Law:Honeybees

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Sec.281.Honeybee importation.282.Punishment for unlawful importation.283.Propagation of stock and release of germ plasm.284.Eradication and control of undesirable species and subspecies.285.Uses of funds.286.Authorization of appropriations.


Contents

§281. Honeybee importation

(a) In general

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to prohibit or restrict the importation or entry of honeybees and honeybee semen into or through the United States in order to prevent the introduction and spread of diseases and parasites harmful to honeybees, the introduction of genetically undesirable germ plasm of honeybees, or the introduction and spread of undesirable species or subspecies of honeybees and the semen of honeybees.


(b) Regulations

The Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of the Treasury are each authorized to prescribe such regulations as the respective Secretary determines necessary to carry out this section.


(c) Enforcement

Honeybees or honeybee semen offered for importation into, intercepted entering, or having entered the United States, other than in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of the Treasury, shall be destroyed or immediately exported.


(d) “Honeybee” defined

As used in this chapter, the term “honeybee” means all life stages and the germ plasm of honeybees of the genus Apis, except honeybee semen.

(Aug. 31, 1922, ch. 301, §1, 42 Stat. 833; Pub. L. 87–539, §1, July 19, 1962, 76 Stat. 169; Pub. L. 94–319, §1, June 25, 1976, 90 Stat. 709; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §361(d)(2), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2123; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, §431(e), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4968.)


Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–465 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for former subsecs. (a) to (e) restricting importation of honeybees and honeybee semen into United States, providing for promulgation of rules and regulations as to such importation, providing for destruction or immediate exportation of nonexcepted honeybees or honeybee semen offered for import or intercepted, and defining “honeybee”.

1993—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–182, §361(d)(2)(A), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–182, §361(d)(2)(B), inserted “(1)” after “only from” and added cl. (2).

1976—Pub. L. 94–319 incorporated existing provisions, which related only to honeybees, into subsecs. (a) to (e) relating to honeybees and honeybee semen, making honeybee provisions applicable to all life stages and the germ plasm of honeybees instead of only to honeybees in the adult stage, restating purpose of prohibiting importation of honeybees and restating conditions to be determined by Secretary of Agriculture with respect to countries from which honeybees may be imported.

1962—Pub. L. 87–539 enlarged prohibition against importation of honeybees to include the honeybee of the genus Apis instead of only the honeybee Apis mellifica and restricted permission to import the honeybee to countries which take adequate precautions to prevent importation of honeybees from countries where dangerous diseases exist.


Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), except as otherwise provided, see section 451 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 19, Customs Duties.


Short Title

Act Aug. 31, 1922, as amended, which is classified to this chapter, is popularly known as the “Honeybee Act”.


Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this section to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.


§282. Punishment for unlawful importation

Any person who violates any provision of section 281 of this title or any regulation issued under it is guilty of an offense against the United States and shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

(Aug. 31, 1922, ch. 301, §2, 42 Stat. 834; Pub. L. 94–319, §2, June 25, 1976, 90 Stat. 709.)


Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–319 inserted reference to regulations, substituted characterization of violation as offense against the United States for characterization as a misdemeanor, increased maximum fine to $1,000 from $500 and struck out provision relating to discretion of the court.


§283. Propagation of stock and release of germ plasm

The Secretary of Agriculture may propagate bee-breeding stock and may release bee germ plasm to the public.

(Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title I, §103, 58 Stat. 735; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §3(1), 65 Stat. 708; Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, §1120, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1273.)


Codification

This section was not enacted as part of act Aug. 31, 1922, which comprises this chapter.

Provisions similar to this section were contained in the following prior Department of Agriculture Appropriation Acts:

June 28, 1944, ch. 296, 58 Stat. 439.

July 12, 1943, ch. 215, 57 Stat. 407.


Amendments

1981—Pub. L. 97–98 inserted “and may release bee germ plasm to the public”.

1951—Act Oct. 31, 1951, struck out provisions relating to sale of surplus bee-breeding stock, and the fixing of rates and disposition of proceeds in connection therewith.


Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective on Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.


§284. Eradication and control of undesirable species and subspecies

(a) Operations in United States

The Secretary of Agriculture either independently or in cooperation with States or political subdivisions thereof, farmers’ associations, and similar organizations and individuals, is authorized to carry out operations or measures in the United States to eradicate, suppress, control, and to prevent or retard the spread of undesirable species and subspecies of honeybees.


(b) Cooperation with certain foreign governments; measure and character; consultation with Secretary of State

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cooperate with the Governments of Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia, or the local authorities thereof, in carrying out necessary research, surveys, and control operations in those countries in connection with the eradication, suppression, control, and prevention or retardation of the spread of undesirable species and subspecies of honeybees, including but not limited to Apis mellifera adansonii, commonly known as the African or Brazilian honeybee. The measure and character of cooperation carried out under this subsection on the part of such countries, including the expenditure or use of funds appropriated pursuant to this chapter, shall be such as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture. Arrangements for the cooperation authorized by this subsection shall be made through and in consultation with the Secretary of State.


(c) Responsibility for authority to carry out operations

In performing the operations or measures authorized in this chapter, the cooperating foreign country, State, or local agency shall be responsible for the authority to carry out such operations or measures on all lands and properties within the foreign country or State, other than those owned or controlled by the Federal Government of the United States, and for such other facilities and means as in the discretion of the Secretary of Agriculture are necessary.

(Aug. 31, 1922, ch. 301, §3, as added Pub. L. 94–319, §3, June 25, 1976, 90 Stat. 709.)


Indemnification for Beekeepers

Pub. L. 91–524, title VIII, §804, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1382, as amended by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(27)(A), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 237; Pub. L. 95–113, title II, §207, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 921, provided that:

“(a) The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make indemnity payments to beekeepers who through no fault of their own have suffered losses of honey bees after January 1, 1967, as a result of utilization of economic poisons near or adjacent to the property on which the beehives of such beekeepers were located.

“(b) The amount of the indemnity payment in the case of any beekeeper shall be determined on the basis of the net loss sustained by such beekeeper as a result of the loss of his honey bees.

“(c) Indemnity payments shall be made only in cases in which the loss occurred as a result of the use of economic poisons which had been registered and approved for use by the Federal Government.

“(d) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.

“(e) The Secretary is authorized to issue such regulations as he deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.

“(f) The provisions of this section shall not be in effect after September 30, 1981.”


§285. Uses of funds

Funds appropriated to carry out the provisions of this chapter may also be used for printing and binding without regard to section 501 of title 44 for employment, by contract or otherwise, of civilian nationals of Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia for services abroad, and for the construction and operation of research laboratories, quarantine stations, and other buildings and facilities.

(Aug. 31, 1922, ch. 301, §4, as added Pub. L. 94–319, §3, June 25, 1976, 90 Stat. 710.)


§286. Authorization of appropriations

There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

(Aug. 31, 1922, ch. 301, §5, as added Pub. L. 94–319, §3, June 25, 1976, 90 Stat. 710.)


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