Law:Canada–Finland Tax Convention Act, 2006

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S.c. 2006, c. 8, s. 2

Assented to 2006-12-12

Canada–Finland Tax Convention Act, 2006

(Enacted by section 2 of chapter 8 of the Statutes of Canada, 2006, in force on assent December 12, 2006.)Short title

1. This Act may be cited as the Canada–Finland Tax Convention Act, 2006.

Definition of “Convention”

2. In this Act, “Convention” means the Convention between the Government of Canada and the Government of Finland set out in the schedule.

Convention approved

3. The Convention is approved and has the force of law in Canada during the period that the Convention, by its terms, is in force.

Inconsistent laws — general rule

4. (1) Subject to subsection (2), in the event of any inconsistency between the provisions of this Act or the Convention and the provisions of any other law, the provisions of this Act and the Convention prevail to the extent of the inconsistency.

Inconsistent laws — exception

(2) In the event of any inconsistency between the provisions of the Convention and the provisions of the Income Tax Conventions Interpretation Act, the provisions of that Act prevail to the extent of the inconsistency.

Regulations

5. The Minister of National Revenue may make any regulations that are necessary for carrying out the Convention or for giving effect to any of its provisions.

Notification

Schedule

(Section 2)

Convention Between Canada And Finland For The Avoidance Of Double Taxation And The Prevention Of Fiscal Evasion With Respect To Taxes On Income

The Government of Canada and the Government of Finland, desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, have agreed as follows:


Contents

Article 1

Persons Covered

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.


Article 2

Taxes Covered

1. The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are:

a) in the case of Canada: the income taxes imposed by the Government of Canada under the Income Tax Act, (hereinafter referred to as “Canadian tax”); and

b) in the case of Finland:

(i) the state income taxes;

(ii) the corporate income tax;

(iii) the communal tax;

(iv) the church tax;

(v) the tax withheld at source from interest; and

(vi) the tax withheld at source from non-residents’ income,

(hereinafter referred to as “Finnish tax”).

2. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their respective taxation laws.


Article 3

General Definitions

1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

a) the term “Canada”, used in a geographical sense, means the territory of Canada, including

(i) any area beyond the territorial seas of Canada which, in accordance with international law and the laws of Canada, is an area in respect of which Canada may exercise rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources; and

(ii) the seas and airspace above every area referred to in clause (i) in respect of any activities carried on in connection with the exploration for or the exploitation of the natural resources referred to therein;

b) the term “Finland” means the Republic of Finland and, when used in a geographical sense, means the territory of the Republic of Finland, and any area adjacent to the territorial waters of the Republic of Finland within which, under the laws of Finland and in accordance with international law, the rights of Finland with respect to the exploration and exploitation of the natural resources of the seabed and its subsoil may be exercised;

c) the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean, as the context requires, Canada or Finland;

d) the term “person” includes an individual, a trust, a company, a partnership and any other body of persons;

e) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

f) the term “enterprise” applies to the carrying on of any business;

g) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean, respectively, an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

h) the term “national”, in relation to a Contracting State, means:

(i) any individual possessing the nationality or citizenship of that Contracting State; and

(ii) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in that Contracting State;

i) the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;

j) the term “tax” means Canadian tax or Finnish tax, as the context requires;

k) the term “competent authority” means:

(i) in the case of Canada, the Minister of National Revenue or the Minister’s authorized representative,

(ii) in the case of Finland, the Ministry of Finance or the Ministry’s authorized representative or the authority which is designated as competent authority by the Ministry;

l) the term “business” includes the performance of professional services and of other activities of an independent character.

2. As regards the application of the Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.


Article 4

Resident

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means:

a) any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of the person’s domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature but does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State; and

b) that State, or a political subdivision or local authority thereof, or a statutory body of that State or subdivision.

For the purposes of this paragraph the term “statutory body” means any legal entity of a public character created by the laws of a Contracting State in which no person other than the State itself or a political subdivision thereof has an interest.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then the individual’s status shall be determined as follows:

a) the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which the individual has a permanent home available; if the idividual has a permanent home available in both States, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which the individual’s personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);

b) if the State in which the individual’s centre of vital interests is situated cannot be determined, or if there is not a permanent home available to the individual in either State, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which the individual has an habitual abode;

c) if the individual has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, the individual shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which the individual is a national; and

d) if the individual is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a company is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which it is incorporated or otherwise constituted.

4. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual or a company is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement endeavour to settle the question and to determine the mode of application of the Convention to such person. In the absence of such agreement, such persons shall not be entitled to claim any relief or exemption from tax provided by the Convention except to the extent and in such manner as may be agreed upon by the competent authorities.


Article 5

Permanent Establishment

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:

a) a place of management;

b) a branch;

c) an office;

d) a factory;

e) a workshop; and

f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place relating to the exploration for or the exploitation of natural resources.

3. A building site or construction or installation project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts more than twelve months.

4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:

a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;

c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;

e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;

f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business soley for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs a) to e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such persons are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

6. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.


Article 6

Income from Immovable Property

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property and to income from the alienation of such property.

4. Where the ownership of shares or other corporate rights in a company entitles the owner of such shares or corporate rights to the enjoyment of immovable property held by the company, the income from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of such right to enjoyment may be taxed in the Contracting State in which the immovable property is situated.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise.


Article 7

Business Profits

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is atributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment and with all other persons.

3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed those deductible expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4. No profits shall be attributable to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

5. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

6. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.


Article 8

Shipping and Air Transport

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 and Article 7, profits derived from the operation of ships used principally to transport passengers or goods exclusively between places in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.


Article 9

Associated Enterprises

1. Where

a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State and taxes accordingly profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of tax charged therein on those profits, where that other State consider the adjustment justified. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

3. A Contracting State shall not change the profits of an enterprise in the circumstances referred to in paragraph 1 after six years from the end of the year in which the profits which would be subject to such change would have accrued to an enterprise of that State.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.


Article 10

Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

a) 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company which owns at least 10 per cent of the voting stock in the company paying the dividends;

b) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company on the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income which is subject to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the taxation law of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

6. Notwithstanding any provision in this Convention, Canada may impose on the earnings of a company attributable to permanent establishments in Canada, or on the earnings attributable to the alienation of immovable property situated in Canada by a company carrying on a trade in immovable property, a tax in addition to the tax which would be chargeable on the earnings of a company incorporated in Canada, provided that the rate of such additional tax so imposed shall not exceed 5 per cent of the amount of such earnings which have not been subjected to such additional tax in previous taxation years. For the purpose of this provision, the term “earnings” means the earnings attributable to the alienation of such immovable property stuated in Canada as may be taxed by Canada under the provisions of Article 6 or of paragraph 1 of Article 13 as well as the profits attributable to a permanent establishment situated in Canada (including gains from the alienation of property forming part of the business property, referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 13, of such permanent establishments) in accordance with Article 7 in a year and previous years after deducting therefrom:

a) business losses attributable to such permanent establishments (including losses from the alienation of property forming part of the business property of such permanent establishments) in such year and previous years;

b) all taxes chargeable in Canada on such profits, other than the additional tax referred to herein;

c) the profits reinvested in Canada, provided that the amount of such deduction shall be determined in accordance with the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the computation of the allowance in respect of investment in property in Canada, and any subsequent modification of those provisions which shall not affect the general principle hereof; and

d) five hundred thousand Canadian dollars ($500,000) less any amount deducted under this subparagraph

(i) by the company; or

(ii) by a person related thereto from the same or a similar business as that carried on by the company.


Article 11

Interest

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is the beneficial owner thereof shall be taxable only in that other State to the extent that such interest:

a) is a penalty charge for late payment;

b) is paid by the central bank of a Contracting State to the central bank of the other Contracting State; or

c) is paid by a purchasing enterprise to a selling enterprise in connection with the sale on credit of any equipment or merchandise, except where the sale is made between associated enterprises within the meaning of Article 9, subparagraph 1a) or b).

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:

a) interest arising in a Contracting State and paid in respect of indebtedness of the government of that State or of a political subdivision or a local authority thereof shall, provided that the interest is beneficially owned by a resident of the other Contracting State, be taxable only in that other State;

b) interest arising in Finland and paid to a resident of Canada shall be taxable only in Canada if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by Export Development Canada; and

c) interest arising in Canada and paid to a resident of Finland shall be taxable only in Finland if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or a credit extended, guaranteed or insured by Finnvera or the Finnish Export Credit PLC.

5. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind,hether or not secured by mortgage, and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as income assimilated to income from money lent by the taxation law of the State in which the income arises. However, the term “interest” does not include income dealt with in Article 8 or Article 10.

6. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.

7. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether the payer is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated.

8. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.


Article 12

Royalties

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:

a) copyright royalties and other like payments in respect of the production or reproduction of any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work (but not including royalties in respect of motion picture films and works on film, videotape, or any other means of reproduction for use in connection with television) arising in a Contracting State and beneficially owned by a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State;

b) royalties for the use of, or the right to use, computer software or any patent or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience (but not including any such royalty provided in connection with a rental or franchise agreement) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is the beneficial owner of the royalties shall be taxable only in that other State; and

c) royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to the government of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State.

4. The term “royalties” a used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright, patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process or other intangible property, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, and includes payments of any kind in respect of motion-picture films and works on film, videotape, or any other means of reproduction for use in connection with television.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.

6. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether the payer is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.


Article 13

Capital Gains

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.

4. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of:

a) shares or other corporate rights in a company, the property of which consists principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State; or

b) an interest in a partnership or a trust, the property of which consists principally from immovable property situated in a Contracting State,

may be taxed in that State.

For the purposes of this paragraph the term “immovable property” shall not include property, other than rental property, in which the business of the company, partnership or trust is carried on; however, this term shall include shares or other corporate rights in a company described in subparagraph a) aboe and an interest in a partnership or a trust described in subparagraph b) above.

5. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

6. Where a resident of a Contracting State alienates property in the course of a corporate or other organization, reorganization, amalgamation, division or similar transaction and profit, gain or income with respect to such alienation is not recognized for the purpose of taxation in that State, if requested to do so by the person who acquires the property, the competent authority of the other Contracting State may agree, in order to avoid double taxation and subject to terms and conditions satisfactory to such competent authority, to defer the recognition of the profit, gain or income with respect to such property for the purpose of taxation in that other State until such time and in such manner as may be stipulated in the agreement.

7. The provisions of paragraph 5 shall not affect the right of either of the Contracting States to levy, according to its law, a tax on gains derived by an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State, from the alienation of any property (other than property to which paragraph 8 applies) if the alienator:

a) is a national of the first-mentioned State or was a resident of that State for ten years or more prior to the alienation of the property; and

b) was a resident of that first-mentioned State at any time during the five years immediately preceding such alienation.

8. Where an individual ceases to be a resident of a Contracting State and by reason thereof is treated for the purposes of taxation by that State as having alienated property and is taxed in that State and immediately thereafter becomes a resident of the other Contracting State, the other Contracting State may tax gains in respect of the property only to the extent that such gains had not accrued before the individual ceased to be a resident of the first-mentioned State. However, this provision shall not apply to property, any gain from which that other State could have taxed in accordance with the provisions of this Article, other than this paragraph, if the individual had realized the gain before becoming a resident of that other State.


Article 14

Income from Employment

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 15, 17 and 18, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days within any twelve-month period commencing or ending in the calendar year concerned; and

b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State; and

c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contractin State shall be taxable only in that State. However, if the remuneration is derived by a resident of the other Contracting State, it may also be taxed in that other State.


Article 15

Directors’ Fees

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or a similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.


Article 16

Artistes and Sportspersons

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7 and 14, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from that individual’s personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in that individual’s capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson personally but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7 and 14, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if it is established that neither the entertainer or the sportsperson nor persons related thereto, participate directly or indirectly in the profits of the person referred to in that paragraph.


Article 17

Pensions and Annuities

1. Pensions and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Pensions arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may also be taxed in the State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State. However, in the case of periodic pension payments, the tax so charged shall not exceed 20 per cent of the gross amount of the payment.

3. Annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may also be taxed in the State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State, but the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the portion thereof that is subject to tax in that State. However, this limitation does not apply to lump-sum payments arising on the surrender, cancellation, redemption, sale or other alienation of an annuity, or to payments of any kind under an annuity contract the cost of which was deductible, in whole or in part, in computing the income of any person who acquired the contract.

4. Notwithstanding any provision of this Convention, war veterans pensions and allowances arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that other State to the extent that they would be exempt from tax if received by a resident of the first-mentioned State.

5. The term “annuity” as used in this Article means a stated sum payable periodically to an individual at stated times during the individual’s life, or during a specified or ascertainable period of time, under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money’s worth (other than services rendered).


Article 18

Governement Service

1. a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, oter than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

b) However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:

(i) is a national of that State; or

(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2. The provisions of Articles 14, 15 and 16 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.


Article 19

Students and Apprentices

Payments which a student, apprentice or business trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of that individual’s education or training receives for the purpose of that individual’s maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.


Article 20

Other Income

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State.

2. However, if such income is derived by a resident of a Contracting State from sources in the other Contracting State, such income may also be taxed in the State in which it arises, and according to the law of that State. However, in the case of income from a trust, the tax so charged shall, provided that the income is taxable in the Contracting State in which the recipient resides, not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the income.

3. For the purposes of this Article, a trust does not include an arrangement whereby the contributions made to the trust are deductible for the purposes of taxation in Canada.


Article 21

Elimination of Double Taxation

1. In the case of Canada, double taxation shall be eliminated as follows:

a) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the deduction from tax payable in Canada of tax paid in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions — which shall not affect the general principle hereof — and unless a greater deduction or relief is provided under the laws of Canada, tax payable in Finland on profits, income or gains arising in Finland shall be deducted from any Canadian tax payable in respect of such profits, income or gains;

b) subject to the existing provisions of the law of Canada regarding the allowance as a credit against Canadian tax of tax payable in a territory outside Canada and to any subsequent modification of those provisions — which shall not affect the general principle hereof — where a company which is a resident of Finland pays a dividend to a company which is a resident of Canada and which controls directly or indirectly at least 10 per cent of the voting power in the first-mentioned company, the credit shall take into account the tax payable in Finland by that first-mentioned company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid; and

c where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived by a resident of Canada is exempt from tax in Canada, Canada may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on other income, take into account the exempted income.

2. Subject to the provisions of Finnish law regarding the elimination of international double taxation (which shall not affect the general principle hereof) double taxation shall be eliminated in Finland as follows:

a) Where a resident of Finland derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Canada, Finland shall, subject to the provisions of subparagraph b), allow as a deduction from the Finnish tax of that person, an amount equal to the Canadian tax paid under Canadian law and in accordance with the Convention, as computed by reference to the same income by reference to which the Finnish tax is computed.

b) Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of Canada to a company which is a resident of Finland and which controls directly at least 10 per cent of the voting power in the company paying the dividends shall be exempt from Finnish tax.

c) Where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived by a resident of Finland is exempt from tax in Finland, Finland may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

3. For the purposes of this Article, profits, income or gains of a resident of a Contracting State which are taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with the Convention shall be deemed to arise from sources in that other State.


Article 22

Non-Discrimination

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.

3. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

4. In this Article, the term “taxation” means taxes which are the subject of this Convention.


Article 23

Mutual Agreement Procedure

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for that person in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, that person may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of these States, address to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which that person is a resident an application in writing stating the grounds for claiming the revision of such taxation. To be admissible, the said application must be submitted within three years from the first notification of the action which gives rise to taxation not in accordance with the Convention.

2. The competent authority referred to in paragraph 1 shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolvehe case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention.

3. A Contracting State shall not after six years from the end of the taxable period in which the income concerned has accrued, increase the tax base of a resident of either of the Contracting States by including therein items of income which have also been charged to tax in the other Contracting State. This paragraph shall not apply in the case of fraud, wilful default or neglect.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. In particular, the competent authorities of the Contracting State may consult together to endeavour to agree:

a) to the same attribution of profits to a resident of a Contracting State and its permanent establishment situated in the other Contracting State;

b) to the same allocation of income between a resident of a Contracting State and any associated person provided for in Article 9.

5. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.


Article 24

Exchange of Information

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. In the case of Finland, such exchange of information also covers taxes imposed on behalf of its local authorities. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.

2. Any information received under paragraph 1 by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes referred to in paragraph 1, or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.

4. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting Stte to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.

5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.


Article 25

Diplomatic Agents and Consular Officers

1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

2. Notwithstanding Article 4, an individual who is a member of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a Contracting State which is situated in the other Contracting State or in a third State shall be deemed for the purposes of the Convention to be a resident of the sending State if that individual is liable in the sending State to the same obligations in relation to tax on total income as are residents of that sending State.

3. The Convention shall not apply to International Organizations, to organs or officials thereof and to persons who are members of a diplomatic mission, consular post or permanent mission of a third State, being present in a Contracting State and who are not liable in either Contracting State to the same obligations in relation to tax on their total income as are residents thereof.


Article 26

Miscellaneous Rules

1. The provisions of this Convention shall not be construed to restrict in any manner any exclusion, exemption, deduction, credit or other allowance now or hereafter accorded:

a) by the laws of a Contracting State in the determination of the tax imposed by that State, or

b) by any other agreement entered into by a Contracting State.

2. Nothing in the Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing a tax on amounts included in the income of a resident of that State with respect to a partnership, trust, company or other entity, in which that resident has an interest.

3. The Convention shall not apply to any company, trust or other entity that is a resident of a Contracting State and is beneficially owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more persons who are not residents of that State, if the amount of the tax imposed on the income or capital of the company, trust or other entity by that State (after taking into account any reduction or offset of the amount of tax in any manner, including a refund, reimbursement, contribution, credit or allowance to the company, trust, or other entity or to any other person) is substantially lower than the amount that would be imposed by that State if all of the shares of the capital stock of the company or all of the interests in the trust or other entity, as the case may be, were beneficially owned by one or more individuals who were residents of that State.

4. Notwithstanding anything in the Convention, alimony and other similar payments arising in the Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is subject to tax therein in respect thereof shall be taxable only in that other State but the amount taxable in that other State shall not exceed the amount that would be taxable in the first-mentioned State if the recipient were a resident thereof.

5. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of applying the Convention.

6 For the purposes of paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, the Contracting States agree that, notwithstanding that paragraph, any dispute between them as to whether a measure falls within the scope of the Convention may be brought before the Council for Trade in Services, as provided by that paragraph, only with the consent of both Contracting States. Any doubt as to the interpretation of this paragraph shall be resolved under paragraph 4 of Article 23 or, failing agreement under that procedure, pursuant to any other procedure agreed to by both Contracting States.

7. Contributions in a year in respect of services rendered in that year paid by, or on behalf of, an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State to a pension plan that is recognized for tax purposes in the other Contracting State shall, during a period not exceeding in the aggregate 48 months, be treated in the same way for tax purposes in the first-mentioned State as a contribution paid to a pension plan that is recognized for tax purposes in that first-mentioned State, if

a) such individual was contributing on a regular basis to the pension plan for a period ending immediately before that individual became a resident of the first-mentioned State; and

b) the competent authority of the first-mentioned State agrees that the pension plan generally corresponds to a pension plan recognized for tax purposes by that State.

For the purposes of this paragraph, “pension plan” includes a pension plan created under the social security system in a Contracting State.


Article 27

Entry into Force

1. The Governments of the Contracting States shall notify each other that the constitutional requirements for the entry into force of this Convention have been complied with.

2. The Convention shall enter into force thirty days after the date of the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 and its provisions shall have effect:

a) in Canada:

(i) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents, on or after 1 January in the calendar year in which the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 takes place; and

(ii) in respect of other Canadian tax, for taxation years beginning on or after 1 January in the calendar year in which the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 takes place;

b) in Finland:

(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, on income derived on or after 1 January in the calendar year in which the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 takes place; and

(ii) in respect of other taxes on income, for taxes chargeable for any taxable year beginning on or after 1 January in the calendar year in which the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 takes place.

3. The provisions of the Convention between Canada and Finland for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income signed at Helsinki on May 28, 1990 (hereinafter referred to as “the 1990 Convention”) shall cease to have effect with respect to taxes to which this Convention applies in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2.

4. The 1990 Convention shall terminate on the last date on which it has effect in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this Article.


Article 28

Termination

This Convention shall remain in force until terminated by one of te Contracting States. Either Contracting State may terminate the Convention, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year following after the period of 5 years from the date on which the Convention enters into force. In such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect:

a) in Canada:

(i) in respect of tax withheld at the source on amounts paid or credited to non-residents, on or after 1 January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given; and

(ii) in respect of other Canadian tax, for taxation years beginning on or after 1 January in the calendar year next following that in which the notice is given;

b) in Finland:

(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, on income derived on or after 1 January in the calendar year next following the year in which the notice is given; and

(ii) in respect of other taxes on income, for taxes chargeable for any taxable year beginning on or after 1 January in the calendar year next following the year in which the notice is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

DONE in duplicate at Helsinki, this 20th day of July 2006, in the English, French, Finnish and Swedish languages, each version being equally authentic.

For The Government Of Canada

Anne-Marie Bourcier

Ambassador of Canada to the Republic of Finland

For The Government Of Finland

Ulla-Maj Wideroos

Coordinate Minister of Finance


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