15911.12 shall not apply to any transaction if the commissioner has approved the terms and conditions of the transaction and the fairness of such terms and conditions pursuant to Section 25142.

15911.14. (a) If the surviving entity is a limited partnership or an other business entity, other than a corporation in a merger in which a domestic corporation is a constituent party, after approval of a merger by the constituent limited partnerships and any constituent other business entities, the constituent limited partnerships and constituent other business entities shall file a certificate of merger in the office of, and on a form prescribed by, the Secretary of State. The certificate of merger shall be executed and acknowledged by each domestic constituent limited partnership by all general partners, unless a lesser number is provided in the certificate of limited partnership of the domestic constituent limited partnership, and by each foreign constituent limited partnership by one or more general partners, and by each constituent other business entity by those persons required to execute the certificate of merger by the laws under which the constituent other business entity is organized. The certificate of merger shall set forth all of the following: (1) The names and the Secretary of State's file numbers, if any, of each of the constituent limited partnerships and constituent other business entities, separately identifying the disappearing limited partnerships and disappearing other business entities and the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity. (2) If a vote of the limited partners was required under Section 15911.12, a statement setting forth the total number of outstanding interests of each class entitled to vote on the merger and that the principal terms of the agreement of merger were approved by a vote of the number of interests of each class which equaled or exceeded the vote required, specifying each class entitled to vote and the percentage vote required of each class. (3) If the surviving entity is a limited partnership and not an other business entity, any change required to the information set forth in the certificate of limited partnership of the surviving limited partnership resulting from the merger, including any change in the name of the surviving limited partnership resulting from the merger. The filing of a certificate of merger setting forth any such changes to the certificate of limited partnership of the surviving limited partnership shall have the effect of the filing of a certificate of amendment by the surviving limited partnership, and the surviving limited partnership need not file a certificate of amendment under Section 15902.02 to reflect those changes. (4) The future effective date or time, which shall be a date or time certain not more than 90 days subsequent to the date of filing, of the merger, if the merger is not to be effective upon the filing of the certificate of merger with the office of the Secretary of State. (5) If the surviving entity is an other business entity or a foreign limited partnership, the full name of the entity, type of entity, legal jurisdiction in which the entity was organized and by whose laws its internal affairs are governed, and the address of the principal place of business of the entity. (6) Any other information required to be stated in the certificate of merger by the laws under which each constituent other business entity is organized, including, if a domestic corporation is a party to the merger, paragraph (2) of subdivision (g) of Section 1113. If the surviving entity is a foreign limited partnership in a merger in which a domestic corporation is a disappearing other business entity, a copy of the agreement of merger and attachments as required under paragraph (1) of subdivision (g) of Section 1113 shall be filed at the same time as the filing of the certificate of merger. (b) If the surviving entity is a domestic corporation or a foreign corporation in a merger in which a domestic corporation is a constituent party, after approval of the merger by the constituent limited partnerships and constituent other business entities, the surviving corporation shall file in the office of the Secretary of State a copy of the agreement of merger and attachments required under paragraph (1) of subdivision (g) of Section 1113. The certificate of merger shall be executed and acknowledged by each domestic constituent limited partnership by all general partners, unless a lesser number is provided in the certificate of limited partnership of the domestic constituent limited partnership. (c) A certificate of merger or the agreement of merger, as is applicable under subdivision (a) or (b), shall have the effect of the filing of a certificate of cancellation for each disappearing limited partnership, and no disappearing limited partnership need file a certificate of cancellation under Section 15902.03 as a result of the merger. (d) If the organization disappearing into the other business entity is a foreign corporation qualified to transact intrastate business in this state, a certificate of satisfaction of the Franchise Tax Board as required by Section 23334 of the Revenue and Taxation Code shall be filed with the certificate of merger or agreement of merger, as is applicable under subdivision (a) or (b). By the filing of the certificate of merger or agreement of merger, as is applicable, the foreign corporation shall automatically surrender its right to transact intrastate business.


15911.15. (a) Unless a future effective date or time is provided in a certificate of merger or the agreement of merger, if an agreement of merger is required to be filed under Section 15911.14, in which event the merger shall be effective at that future effective date or time, a merger shall be effective upon the filing of the certificate of merger or the agreement of merger, as is applicable, in the office of the Secretary of State. (b) (1) For all purposes, a copy of the certificate of merger duly certified by the Secretary of State is conclusive evidence of the merger of (A) the constituent limited partnerships, either by themselves or together with constituent other business entities, into the surviving other business entity, or (B) the constituent limited partnerships or the constituent other business entities, or both, into the surviving limited partnership. (2) In a merger in which the surviving entity is a corporation in a merger in which a domestic corporation and a domestic limited partnership are parties to the merger, a copy of an agreement of merger certified on or after the effective date by an official having custody thereof has the same force in evidence as the original and, except as against the state, is conclusive evidence of the performance of all conditions precedent to the merger, the existence on the effective date of the surviving corporation, and the performance of the conditions necessary to the adoption of any amendment to the articles of incorporation of the surviving corporation, if applicable, contained in the agreement of merger.


15911.16. (a) Upon a merger of limited partnerships or limited partnerships and other business entities pursuant to this chapter, the separate existence of the disappearing limited partnerships and disappearing other business entities ceases and the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity shall succeed, without other transfer, act or deed, to all the rights and property, whether real, personal, or mixed, of each of the disappearing limited partnerships and disappearing other business entities, and shall be subject to all the debts and liabilities of each in the same manner as if the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity had itself incurred them. (b) All rights of creditors and all liens upon the property of each of the constituent limited partnerships and constituent other business entities shall be preserved unimpaired and may be enforced against the surviving limited partnership or the surviving other business entity to the same extent as if the debt, liability, or duty which gave rise to that lien had been incurred or contracted by the surviving limited partnership or the surviving other business entity, provided that such liens upon the property of a disappearing limited partnership or disappearing other business entity shall be limited to the property affected thereby immediately prior to the time the merger is effective. (c) Any action or proceeding pending by or against any disappearing limited partnership or disappearing other business entity may be prosecuted to judgment, which shall bind the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity, or the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity may be proceeded against or be substituted in the place of the disappearing limited partnership or disappearing other business entity. (d) Nothing in this article is intended to affect the liability a general partner of a disappearing limited partnership may have in connection with the debts and liabilities of the disappearing limited partnership existing prior to the time the merger is effective.


15911.17. (a) The merger of any number of domestic limited partnerships with any number of foreign limited partnerships or foreign other business entities shall be required to comply with Section 15911.10. (b) If the surviving entity is a domestic limited partnership or a domestic other business entity, the merger proceedings with respect to that limited partnership or other business entity and any domestic disappearing limited partnership shall conform to the provisions of this chapter governing the merger of domestic limited partnerships, but if the surviving entity is a foreign limited partnership or a foreign other business entity, then, subject to the requirements of subdivision (d) and Article 11.5 (commencing with Section 15911.20) and, with respect to any domestic constituent corporation, Section 1113 and Chapters 12 (commencing with Section 1200) and 13 (commencing with Section 1300) of Division 1 of Title 1, the merger proceedings may be in accordance with the laws of the state or place of organization of the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity. (c) If the surviving entity is a domestic limited partnership or domestic other business entity, other than a domestic corporation, the certificate of merger shall be filed as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 15911.14, and thereupon, subject to subdivision (a) of Section 15911.15, the merger shall be effective as to each domestic constituent limited partnership and domestic constituent other business entity. If the surviving entity is a domestic corporation, the agreement of merger with attachments shall be filed as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 15911.14, and thereupon, subject to subdivision (a) of Section 15911.15, the merger shall be effective as to each domestic constituent limited partnership and domestic constituent other business entity unless another effective date is provided in Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 1100) of Division 1 of Title 1, with respect to any constituent corporation or constituent limited partnership. (d) If the surviving entity is a foreign limited partnership or foreign other business entity, the merger shall become effective in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity is organized, but shall be effective as to any domestic disappearing limited partnership as of the time of effectiveness in the foreign jurisdiction upon the filing in this state of a certificate of merger or agreement of merger as provided in Section 15911.14. (e) If a merger described in subdivision (c) or (d) also includes a foreign disappearing limited partnership previously registered for the transaction of intrastate business in this state pursuant to Section 15909.02, the filing of the certificate of merger or agreement of merger, as is applicable under Section 15911.14, automatically has the effect of a cancellation of registration for that foreign limited partnership pursuant to Section 15909.06 without the necessity of the filing of a certificate of cancellation. (f) The provisions of subdivision (b) of Section 15911.12 and Article 11.5 (commencing with Section 15911.20) apply to the rights of the limited partners of any of the constituent limited partnerships that are domestic limited partnerships and of any domestic limited partnership that is a parent of any foreign constituent limited partnership.


15911.18. Whenever a domestic or foreign limited partnership or other business entity having any real property in this state merges with another limited partnership or other business entity pursuant to the laws of this state or of the state or place in which any constituent limited partnership or constituent other business entity was organized, and the laws of the state or place of organization, including this state, of any disappearing limited partnership or disappearing other business entity provide substantially that the making and filing of the agreement of merger or certificate of merger vests in the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity all the real property of any disappearing limited partnership and disappearing other business entity, the filing for record in the office of the county recorder of any county in this state in which any of the real property of the disappearing limited partnership or disappearing other business entity is located of either of the following shall evidence record ownership in the surviving limited partnership or surviving other business entity of all interest of such disappearing limited partnership or disappearing other business entity in and to the real property located in that county: (a) A certificate of merger certified by the Secretary of State, or other certificate prescribed by the Secretary of State. (b) A copy of the agreement of merger or certificate of merger, certified by the Secretary of State or an authorized public official of the state or place pursuant to the laws of which the merger is effected.


15911.19. Recording of the certificate of merger in accordance with Section 15911.18 shall create, in favor of bona fide purchasers or encumbrancers for value, a conclusive presumption that the merger was validly completed.


Article 11.5. Dissenting Limited Partners' Rights

Ca Codes (corp:15911.20-15911.33) Corporations Code Section 15911.20-15911.33



15911.20. (a) For purposes of this article, "reorganization" refers to any of the following: (1) A conversion pursuant to Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01). (2) A merger pursuant to Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.10). (3) The acquisition by one limited partnership in exchange, in whole or in part, for its partnership interests (or the partnership interests or equity securities of a partnership or other business entity that is in control of the acquiring limited partnership) of partnership interests or equity securities of another limited partnership or other business entity if, immediately after the acquisition, the acquiring limited partnership has control of the other limited partnership or other business entity. (4) The acquisition by one limited partnership in exchange in whole or in part for its partnership interests (or the partnership interests or equity securities of a partnership or other business entity which is in control of the acquiring limited partnership) or for its debts securities (or debt securities of a limited partnership or other business entity which is in control of the acquiring limited partnership) which are not adequately secured and which have a maturity date in excess of five years after the consummation of the acquisition, or both, of all or substantially all of the assets of another limited partnership or other business entity. (b) For purposes of this article, "control" means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a limited partnership or other business entity.


15911.21. (a) If the approval of outstanding limited partnership interests is required for a limited partnership to participate in a reorganization, pursuant to the limited partnership agreement of the partnership, or otherwise, then each limited partner of the limited partnership holding those interests may, by complying with this article, require the limited partnership to purchase for cash, at its fair market value, the interest owned by the limited partner in the limited partnership, if the interest is a dissenting interest as defined in subdivision (b). The fair market value shall be determined as of the day before the first announcement of the terms of the proposed reorganization, excluding any appreciation or depreciation in consequence of the proposed reorganization. (b) As used in this article, "dissenting interest" means the interest of a limited partner that satisfies all of the following conditions: (1) Either: (A) Was not, immediately prior to the reorganization, either (i) listed on any national securities exchange certified by the Commissioner of Corporations under subdivision (o) of Section 25100, or (ii) listed on the list of OTC margin stocks issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, provided that in either such instance the limited partnership whose outstanding interests are so listed provides, in its notice to limited partners requesting their approval of the proposed reorganization, a summary of the provisions of this section and Sections 15911.22, 15911.23, 15911.24, and 15911.25. (B) If the interest is of a class of interests listed as described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A), demands for payment are filed with respect to 5 percent or more of the outstanding interests of that class. (2) Was outstanding on the date for the determination of limited partners entitled to vote on the reorganization. (3) (A) Was not voted in favor of the reorganization, or (B) if the interest is described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1), was voted against the reorganization; provided, however, that clause (A) rather than clause (B) of this paragraph applies in any event where the approval for the proposed reorganization is sought by written consent rather than at a meeting. (4) The limited partner has demanded that it be purchased by the limited partnership at its fair market value in accordance with Section 15911.22. (5) The limited partner has submitted it for endorsement, if applicable, in accordance with Section 15911.23. (c) As used in this article, "dissenting limited partner" means the recordholder of a dissenting interest, and includes an assignee of record of such an interest.


15911.22. (a) If limited partners have a right under Section 15911.21, subject to compliance with paragraphs (4) and (5) of subdivision (b) thereof, to require the limited partnership to purchase their limited partnership interests for cash, such limited partnership shall mail to each such limited partner a notice of the approval of the reorganization by the requisite vote or consent of the limited partners, within 10 days after the date of such approval, accompanied by a copy of this section and Sections 15911.21, 15911.23, 15911.24, and 15911.25, a statement of the price determined by the limited partnership to represent the fair market value of its outstanding interests, and a brief description of the procedure to be followed if the limited partner desires to exercise the limited partner's rights under such sections. The statement of price constitutes an offer by the limited partnership to purchase at the price stated any dissenting interests as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 15911.21, unless they lose their status as dissenting interests under Section 15911.30. (b) Any limited partner who has a right to require the limited partnership to purchase the limited partner's interest for cash under Section 15911.21, subject to compliance with paragraphs (4) and (5) of subdivision (b) thereof, and who desires the limited partnership to purchase such interest, shall make written demand upon the limited partnership for the purchase of such interest and the payment to the limited partner in cash of its fair market value. The demand is not effective for any purpose unless it is received by the limited partnership or any transfer agent thereof (1) in the case of interests described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 15911.21, not later than the date of the limited partners' meeting to vote upon the reorganization, or (2) in any other case, within 30 days after the date on which notice of the approval of the reorganization by the requisite vote or consent of the limited partners is mailed by the limited partnership to the limited partners. (c) The demand shall state the number or amount of the limited partner's interest in the limited partnership and shall contain a statement of what such limited partner claims to be the fair market value of that interest on the day before the announcement of the proposed reorganization. The statement of fair market value constitutes an offer by the limited partner to sell the interest at such price.

15911.23. Within 30 days after the date on which notice of the approval of the outstanding interests of the limited partnership is mailed to the limited partner pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 15911.22, the limited partner shall submit to the limited partnership at its principal office or at the office of any transfer agent thereof, (a) if the interest is evidenced by a certificate, the limited partner's certificate representing the interest which the limited partner demands that the limited partnership purchase, to be stamped or endorsed with a statement that the interest is a dissenting interest or to be exchanged for certificates of appropriate denominations so stamped or endorsed, or (b) if the interest is not evidenced by a certificate, written notice of the number or amount of interest which the limited partner demands that the limited partnership purchase. Upon subsequent transfers of the dissenting interest on the books of the limited partnership, the new certificates or other written statement issued therefor shall bear a like statement, together with the name of the original holder of the dissenting interest.


15911.24. (a) If the limited partnership and the dissenting limited partner agree that such limited partner's interest is a dissenting interest and agree upon the price to be paid for the dissenting interest, the dissenting limited partner is entitled to the agreed price with interest thereon at the legal rate on judgments from the date of consummation of the reorganization. All agreements fixing the fair market value of any dissenting limited partner's interest as between the limited partnership and such limited partner shall be in writing and filed in the records of the limited partnership. (b) Subject to the provisions of Section 15911.27, payment of the fair market value for a dissenting interest shall be made within 30 days after the amount thereof has been agreed to or within 30 days after any statutory or contractual conditions to the reorganization are satisfied, whichever is later, and in the case of dissenting interests evidenced by certificates of interest, subject to surrender of such certificates of interest, unless provided otherwise by agreement.

15911.25. (a) If the limited partnership denies that a limited partnership interest is a dissenting interest, or the limited partnership and a dissenting limited partner fail to agree upon the fair market value of a dissenting interest, then such limited partner or any interested limited partnership, within six months after the date on which notice of the approval of the reorganization by the requisite vote or consent of the limited partners was mailed to the limited partner, but not thereafter, may file a complaint in the superior court of the proper county praying the court to determine whether the interest is a dissenting interest, or the fair market value of the dissenting interest, or both, or may intervene in any action pending on such a complaint. (b) Two or more dissenting limited partners may join as plaintiffs or be joined as defendants in any such action and two or more such actions may be consolidated. (c) On the trial of the action, the court shall determine the issues. If the status of the limited partnership interest as a dissenting interest is in issue, the court shall first determine that issue. If the fair market value of the dissenting interest is in issue, the court shall determine, or shall appoint one or more impartial appraisers to determine, the fair market value of the dissenting interest.

15911.26. (a) If the court appoints an appraiser or appraisers, they shall proceed forthwith to determine the fair market value per interest of the outstanding limited partnership interests of the limited partnership, by class if necessary. Within the time fixed by the court, the appraisers, or a majority of them, shall make and file a report in the office of the clerk of the court. Thereupon, on the motion of any party, the report shall be submitted to the court and considered on any additional evidence as the court considers relevant. If the court finds the report reasonable, the court may confirm it. (b) If a majority of the appraisers appointed fails to make and file a report within 30 days from the date of their appointment, or within any further time as may be allowed by the court, or the report is not confirmed by the court, the court shall determine the fair market value per interest of the outstanding limited partnership interests of the limited partnership, by class if necessary. (c) Subject to Section 15911.27, judgment shall be rendered against the limited partnership for payment of an amount equal to the fair market value, as determined by the court, of each dissenting interest which any dissenting limited partner who is a party, or has intervened, is entitled to require the limited partnership to purchase, with interest thereon at the legal rate on judgments from the date of consummation of the reorganization. (d) Any judgment shall be payable forthwith, provided, however, that with respect to limited partnership interests evidenced by transferable certificates of interest, only upon the endorsement and delivery to the limited partnership of those certificates representing the interests described in the judgment. Any party may appeal from the judgment. (e) The costs of the action, including reasonable compensation for the appraisers, to be fixed by the court, shall be assessed or apportioned as the court considers equitable, but, if the appraisal exceeds the price offered by the limited partnership, the limited partnership shall pay the costs (including, in the discretion of the court, if the value awarded by the court for the dissenting interest is more than 125 percent of the price offered by the limited partnership under subdivision (a) of Section 15911.22, attorney's fees and fees of expert witnesses).


15911.27. To the extent that the payment to dissenting limited partners of the fair market value of their dissenting interests would require the dissenting limited partners to return such payment or a portion thereof by reason of Section 15905.09 or the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act (Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 3439) of Title 2 of Part 2 of Division 4 of the Civil Code), then that payment or portion thereof shall not be made and the dissenting limited partners shall become creditors of the limited partnership for the amount not paid, together with interest thereon at the legal rate on judgments until the date of payment, but subordinate to all other creditors in any proceeding relating to the winding up and dissolution of the limited partnership, such debt to be payable when permissible.


15911.28. Any cash distributions made by a limited partnership to a dissenting limited partner after the date of consummation of the reorganization, but prior to any payment by the limited partnership for such dissenting limited partner's interest, shall be credited against the total amount to be paid by the limited partnership for such dissenting interest.


15911.29. Except as expressly limited by this article, dissenting limited partners shall continue to have all the rights and privileges incident to their interests immediately prior to the reorganization, including limited liability, until payment by the limited partnership for their dissenting interests. A dissenting limited partner may not withdraw a demand for payment unless the limited partnership consents thereto.


15911.30. A dissenting interest loses its status as a dissenting interest and the holder thereof ceases to be a dissenting limited partner and ceases to be entitled to require the limited partnership to purchase the interest upon the happening of any of the following: (a) The limited partnership abandons the reorganization. Upon abandonment of the reorganization, the limited partnership shall pay, on demand, to any dissenting limited partner who has initiated proceeding in good faith under this article, all reasonable expenses incurred in such proceedings and reasonable attorneys' fees. (b) The interest is transferred prior to its submission for endorsement in accordance with Section 15911.23. (c) The dissenting limited partner and the limited partnership do not agree upon the status of the interest as a dissenting interest or upon the purchase price of the dissenting interest, and neither files a complaint nor intervenes in a pending action, as provided in Section 15911.25, within six months after the date upon which notice of the approval of the reorganization by the requisite vote or consent of limited partners was mailed to the limited partner. (d) The dissenting limited partner, with the consent of the limited partnership, withdraws such limited partner's demand for purchase of the dissenting interest.


15911.31. If litigation is instituted to test the sufficient or regularity of the vote or consent of the limited partners in authorizing a reorganization, any proceedings under Sections 15911.25 and 15911.26 shall be suspended until final determination of that litigation.


15911.32. (a) This article applies to the following: (1) A domestic limited partnership formed on or after January 1, 1991. (2) A foreign limited partnership if (A) the foreign limited partnership was formed on or after January 1, 1991, or filed an application to qualify to do business on or after January 1, 1991, and (B) limited partners holding more than 50 percent of the voting power held by all limited partners of the foreign limited partnership reside in this state. (3) A limited partnership if the partnership agreement so provides or if all general partners and a majority in interest of the limited partners determine that this article shall apply. (b) This article does not apply to limited partnership interests governed by limited partnership agreements whose terms and provisions specifically set forth the amount to be paid in respect of such interests in the event of a reorganization of the limited partnership, or to limited partnerships with 35 or fewer limited partners, unless the partnership agreement provides that this article shall apply or unless all general partners and a majority in interest of the limited partners agree that this article shall apply.


15911.33. (a) No limited partner of a limited partnership who has a right under this article to demand payment of cash for the interest owned by such limited partner in a limited partnership shall have any right at law or in equity to attack the validity of the reorganization, or to have the reorganization set aside or rescinded, except in an action to test whether the vote or consent of limited partners required to authorize or approve the reorganization has been obtained in accordance with the procedures established therefor by the partnership agreement of the limited partnership. (b) If one of the parties to a reorganization is directly or indirectly controlled by, or under common control with, another party to the reorganization, subdivision (a) shall not apply to any limited partner of such controlled party who has not demanded payment of cash for such limited partner's interest pursuant to this article; but if such limited partner institutes any action to attack the validity of the reorganization or to have the reorganization set aside or rescinded, the limited partner shall not thereafter have any right to demand payment of cash for such limited partner's interest pursuant to this article. (c) If one of the parties to a reorganization is directly or indirectly controlled by, or under common control with, another party to the reorganization, then, in any action to attack the validity of the reorganization or to have the reorganization set aside or rescinded, (1) a party to a reorganization which controls another party to a reorganization shall have the burden of proving that the transaction is just and reasonable as to the limited partners of the controlled party, and (2) a person who controls two or more parties to a reorganization shall have the burden of proving that the transaction is just and reasonable as to the limited partners of any party so controlled. (d) Subdivisions (b) and (c) shall not apply if a majority in interest of the limited partners other than limited partners who are directly or indirectly controlled by, or under common control with, another party to the reorganization approve or consent to the reorganization. (e) This section shall not prevent a partner of a limited partnership that is a party to a reorganization from bringing an action against a general partner of the limited partnership, the limited partnership, or any person controlling a general partner at law or in equity as to any matters (including, without limitation, an action for breach of fiduciary obligation or fraud) other than to attack the validity of the reorganization or to have the reorganization set aside or rescinded.


Article 12. Miscellaneous Provisions

Ca Codes (corp:15912.01-15912.07) Corporations Code Section 15912.01-15912.07



15912.01. In applying and construing this chapter, consideration must be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it.


15912.02. If any provision of this chapter or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of this chapter which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end, the provisions of this chapter are severable.


15912.03. This chapter modifies, limits, or supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. Section 7001 et seq., but this chapter does not modify, limit, or supersede Section 101(c) of that act or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in Section 103(b) of that act.


15912.04. This chapter shall become operative on January 1, 2008.


15912.06. (a) Before January 1, 2010, this chapter governs only: (1) a limited partnership formed on or after January 1, 2008; and (2) except as otherwise provided in subdivisions (c) and (d), a limited partnership formed before January 1, 2008, which elects, in the manner provided in its partnership agreement or by law for amending the partnership agreement, to be subject to this chapter. (b) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (c), on and after January 1, 2010, this chapter governs all limited partnerships. (c) With respect to a limited partnership formed before January 1, 2008, the following rules apply except as the partners otherwise elect in the manner provided in the partnership agreement or by law for amending the partnership agreement: (1) Section 15901.04(c) does not apply and the limited partnership has whatever duration it had under the law applicable immediately before January 1, 2008. (2) Sections 15906.01 and 15906.02 do not apply and a limited partner has the same right and power to dissociate from the limited partnership, with the same consequences, as existed immediately before January 1, 2008. (3) Subdivision (d) of Section 15906.03 does not apply. (4) Subdivision (e) of Section 15906.03 does not apply and a court has the same power to expel a general partner as the court had immediately before January 1, 2008. (5) Subdivision (c) of Section 15908.01 does not apply and the connection between a person's dissociation as a general partner and the dissolution of the limited partnership is the same as existed immediately before January 1, 2008. (d) With respect to a limited partnership that elects pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) to be subject to this chapter, after the election takes effect, the provisions of this chapter relating to the liability of the limited partnership's general partners to third parties apply: (1) before January 1, 2010, to: (A) a third party that had not done business with the limited partnership in the year before the election took effect; and (B) a third party that had done business with the limited partnership in the year before the election took effect only if the third party knows or has received a notification of the election; and (2) on and after January 1, 2010, to all third parties, but those provisions remain inapplicable to any obligation incurred while those provisions were inapplicable under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1).


15912.07. This chapter does not affect an action commenced, proceeding brought, or right accrued before this chapter becomes operative.


Personal tools
Laws
Variants
Actions
Navigation
Toolbox