Law:Canada–Mexico Tax Convention Act, 2006

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S.c. 2006, c. 8, s. 3

Assented to 2006-12-12

Canada–Mexico Tax Convention Act, 2006

(Enacted by section 3 of chapter 8 of the Statutes of Canada, 2006, in force on assent December 12, 2006.)Short title

1. This Act may be cited as the Canada–Mexico Tax Convention Act, 2006.

Definition of “Convention”

2. In this Act, “Convention” means the Convention between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United Mexican States set out in Schedule 1, as amended by the Protocol set out in Schedule 2.

Convention approved

3. The Convention is approved and has the force of law in Canada during the period that the Convention, by its terms, is in force.

Inconsistent laws — general rule

4. (1) Subject to subsection (2), in the event of any inconsistency between the provisions of this Act or the Convention and the provisions of any other law, the provisions of this Act and the Convention prevail to the extent of the inconsistency.

Inconsistent laws — exception

(2) In the event of any inconsistency between the provisions of the Convention and the provisions of the Income Tax Conventions Interpretation Act, the provisions of that Act prevail to the extent of the inconsistency.

Regulations

5. The Minister of National Revenue may make any regulations that are necessary for carrying out the Convention or for giving effect to any of its provisions.

Notification

Schedule 1

(Section 2)

Convention Between The Government Of Canada And The Government Of The United Mexican States For The Avoidance Of Double Taxation And The Prevention Of Fiscal Evasion With Respect To Taxes On Income

The Government of Canada and the Government of the United Mexican States, desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, have agreed as follows:


Contents

I. Scope Of The Convention

Article 1

Persons Covered

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.


Article 2

Taxes Covered

1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income imposed on behalf of each Contracting State, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income, or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property.

3. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are, in particular:

a) in the case of Canada: the income taxes imposed by the Government of Canada under the Income Tax Act, (hereinafter referred to as “Canadian tax”);

b) in the case of Mexico: the income tax under the Income Tax Law, (hereinafter referred to as “Mexican tax”).

4. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their respective taxation laws.


Ii. Definitions

Article 3

General Definitions

1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

a) the term “Canada”, used in a geographical sense, means the territory of Canada, including:

(i) any area beyond the territorial sea of Canada that, in accordance with international law and the laws of Canada, is an area in respect of which Canada may exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources; and

(ii) the sea and airspace above every area referred to in clause (i);

b) the term “Mexico”, used in a geographical sense, means the territory of the United Mexican States, including:

(i) any area beyond the territorial sea of Mexico that, in accordance with international law and its Political Constitution, is an area in respect of which Mexico may exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources;

(ii) the sea above every area referred to in clause (i); and

(iii) the air space above the national territory and any other airspace in respect of which Mexico has jurisdiction in accordance with international law

c) the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean, as the context requires, Canada or the United Mexican States;

d) the term “person” includes an individual, an estate, a trust, a company, a partnership and any other body of persons;

e) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity, which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

f) the term “enterprise” applies to the carrying on of any business;

g) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

h) the term “business” includes the performance of professional services and of other activities of an independent character;

i) the term “competent authority” means:

(i) in the case of Canada, the Minister of National Revenue or the Minister’s authorized representative;

(ii) in the case of Mexico, the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit;

j) the term “tax” means Canadian tax or Mexican tax, as the context requires;

k) the term “national” means:

(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;

(ii) any legal person, partnership and association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;

l) the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places within the other Contracting State.

2. As regards the application of the Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax law of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.


Article 4

Resident

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means:

a) any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of the person’s domicile, residence, place of management, place of incorporation or any other criterion of a similar nature;

b) that State or a political subdivision or local authority thereof or any agency or instrumentality of any such State, subdivision or authority.

This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then the individual’s status shall be determined as follows:

a) the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in whichhe individual has a permanent home available; if the individual has a permanent home available in both States, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which the individual’s personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);

b) if the State in which the individual’s centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if there is not a permanent home available to the individual in either State, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which the individual has an habitual abode;

c) if the individual has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which the individual is a national;

d) if the individual is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement endeavour to settle the question and to determine the mode of application of the Convention to such person. In the absence of such agreement, such person shall not be entitled to claim any relief or exemption from tax provided by the Convention.


Article 5

Permanent Establishment

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:

a) a place of management;

b) a branch;

c) an office;

d) a factory;

e) a workshop; and

f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place relating to the exploration for or the exploitation of natural resources.

3. The term “permanent establishment” likewise encompasses:

a) a building site, a construction, assembly or installation project or supervisory activities in connection therewith, but only where such site, project or activities continue for a period of more than six months;

b) the furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by an enterprise through employees or other personnel engaged by the enterprise for such purpose, but only if activities of that nature continue (for the same or a connected project) within a Contracting State for a period or periods aggregating more than six months within any twelve month period; and

c) the furnishing of professional services or other activities of an independent nature by an individual within a Contracting State if such person is present in the territory of such Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days within any twelve month period.

For the purposes of computing the time limits referred to in subparagraph b), the activities carried on by an enterprise associated with another enterprise within the meaning of Article 9 shall be aggregated with the period during which the activities are carried on by the associated enterprise, if the activities of both enterprises are identical or substantially similar.

4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not t include:

a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;

c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another person;

d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;

e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of advertising, for the supply of information, for scientific research, or for preparations relating to the placement of loans or for similar activities which have a preparatory or auxiliary character;

f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs a) to e) provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person — other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 7 applies — is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first-mentioned State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, if such person has, and habitually exercises, in that State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

6. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, an insurance company which is an enterprise of a Contracting State shall, except in regard to re-insurance, be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State if it collects premiums in the territory of that other State or insures risk situated therein through a representative who is employed or carries on business in that other State, other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 7 applies.

7. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business and that, in their commercial or financial relations with the enterprise, conditions are not made or imposed that differ from those generally agreed to by independent agents.

8. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.


Iii. Taxation Of Income

Article 6

Income from Immovable Property

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Stte.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has for the purposes of the taxation law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property and to income from the alienation of such property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise.


Article 7

Business Profits

1. The business profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on or has carried on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the business profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment. If a company which is a resident of a Contracting State has a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State and alienates property to persons in that other State that is identical or similar to property alienated through that permanent establishment, the profits from such alienation shall be attributed to that permanent establishment. However, the profits derived from such alienation shall not be attributed to that permanent establishment if the company establishes that such alienation has been carried out for a purpose other than that of obtaining a benefit from the provisions of this Convention.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on or has carried on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the business profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment and with all other persons.

3. In the determination of the business profits of a permanent establishment of an enterprise, there shall be allowed those deductible expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses, whether incurred in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere. However, no such deduction shall be allowed in respect of amounts, if any, paid (otherwise than as a reimbursement of actual expenses) by the permanent establishment to the head office or any other office of the enterprise as royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of a commission, for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a bank, as interest on moneys lent to the permanent establishment.

4. No business profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment of an enterprise by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

5. For the purposs of the preceding paragraphs, the business profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

6. Where business profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of the Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.


Article 8

Shipping and Air Transport

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 and Article 7, profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from a voyage of a ship or aircraft where the principal purpose of the voyage is to transport passengers or property between places in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to profits referred to in those paragraphs derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from its participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

4. In this Article,

a) the term “profits” includes:

(i) profits, net profits, gross receipts and revenues derived directly from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic, and

(ii) interest on sums generated directly from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic provided that such interest is incidental to the operation;

b) the term “operation of ships or aircraft” in international traffic by an enterprise, includes:

(i) the charter or rental of ships or aircraft,

(ii) the rental of containers and related equipment, and

(iii) the alienation of ships, aircraft, containers and related equipment,

by that enterprise provided that such charter, rental or alienation is incidental to the operation by that enterprise of ships or aircraft in international traffic but does not include the transportation by an enterprise by any other means of transport or the provision of accommodation.


Article 9

Associated Persons

1. Where

a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any income or profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the income or profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the income or profits of an enterprise of that State — and taxes accordingly — income or profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the amount so included is income or profits which would have accrued to the first-mentioned enterprise if the conditions made between the two eterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall, where it agrees with the inclusion, make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of tax charged therein on that income or those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

3. A Contracting State shall not change the income or profits of an enterprise in the circumstances referred to in paragraph 1 after the expiry of the time limits provided in its national laws and, in any case, after five years from the end of the year in which the income or profits which would be subject to such change would, but for the conditions referred to in paragraph 1, have accrued to that enterprise.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.


Article 10

Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

a) 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company that controls directly or indirectly at least 10 per cent of the voting power in the company paying the dividends; and

b) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends, in all other cases.

The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, “jouissance” shares or “jouissance” rights, mining shares, founders’ shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

6. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing on the earnings of a company attributable to a permanent establishment in that State, a tax in addition to the tax which would be chargeable on the earnings of a compan which is a national of that State, except that any additional tax so imposed shall not exceed 5 per cent of the amount of such earnings which have not been subjected to such additional tax in previous taxation years. For the purpose of this provision, the term “earnings” means the profits or income attributable to a permanent establishment or immovable property in a Contracting State and gains that may be taxed in that State in accordance with the provisions of Article 13 after deducting therefrom all taxes, other than the additional tax referred to herein, imposed in that State on such profits, income or gains.

7. The provisions of this Article shall not apply if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the shares or other rights in respect of which the dividend is paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.


Article 11

Interest

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:

a) interest arising in a Contracting State may be taxed only in the other Contracting State where the beneficial owner is a resident of that other State and the person paying the interest or the recipient thereof is a Contracting State or its central bank, or a political subdivision or local authority thereof;

b) interest arising in Mexico and paid to a resident of Canada who is the beneficial owner thereof shall be taxable only in Canada if it is paid in respect of a loan having a term of not less than three years made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit for such period extended, guaranteed or insured, by Export Development Canada, or by any other institution as may be agreed to from time to time between the competent authorities of the Contracting States;

c) interest arising in Canada and paid to a resident of Mexico who is the beneficial owner thereof shall be taxable only in Mexico if it is paid in respect of a loan having a term of not less than three years made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit for such period extended, guaranteed or insured, by Banco Nacional de Comercio Exterior, S.N.C. or Nacional Financiera, S.N.C., or by any other institution as may be agreed to from time to time between the competent authorities of the Contracting States;

d) interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State which was constituted and is operated exclusively to administer or provide benefits under one or more pension, retirement or other employee benefits plans shall not be taxable in the first-mentioned State provided that:

(i) the resident is the beneficial owner of the interest and is generally exempt from tax in the other State;

(ii) the interest is not derived from carrying on a trade or a business; and

(iii) the interest is not derived from a related person.

4. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as wells income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from money lent by the laws of the State in which the income arises. However, the term “interest” does not include income dealt with in Article 8 or Article 10.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises through a permanent establishment situated therein and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.

6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether that person is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person:

a) the amount of the interest exceeds, for whatever reason, the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention;

b) the conditions (including amount) of the debt-claim differ from those that would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the interest thereon may be taxable according to paragraph 2 of Article 10.

8. The provisions of this Article shall not apply if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.


Article 12

Royalties

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, copyright royalties and other like payments in respect of the production or reproduction of any cultural, dramatic, musical or other artistic work (but not including royalties in respect of motion picture films and works on film or videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is subject to tax thereon shall be taxable only in that other State.

4. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process or other intangible property, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipmet, or for information concerning, industrial, commercial or scientific experience, and includes payments of any kind in respect of motion picture films and works on film, videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television.

5. Without prejudice to whether or not such payments would be dealt with as royalties under this Article in the absence of this paragraph, the term “royalties” as used in this Article shall include payments of any kind as consideration for the reception of, or the right to receive, visual images or sounds, or both, transmitted to the public by satellite or by cable, optic fibre or similar technology, or the use in connection with television broadcasting or radio broadcasting, or the right to use in connection with television broadcasting or radio broadcasting, visual images or sounds, or both, transmitted by satellite or by cable, optic fibre or similar technology.

6. The term “royalties” also includes gains derived from the alienation of any right or property referred to in paragraphs 4 and 5, which are contingent on the productivity or use thereof.

7. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise through a permanent establishment situated therein and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.

8. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether that person is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated.

9. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties exceeds, for whatever reason, the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

10. The provisions of this Article shall not apply if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the rights in respect of which the royalties are paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.


Article 13

Capital Gains

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise), may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraf, shall be taxable only in that State.

4. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of:

a) shares, participations or other rights in the capital of a company, the value of which is derived principally from immovable property situated in that other State, or

b) an interest in a partnership, trust or estate the value of which is derived principally from immovable property situated in that other State,

may be taxed in that other State. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “immovable property” does not include any property, other than rental property, in which the business of the company, partnership, trust or estate is carried on.

5. In addition to gains taxable in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of shares, participation or other rights in the capital of a company or other legal person that is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State if the recipient of the gain, at any time during the twelve month period preceding such alienation, together with all persons who are related to the recipient, had a participation of at least 25 per cent in the capital of that company or other legal person.

6. Except as provided in Article 12, gains from the alienation of any property, other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

7. The provisions of paragraph 6 shall not affect the right of a Contracting State to levy, according to its law, a tax on gains from the alienation of any property (other than property to which the provisions of paragraph 8 apply) derived by an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State and has been a resident of the first-mentioned State at any time during the six years immediately preceding the alienation of the property.

8. Where an individual who ceases to be a resident of a Contracting State, and immediately thereafter becomes a resident of the other Contracting State, is treated for the purposes of taxation in the first-mentioned State as having alienated a property and is taxed in that State by reason thereof, the individual may elect to be treated for the purposes of taxation in the other State as if the individual had, immediately before becoming a resident of that State, sold and repurchased the property for an amount equal to its fair market value at that time.


Article 14

Income from Employment

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 15 and 18, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State:

a) if the remuneration earned in the other Contracting State in the calendar year concerned does not exceed sixteen thousand Canadian dollars ($16,000) or its equivalent in Mexican pesos or such other amount as may be specified and agreed in letters exchanged between the competent authorities of the Contracting States; or

b) if

(i) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month periodommencing or ending in the calendar year concerned, and

(ii) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and such remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by a resident of a Contracting State, shall be taxable only in that State. However, if the remuneration is derived by a resident of the other Contracting State it shall be taxable only in that other State.


Article 15

Directors’ Fees

1. Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in that resident’s capacity as a member of the board of directors or a similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in that resident’s capacity as an official in a top-level managerial position of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.


Article 16

Artistes and Sportspersons

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7 and 14, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from that resident’s personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State. Income derived by an entertainer or a sportsperson who is a resident of a Contracting State from that resident’s personal activities relating to that resident’s reputation as an entertainer or sportsperson exercised in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in that individual’s capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or athlete personally but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7 and 14, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to income derived from activities performed in a Contracting State by a resident of the other Contracting State in the context of a visit in the first-mentioned State of a non-profit organization of the other State, provided the visit is substantially supported by public funds.


Article 17

Pensions and Annuities

1. Pensions and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Pensions arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may also be taxed in the State in which they arise, and according to the law of that State. However, in the case of periodic pension payments, the tax so charged shall not exceed the lesser of:

a) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the payment; and

b) the rate determined by reference to the amount of tax that the recipient of the payment would otherwise be required to pay for the year on the total amount of the periodic pension payments received by that individual in the year, if that individual were a resident of the Contracting State in which the payment arises.

class="ind3. Annuities, other than pensions, arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may also be taxed in the State in which they arise, and according to the law of the State; but the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the portion thereof that is subject to tax in that State. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “annuities” means a stated sum paid periodically at stated times during life or during a specified number of years, under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration (other than services rendered), but does not include a payment that is not a periodic payment or any annuity the cost of which was deductible for the purposes of taxation in the Contracting State in which it was acquired.

4. Notwithstanding anything in the Convention:

a) war pensions and allowances (including pensions and allowances paid to war veterans or paid as a consequence of damages or injuries suffered as a consequence of a war) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that other State to the extent that they would be exempt from tax if received by a resident of the first-mentioned State; and

b) alimony and other similar payments arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is subject to tax therein in respect thereof, shall be taxable only in that other State. However, where a deduction or a credit for alimony or a similar payment is not allowed for the purposes of taxation in the Contracting State in which such payment arises, such payment shall not be taxable in the other Contracting State.


Article 18

Government Service

1.a) Salaries, wages and similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority in any other State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.

b) However, such salaries, wages and similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:

(i) is a national of that State; or

(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to salaries, wages and similar remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.


Article 19

Students

Payments which a student, apprentice or business trainee who is, or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of that individual’s education or training receives for the purposes of that individual’s maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.


Article 20

Other Income

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State.

2. However, if such income is derived by a resident of a Contracting State frm sources in the other Contracting State, such income may also be taxed in the State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State. Where such income is income from an estate or a trust, other than a trust to which contributions were deductible, the tax so charged shall, if the income is taxable in the Contracting State in which the beneficial owner is a resident, not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the income.


Iv. Methods For Prevention Of Double Taxation

Article 21

Elimination of Double Taxation

1. In the case of Canada, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

a) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions — which shall not affect the general principle hereof — and unless a greater deduction or relief is provided under the laws of Canada, tax payable in Mexico on profits, income or gains arising in Mexico shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains;

b) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the allowance as a credit against Canadian tax of tax payable in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions — which shall not affect the general principle hereof — where a company that is a resident of Mexico pays a dividend to a company that is a resident of Canada which controls directly or indirectly at least 10 per cent of the voting power in the first-mentioned company, the credit shall take into account the tax payable in Mexico by that first-mentioned company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid; and

c) where, in accordance with any provision of the Convention, income derived by a resident of Canada is exempt from tax in Canada, Canada may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on other income, take into account the exempted income.

2. In the case of Mexico, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

a) residents of Mexico may credit against the Mexican tax on income arising in Canada the income tax paid in Canada in any amount not exceeding the tax payable in Mexico on such income; and

b) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Mexico, companies which are residents of Mexico may also credit against Mexican tax on dividends paid by companies that are residents of Canada the income tax paid in Canada on the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. For the purposes of this Article, profits, income or gains of a resident of a Contracting State which may be taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention shall be deemed to arise from sources in that other State.


V. Special Provisions

Article 22

Non-Discrimination

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which a resident of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on residents ofhat other State carrying on the same activities.

3. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

4. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 7 of Article 11, or paragraph 9 of Article 12 apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purposes of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State. Similarly, any debts of an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purposes of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State.

5. Any provisions of paragraph 4 shall not affect the operation of any provision of the taxation laws of a Contracting State:

a) relating to the deductibility or recharacterization of interest and which is in force on the date of signature of this Convention (including any subsequent modification of such provisions that does not change the general nature thereof); or

b) adopted after such date by a Contracting State and which is designed to ensure that a person who is not a resident of that State does not enjoy, under the laws of that State, a tax treatment that is more favourable than that enjoyed by residents of that State.

6. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of a third State, are or may be subjected.

7. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, this Article shall apply to all taxes imposed by a Contracting State.


Article 23

Mutual Agreement Procedure

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for that person in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, that person may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, address to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which that person is a resident an application in writing stating the grounds for claiming the revision of such taxation. To be admissible, the said application must be submitted within three years from the first notification of the action which gives rise to taxation not in accordance with the Convention.

2. The competent authority referred to in paragraph 1 shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Convention.

3. A Contracting State shall not, after the expiry of the time limits provided in its national laws and, in any case, after five years from the end of the taxable period to which the income concerned was attributed, increase the tax bas of a resident of either of the Contracting States by including therein items of income which have also been charged to tax in the other Contracting State. This paragraph shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention and may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of applying the Convention.

5. If any difficulty or doubt arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention cannot be resolved by the competent authorities pursuant to the preceding paragraphs of this Article, the case may be submitted for arbitration if both competent authorities and the taxpayer agree and the taxpayer agrees in writing to be bound by the decision of the arbitration board. The decision of the arbitration board in a particular case shall be binding on both States with respect to that case. The procedure shall be established in an exchange of notes between the Contracting States.

6. For the purposes of paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the Contracting States agree that, notwithstanding that paragraph, any dispute between them as to whether a measure falls within the scope of this Convention may be brought before the Council for Trade in Services, as provided by that paragraph, only with the consent of both Contracting States. Any doubt as to the interpretation of this paragraph shall be resolved under paragraph 4 of Article 23 or, failing agreement under that procedure, pursuant to any other procedure agreed to by both Contracting States.


Article 24

Exchange of Information

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is forseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed by a Contracting State insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.

2. Any information received under paragraph 1 by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, the determination of appeals in relation to taxes referred to in paragraph 1, or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State; or

c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

4. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requeste information even though that other State may not need such information for its own purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitation of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information. If specifically requested by the competent authority of a Contracting State, the competent authority of the other Contracting State shall endeavour to provide information under this Article in the form requested, such as depositions of witnesses and copies of unedited original documents (including books, papers, statements, records, accounts or writings), to the same extent such depositions and documents can be obtained under the laws and administrative practices of that other State with respect to its own taxes.

5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.


Article 25

Diplomatic Agents and Consular Officers

1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 4, an individual who is a member of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a Contracting State that is situated in the other Contracting State or in a third State shall be deemed for the purposes of the Convention to be a resident of the sending State if that individual is liable in the sending State to the same obligations in relation to tax on total income as are residents of that sending State.


Article 26

Miscellaneous Rules

1. The provisions of this Convention shall not be construed to restrict in any manner any exemption, allowance, credit or other deduction accorded:

a) by the laws of a Contracting State in the determination of the tax imposed by that State; or

b) by any other agreement entered into by a Contracting State.

2. Nothing in the Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing a tax on amounts included in the income of a resident of that State with respect to a partnership, trust, or controlled foreign affiliate, in which the resident has an interest.

3. The Convention shall not apply to any company, trust, partnership or other entity that is a resident of a Contracting State and is beneficially owned or controlled directly or indirectly by one or more persons who are not residents of that State, if the amount of the tax imposed on the income of the company, trust, partnership or entity by that State (after taking into account any reduction or offset of the amount of tax in any manner, including a refund, reimbursement, contribution, credit or allowance to the company, trust, partnership or other person) is substantially lower than the amount that would be imposed by the State if all of the shares of the capital stock of the company or all of the interests in the trust, partnership or any other entity, as the case may be, were beneficially owned by one or more individuals who were residents of that State.

4. Where under any provision of the Convention any income is relieved from tax in a Contracting State and, under the law in force in the other Contracting State a person, in respect of that income, is subject to tax by reference to themount thereof that is remitted to or received in that other Contracting State and not by reference to the full amount thereof, then the relief to be allowed under the Convention in the first-mentioned Contracting State shall apply only to so much of the income as is taxed in the other Contracting State.


Vi. Final Provisions

Article 27

Entry into Force

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the date on which the Contracting States exchange notes through diplomatic channels notifying each other that the last of such things has been done as is necessary to make the Convention applicable in Canada and in Mexico, as the case may be, and thereupon the Convention shall have effect:

a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents, on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force; and

b) in respect of other taxes, for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force.

2. The provisions of the Convention between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United Mexican States for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income signed at Ottawa on April 8, 1991, as well as the provisions of the Convention between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United Mexican States for the Exchange of Information with respect to Taxes signed at Mexico City on March 16, 1990 (hereinafter referred to as the “1990 Convention”) shall cease to have effect:

a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents, on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which this Convention enters into force; and

b) in respect of other taxes, for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which this Convention enters into force.


Article 28

Termination

This Convention shall continue in effect indefinitely but either Contracting State may, on or before June 30 of any calendar year after the year in which it entered into force, give to the other Contracting State a notice of termination in writing through diplomatic channels; in such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect:

a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents, on or after the first day of January of the next following calendar year; and

b) in respect of other taxes, for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January of the next following calendar year.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized by their respective governments, have signed this Convention.

DONE in duplicate at Mexico City, this twelfth day of September 2006, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic.

For The Government Of Canada

G. Daniel Caron

Deputy Head of Mission and Minister-Counsellor, Embassy of Canada to the United Mexican States

For The Government Of The United Mexican States

José Francisco Gil Diaz

Secretary of Finance and Public Credit

Schedule 2

(Section 2)

Protocol

At the moment of signing the Convention this day concluded between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United Mexican States for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, the undersigned have agreed upon the following provisions which shall be an integral part of the Convention.

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2 of the Convention, residents of Canada, whose profits derived from Mexico are not taxable in Mexico in accordance with the provisions of Article 8 of the Convention, shall not be taxed under the Mexican Assets Tax Law on the assets used to produce such profits.

2. For the purposes of paragraph 6 of Article 11 of the Convention, in the case of Mexico, when the indebtedness is contracted by a resident of a Contracting State, and distributed between different permanent establishments situated in different countries, interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment that bears the payment of the interest is situated.

3. For the purposes of paragraph 8 of Article 12 of the Convention, in the case of Mexico, when the obligation to pay the royalties is contracted by a resident of a Contracting State and the right or property is effectively connected with different permanent establishments situated in different countries, royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment that bears the payment of the royalties is situated.

4. With respect to Article 16 of the Convention, it is understood that income in respect of personal activities referred to in that Article includes income derived from the performance of independent personal services, the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of goods or the alienation thereof, where such income is related to the activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson.

5. For the purposes of Articles 6 and 13 of the Convention it is understood that the term “immovable property situated in the other Contracting State” includes any right that allows the use or enjoyment of immovable property situated in that other Contracting State where that use or enjoyment relates to time sharing.

6. It is understood that the principles for exchanging information contained in the 1990 Convention and the obligations and undertakings of the Contracting States thereunder are continued under the provisions of this Convention.

7. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of subparagraph f), paragraph 4 of Article 5 of the Convention.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized by their respective governments, have signed this Protocol.

DONE in duplicate at Mexico City, this twelfth day of September 2006, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic.

For The Government Of Canada

G. Daniel Caron

Deputy Head of Mission and Minister-Counsellor, Embassy of Canada to the United Mexican States

For The Government Of The United Mexican States

José Francisco Gil Diaz

Secretary of Finance and Public Credit


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