Law:Canada–Korea Income Tax Convention Act, 1980

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S.c. 1980-81-82-83, c. 44, Part IV

Assented to 1980-12-17

Canada–Korea Income Tax Convention Act, 1980

Canada–Korea Income Tax Convention Act 1980 

1980-81-82-83, c. 44, Part IV “Sch. IV” not consolidated; the new Schedule IV has been consolidated to provide access to the Canada–Korea Tax Convention, 2006, c. 8, Part 3.

Schedule Iv

Convention Between The Government Of Canada And The Government Of The Republic Of Korea For The Avoidance Of Double Taxation And The Prevention Of Fiscal Evasion With Respect To Taxes On Income

The Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Korea (hereinafter referred to as the “Contracting States”), desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, have agreed as follows:


Contents

Article 1

Persons Covered

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.


Article 2

Taxes Covered

1. The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are:

(a) in the case of Korea:

(i) the income tax;

(ii) the corporation tax;

(iii) the inhabitant tax; and

(iv) the special tax for rural development,

(hereinafter referred to as “Korean tax”); and

(b) in the case of Canada, the income taxes imposed by the Government of Canada under the Income Tax Act (hereinafter referred to as “Canadian tax”).

2. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their respective taxation laws.


Article 3

General Definitions

1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) the term “Korea” means the Republic of Korea, and when used in a geographical sense, means all the territory of the Republic of Korea, including its territorial sea, air space, and any other area adjacent to the territorial sea of the Republic of Korea which, in accordance with international law and the laws of Korea, is an area within which the sovereign rights or jurisdiction of the Republic of Korea with respect to the waters, the sea-bed and subsoil, and their natural resources may be exercised;

(b) the term “Canada”, used in a geographical sense, means all the territory of Canada, including its territorial sea and air space over the territory and the territorial sea, and any other area adjacent to the territorial sea of Canada which, in accordance with its legislation and with international law, is an area within which the sovereign rights or jurisdiction of Canada with respect to the waters, sea-bed and subsoil, and their natural resources, may be exercised;

(c) the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean Korea or Canada, as the context requires;

(d) the term “tax” means Canadian tax or Korean tax, as the context requires;

(e) the term “person” includes an individual, a trust, a company and any other body of persons;

(f) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity that is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

(g) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

(h) the term “international traffic” means any voyage of a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State to transport passengers or property except where the principal purpose of the voyage is to transport passengers or property between places within the other Contracting State;

(i) the term “national” means:

(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;

(ii) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;

(j) the term “competent authority” means:

(i) in the case of Korea, the Minister of Finance and Economy or the Minister’s authorised representative;

(ii) in the case of Canada, the Minister of National Revenue or the Minister’s authorised representative.

2. As regards the application of the Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.


Article 4

Resident

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of the person’s domicile, residence, place of head or main office, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof or any agency or other instrumentality of any such State, subdivision or authority. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then the individual’s status shall be determined as follows:

(a) the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which the individual has a permanent home available and if the individual has a permanent home available in both States, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which the individual’s personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);

(b) if the State in which the individual’s centre of vital interests is situated cannot be determined, or if there is not a permanent home available to the individual in either State, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which the individual has an habitual abode;

(c) if the individual has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which the individual is a national;

(d) if the inividual is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement endeavour to settle its status and to determine the application of the Convention. Insofar as no such agreement has been reached, such person shall be deemed not to be a resident of either Contracting State for the purposes of enjoying benefits under the provisions of the Convention.


Article 5

Permanent Establishment

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:

(a) a place of management;

(b) a branch;

(c) an office;

(d) a factory;

(e) a workshop; and

(f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.

3. A building site, a construction, assembly, or installation project or supervisory activities in connection therewith, constitutes a permanent establishment only if such site, project or activities lasts for more than six months.

4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;

(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;

(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;

(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e) provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person — other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies — is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

6. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on busines in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.


Article 6

Income from Immovable Property

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has for the purposes of the relevant tax law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property and to income from the alienation of such property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.


Article 7

Business Profits

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment and with all other persons.

3. In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed those deductible expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses, whether incurred in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

5. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

class="indent-6. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.


Article 8

Shipping and Air Transport

1. Profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic carried on by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 and Article 7, profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from a voyage of a ship or aircraft where the principal purpose of the voyage is to transport passengers or property between places in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

4. For the purposes of this Article, the terms “profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic” include profits derived from:

(a) the rental of ships or aircraft fully equipped, manned and supplied;

(b) the occasional rental of a ship or aircraft on a bareboat charter; and

(c) the use, maintenance or rental of containers used for the transport of goods and merchandise;

where such rental or such use, maintenance or rental, as the case may be, is incidental to the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic.


Article 9

Associated Enterprises

1. Where

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations that differ from those that would be made between independent enterprises, then any income that would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, has not so accrued, may be included in the income of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the income of an enterprise of that State — and taxes accordingly — income on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the income so included is income that would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those that would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of tax charged therein on that income. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

3. A Contracting State shall not change the income of an enterprise in the circumstances referred to in paragraph 1 after the expiry of the time limits provided in its domestic laws and, in any case, after five years from the end of the year in which the income that would be subject to such change would, but for the conditions referred to in paragraph 1, have been attributed to that enterprise.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply inhe case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.


Article 10

Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company that is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

(a) 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership) that controls directly at least 25 per cent of the voting power in the company paying the dividends; and

(b) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends, in all other cases.

The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company that is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

6. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing on the earnings of a company attributable to a permanent establishment in that State, or the earnings attributable to the alienation of immovable property situated in that State by a company carrying on a trade in immovable property, a tax in addition to the tax that would be chargeable on the earnings of a company that is a national of that State, except that any additional tax so imposed shall not exceed 5 per cent of the amount of such earnings that have not been subjected to such additional tax in previous taxation years. For the purpose of this provision, the term “earnings” means the earnings attributable to the alienation of such immovable property situated in a Contracting State as may be taxed by that State under the provisions of Article 6 or of paragraph 1 of Article 13, and the profits, including any gains, attributable to a permanent establishment in a Contracting State in a year and previous years, after deducting therefrom all taxes, other than the additional tax referred to herein, imposed on such profit in that State.


Article 11

Interest

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the interest is derived by:

(a) the Government of the other Contracting State or of a political subdivision or local authority thereof;

(b) the Central Bank of the other Contracting State;

(c) a financial institution performing functions of a governmental nature, more than 90 per cent of the capital of which is owned by the Government or the Central Bank of the other Contracting State;

(d) a resident of the other Contracting State, who is the beneficial owner thereof, and paid in respect of a loan or credit guaranteed or insured by a financial institution referred to in subparagraph (c) in order to promote imports or exports; or

(e) a resident of the other Contracting State, who is the beneficial owner thereof, and received with respect to an indebtedness arising in consequence of the sale on credit by a resident of that other State of any industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or any merchandise, except where the sale or indebtedness was between related persons.

4. For the purpose of paragraph 3, the term “Central Bank” or reference to a financial institution described in subparagraph (c) of that paragraph means:

(a) in the case of Korea:

(i) the Bank of Korea;

(ii) the Korea Export-Import Bank;

(iii) the Korea Development Bank;

(iv) the Korea Investment Corporation; and

(v) the Korea Export Insurance Corporation;

(b) in the case of Canada:

(i) the Bank of Canada; and

(ii) Export Development Canada;

(c) any other financial institution performing functions of a governmental nature, more than 90 per cent of the capital of which is owned by the Government or the Central Bank of a Contracting State, as may be specified and agreed upon in letters exchanged between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

5. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as income which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from money lent by the laws of the State in which the income arises. However, the term “interest” does not include income dealt with in Article 8 or Article 10.

6. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-caim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

7. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether the payer is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

8. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds for whatever reason the amount that would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.


Article 12

Royalties

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, and includes payments of any kind in respect of motion picture films and works on film, videotape or other means of reproduction for use in connection with television.

4. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether the payer is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and another person, the amount of the royalties, having regard tohe use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount that would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.


Article 13

Capital Gains

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment that an enterprise of a Contracting State has or had in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base that is or was available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or other movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in that State.

4. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of:

(a) shares, more than 50 per cent of the value of which is derived directly or indirectly from immovable property situated in the other State; or

(b) an interest in a partnership or trust, more than 50 per cent of the value of which is derived directly or indirectly from immovable property situated in that other State;

may be taxed in that other State.

5. Gains from the alienation of shares forming part of substantial interest in the capital of a company which is a resident of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State and according to the laws of that State. For the purposes of this paragraph, a substantial interest shall be deemed to exist when the alienator, alone or together with associated or related persons, holds directly or indirectly 25 per cent of the total shares issued by the company.

6. Gains from the alienation of any property, other than that referred to in the preceding paragraphs, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

7. The provisions of paragraph 6 shall not affect the right of a Contracting State to levy, according to its law, a tax on gains from the alienation of any property (other than property to which paragraph 8 applies) derived by an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State and has been a resident of the first-mentioned State at any time during the five years immediately preceding the alienation of the property.

8. Where an individual ceases to be a resident of a Contracting State and by reason thereof is treated for the purposes of taxation by that State as having alienated property and is taxed in that State and at any time thereafter becomes a resident of the other Contracting State, the other Contracting State may tax gains in respect of the property only to the extent that such gains had not accrued before the individual ceased to be a resident of the first-mentioned State. However, this provision shall not apply to property, any gain from which that other State could have taxed in accordance with the provisions of this Article, other than this paragraph, if the individual had realized the gain before becoming a resient of that other State.

9. Where a resident of a Contracting State alienates property in the course of a corporate or other organization, reorganization, amalgamation, division or similar transaction and profit, gain or income with respect to such alienation is not recognized for the purpose of taxation in that State, if requested to do so by the person who acquires the property, the competent authority of the other Contracting State may allow, in order to avoid double taxation and subject to terms and conditions satisfactory to such competent authority, a deferral of the recognition of the profit, gain or income with respect to such property for the purpose of taxation in that other State, after consultation with the competent authority of the first-mentioned State, until such time and in such manner as may be stipulated in the agreement.


Article 14

Independent Personal Services

1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional or similar services of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State unless the individual has a fixed base regularly available in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing the services. If the individual has or had such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base. For the purposes of this Article, when an individual is present in that other State for the purpose of performing such services for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve-month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, the individual shall be deemed to have a fixed base regularly available in that other State and the income that is derived from the services that are performed in that other State shall be deemed to be attributable to that fixed base.

2. The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.


Article 15

Dependent Personal Services

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, and 19, salaries, wages and other remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve-month period commencing or ending in the calendar year concerned; and

(b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, a person who is not a resident of the other State; and

(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base that the person has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the remuneration is derived by a resident of the other Contracting State.


Article 16

Directors’ Fees

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in the capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.


Article 17

Artistes and Sportspersons

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from that resident’s personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in that individual’s capacity as such, accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson personally, but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised, unless the entertainer, sportsperson or other person establishes that neither the entertainer or the sportsperson nor persons related thereto participate directly or indirectly in the profits of that other person in any manner, including the receipt of deferred remuneration, bonuses, fees, dividends, partnership distributions, or other distributions.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, income derived by entertainers or sportspersons who are residents of a Contracting State from the activities exercised in the other Contracting State under a special programme of cultural exchange agreed upon between the governments of the Contracting States, shall be exempt from tax in that other State.


Article 18

Pensions and Annuities

1. Pensions and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Pensions arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may also be taxed in the State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State. However, in the case of periodic pension payments, other than payments under the social security legislation in a Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed the lesser of:

(a) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the payment; and

(b) the rate determined by reference to the amount of tax that the recipient of the payment would otherwise be required to pay for the year on the total amount of the periodic pension payments received by the individual in the year, if the individual were resident in the Contracting State in which the payment arises.

3. Annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may also be taxed in the State in which they arise and according to the law of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the portion thereof that is subject to tax in that State. However, this limitation does not apply to lump-sum payments arising on the surrender, cancellation, redemption, sale or other alienation of an annuity, or to payments of any kind under an annuity contract the cost of which was deductible, in whole or in part, in computing the income of any person who acquired the contract.

4. Notwithstanding anything in this Convention:

(a) war pensions and allowances (including pensions and allowances paid to war veterans or paid as a consequence of damages or injuries suffered as a consequnce of a war) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State;

(b) benefits arising pursuant to the social security legislation of a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State; and

(c) alimony and other similar payments arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State;

shall be taxable only in the State in which they arise.


Article 19

Government Service

1. (a) Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by, or out of funds created by one of the Contracting States or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to any individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or local authority thereof in the discharge of functions of a governmental nature shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the recipient is a resident of that State who:

(i) is a national of that State; or

(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of performing the services.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with any trade or business carried on for the purpose of profits by one of the Contracting States or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall likewise apply in respect of remuneration paid by the Bank of Korea, the Korea Export-Import Bank, the Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency, the Korea Investment Corporation, the Bank of Canada, Export Development Canada and any other government-owned instrumentality performing functions of a governmental nature as may be specified and agreed upon in letters exchanged between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.


Article 20

Students

Payments which a student, apprentice or business trainee who is, or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of that individual’s education or training receives for the purpose of that individual’s maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, if such payments arise from sources outside that State.


Article 21

Other Income

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

3. However, if such income is derived by a resident of a Contracting State from sources in the other Contracting State, such income may also be taxed in the State in which it arises and according to theaw of that State.


Article 22

Elimination of Double Taxation

1. Subject to the provisions of Korean tax law regarding the allowance as credit against Korean tax of tax payable in any country other than Korea (which shall not affect the general principle thereof):

(a) where a resident of Korea derives income from Canada which may be taxed in Canada under the laws of Canada in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, in respect of that income, the amount of Canadian tax payable shall be allowed as a credit against the Korean tax payable imposed on that resident. The amount of credit shall not, however, exceed that part of Korean tax as computed before the credit is given, which is appropriate to that income; and

(b) where the income derived from Canada is a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of Canada to a company which is a resident of Korea which owns not less than 25 per cent of the total shares issued by that company, the credit shall take into account the Canadian tax payable by the company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid.

2. In the case of Canada, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

(a) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions — which shall not affect the general principle hereof — and unless a greater deduction or relief is provided under the laws of Canada, tax payable in Korea on profits, income or gains arising in Korea shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains;

(b) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the allowance as a credit against Canadian tax of tax payable in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions — which shall not affect the general principle hereof — where a company which is a resident of Korea pays a dividend to a company which is a resident of Canada and which controls directly or indirectly at least 25 per cent of the voting power in the first-mentioned company, the credit shall take into account the tax payable in Korea by that first-mentioned company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid; and

(c) where, in accordance with any provision of the Convention, income derived or capital owned by a resident of Canada is exempt from tax in Canada, Canada may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on other income or capital, take into account the exempted income or capital.

3. For the purposes of this Article, profits, income or gains of a resident of a Contracting State that may be taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention shall be deemed to arise from sources in that other State.


Article 23

Non-Discrimination

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith that is more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment that an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.

3. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracing State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities that it grants to its own residents.

4. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith that is more burdensome than the taxation and any connected requirements to which other similar enterprises that are residents of the first-mentioned State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of a third State, are or may be subjected.

5. In this Article, the term “taxation” means taxes that are the subject of this Convention.


Article 24

Mutual Agreement Procedure

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for that person in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, that person may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, address to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which that person is a resident an application in writing stating the grounds for claiming the revision of such taxation. To be admissible, the said application must be submitted within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.

2. The competent authority referred to in paragraph 1 shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Convention. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.

3. A Contracting State shall not, after the expiry of the time limits provided in its domestic laws and, in any case, after five years from the end of the taxable period to which the income concerned was attributed, increase the tax base of a resident of either of the Contracting States by including therein items of income that have also been charged to tax in the other Contracting State. This paragraph shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention.

5. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention and may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of applying the Convention.


Article 25

Exchange of Information

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes imposed by the government of a Contracting State insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed onl to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment, collection, or administration of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to taxes or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b) to supply information that is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State; or

(c) to supply information that would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

3. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall obtain that information in the same manner and to the same extent as if the tax of the first-mentioned State were the tax of that other State and were being imposed by that other State, notwithstanding that the other State may not, at that time, need such information for the purposes of its own tax.

4. If specifically requested by the competent authority of a Contracting State, the competent authority of the other Contracting State shall endeavour to provide information under this Article in the form requested, such as depositions of witnesses and copies of unedited original documents (including books, papers, statements, records, accounts or writings), to the same extent such depositions and documents can be obtained under the laws and administrative practices of that other State with respect to its own taxes.

5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information, other than information related to residents of that State, solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or fiduciary capacity or because the information relates to ownership interests in a person.


Article 26

Members of Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts

1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 4, an individual who is a member of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a Contracting State that is situated in the other Contracting State or in a third State shall be deemed for the purposes of the Convention to be a resident of the sending State if that individual is liable in the sending State to the same obligations in relation to tax on total income as are residents of that sending State.

3. The Convention shall not apply to international organizations, to organs or officials thereof and to persons who are members of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a third State or group of States, being present in a Contracting State and who are not liable in either Contracting State to the same obligations in relation to tax on their total income as are residents thereof.


Article 27

Miscellaneous Rules

1.�he provisions of this Convention shall not be construed to restrict in any manner any exemption, allowance, credit or other deduction accorded by the laws of a Contracting State in the determination of the tax imposed by that State.

2. Nothing in the Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing a tax on amounts included in the income of a resident of that State with respect to a partnership, trust, or controlled foreign affiliate, in which that resident has an interest.

3. The Convention shall not apply to any company, trust or other entity that is a resident of a Contracting State and is beneficially owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more persons who are not residents of that State, if the amount of the tax imposed on the income or capital of the company, trust or other entity by that State (after taking into account any reduction or offset of the amount of tax in any manner, including a refund, reimbursement, contribution, credit or allowance to the company, trust, or other entity or to any other person) is substantially lower than the amount that would be imposed by that State if all of the shares of the capital stock of the company or all of the interests in the trust or other entity, as the case may be, were beneficially owned by one or more individuals who were residents of that State. However, this paragraph shall not apply if 90 per cent or more of the income on which the lower amount of tax is imposed is derived exclusively from the active conduct of a trade or business carried on by it other than an investment business.

4. For the purposes of paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the Contracting States agree that, notwithstanding that paragraph, any dispute between them as to whether a measure falls within the scope of the Convention may be brought before the Council for Trade in Services, as provided by that paragraph, only with the consent of both Contracting States. Any doubt as to the interpretation of this paragraph shall be resolved under paragraph 4 of Article 24 or, failing agreement under that procedure, pursuant to any other procedure agreed to by both Contracting States.


Article 28

Entry into Force

1. The Governments of the Contracting States shall notify each other through diplomatic channels that the constitutional requirements for the entry into force of this Convention have been complied with.

2. The Convention shall enter into force on the date of the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 and its provisions shall have effect:

(a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents, on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force; and

(b) in respect of other taxes, for taxation years beginning on or after the first day of January in the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force.

3. The Convention between Canada and the Republic of Korea for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income signed at Seoul on February 10, 1978 (hereinafter referred to as “the 1978 Convention”), shall cease to have effect from the dates on which this Convention becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 2.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, where any greater relief from tax would have been afforded by the provisions of the 1978 Convention, any such provision as aforesaid shall continue to have effect for taxation years ending on or before the last day of the calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force.

5. The 1978 Convention shall terminate on the first day of January of the second calendar year next following that in which the Convention enters into force.


Article 29

Termination

This Convention shall continue in effect indefinitely but either Contracting State may, on or before June 30 of any calendar year beginning after the expiration of a period of five years from the date of its entry into force, give to the other Contracting State, through diplomatic channels, written notice of termination. In such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect:

(a) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents, after the end of that calendar year; and

(b) in respect of other taxes, for taxation years beginning after the end of that calendar year.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.

DONE in duplicate at Ottawa, this 5th day of September, 2006, in the English, French and Korean languages, each version being equally authentic.

For The Government Of Canada

V. Peter Harder

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs

For The Government Of The Republic Of Korea

Yim Sung-joon

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Korea to Canada

Protocol

At the signing of the Convention between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Korea for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income (hereinafter referred to as the “Convention”), the undersigned have agreed upon the following provisions which shall be an integral part of the Convention:

1. With reference to subparagraph (a) of paragraph 1 of Article 2 of the Convention, it is understood that Korea has agreed to include the “inhabitant tax” and the “special tax for rural development” based on Korea’s understanding that the political subdivisions of Canada do not impose withholding tax on income arising in their respective subdivisions and paid to non-residents of Canada and that the political subdivisions recognize and take into account the provisions of Canada’s income tax agreements or conventions.

2. With reference to Article 10 of the Convention, the Contracting States may, through an exchange of diplomatic notes, agree to the insertion in that Article of the following provisions which will have effect from the date of the later of the two notes:

“7. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, dividends arising in a Contracting State and paid to an organisation that is operated in the other Contracting State exclusively to administer or provide benefits under one or more pension, retirement or employee benefits plans shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned State if:

(a) the organisation is the beneficial owner of the shares on which the dividends are paid, holds those shares as an investment and is generally exempt from tax in the other State;

(b) the organisation does not own directly or indirectly more than 5 per cent of the capital or 5 per cent of the voting stock of the company paying the dividends; and

(c) the class of shares of the company on which the dividends are paid is regularly traded on an approved stock exchange.

8. For the prposes of paragraph 7, the term “approved stock exchange” means:

(a) in the case of dividends arising in Korea, the Korea Stock Exchange and the Korea Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (KOSDAQ);

(b) in the case of dividends arising in Canada, a Canadian stock exchange prescribed for the purposes of the Income Tax Act; and

(c) any other stock exchange agreed to in letters exchanged between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.”

3. With reference to Article 11 of the Convention, the Contracting States may, through an exchange of diplomatic notes, agree to the insertion in that Article of the following provision which will have effect from the date of the later of the two notes:

“9. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State that is operated exclusively to administer or provide benefits under one or more pension, retirement or employee benefits plans shall not be taxable in the first-mentioned State provided that:

(a) the resident is the beneficial owner of the interest and is generally exempt from tax in the other State; and

(b) the interest is not derived from carrying on a trade or a business or from a related person.”

4. With reference to paragraph 3 of Article 12 of the Convention, it is understood that payments of any kind received as consideration for the use of, or the right to use, software shall be treated as royalties, if:

(a) the source code is transferred to the user in addition to the software; or

(b) the software is developed for, or adapted to, the specific demands of a particular end-user; or

(c) the payments for the acquisition of the software are measured by reference to the productivity or use of such software.

5. With reference to paragraph 3 of Article 21 of the Convention, it is understood that, where the income arises in Canada and that income is from a trust, other than a trust to which contributions were deductible, the tax so charged by Canada shall, if the income is taxable in Korea, not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the income.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect by their respective Governments, have signed this Protocol.

DONE in duplicate at Ottawa, this 5th day of September, 2006, in the English, French and Korean languages, each version being equally authentic.

For The Government Of Canada

V. Peter Harder

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs

For The Government Of The Republic Of Korea

Yim Sung-joon

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Korea to Canada

(Note: Convention in force December 18, 2006, see Canada Gazette Part I, Volume 141, page 212.)

2006, c. 8, s. 4.


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